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General Properties of Matter
is anything that has mass and volume Everything is made of matter
What are properties?
used to describe an object Ex: color, odor, shape, size, texture,hardness video
weight.General Properties of matter Mass. volume. and density Properties are used to identify a substance 4 .
What is mass? Mass is the amount of matter in an object Mass is constant Mass is also the measure of inertia 5 .
What is inertia? Inertia is the resistance of an object to changes in its motion The more mass the greater the inertia 6 .
Questions How is mass related to inertia? Why are properties of an object important? 7 .
Question Which object has more inertia. an empty wagon or one loaded with rocks? Why? 9 .
Question What does a seatbelt do for a passenger when a car stops suddenly? 10 .
Question Why would the passenger move forward without the restraining force of the belt? 11 .
Question What would stop a passenger if the seatbelt were not in place? 12 .
Question What other safety features are present in a car in response to a person’s inertia in a moving vehicle? 13 .
The measure of the force of gravity on the mass of an object Weight changes with gravity The metric unit for weight is a Newton (N) 14 Weight .
1 kg = 2.2 pounds Weight is mass times gravity (9.8 m/s2) W= m x g What is your mass? What is your weight in Newtons? Weight formula 15 .
The force of attraction between objects is gravity All objects exert a gravitational force on each other What is gravity? 16 .
Question Why can’t you feel the attraction between you and other objects the same way you are pulled toward Earth? 17 .
Gravitational pull The greater the mass of an object the greater the gravitational force 18 .
Question Why can’t we feel the pull of gravity from Jupiter even though it is so massive? 19 .
What affects gravity? The pull of gravity weakens as the distance between objects increases gravity depends on mass and distance 20 .
Gravity The further an object is from the center of the earth. the less the object will weigh 21 .
Question Would you weigh less. or the same on top of Mount Everest? 22 . more.
How would your weight be different on the moon? 23 .Question The moon is smaller than the earth.
Questions What are three properties of matter related to mass? 24 .
Question What is density and how is it calculated? 25 .
0 will sink in water 26 .Density The density of water is 1.0 g/ml Objects with densities greater than 1.
Density Objects with densities less than 1.0 g/ml will float on water 27 .
Ice Ice floats therefore it is less dense than water Ice mostly remains underwater with only a portion of it being exposed 28 .
0 g/ml.Astronomy fact! The planet Saturn has a density of less than 1. If there was an ocean big enough to hold it. it would float! 29 .
5 grams of gold has a volume of 5 cubic centimeters.Calculations If 96. what is the density of gold? 30 .
what is the density of aluminum? 31 .Calculation If 96.5 g of aluminum has a volume of 35 cm3.
what would be the mass of a diamond whose volume is 0.5 cm3? 32 .Calculation If the density of a 3 diamond is 3.5 g/cm .
What is specific gravity? A comparison of the density of a substance and the density of water is specific gravity 33 .
Questions How is density different from specific gravity? 34 .
What is a physical property? Physical properties are those that can be observed without changing the identity of the substance 35 .
gas. liquid. and plasma solids have a definite shape and volume Phases of matter (video) 36 .Four phases of matter: solid.
Solid particle arrangement Solids are tightly packed and the particles vibrate Two types of solids are crystalline and amorphous 37 .
Types of solids Crystalline solids are arranged in repeating patterns called crystals (salt. sugar) Amorphous solids can lose their shape 38 .
candle wax.Examples of amorphous solids Tar. glass Shape changes under certain conditions (differences in temperature) 39 .
Liquid particle arrangement Liquids have particles that are close together. but are free to move 40 .
Question Describe the shape of a liquid. 41 .
Describe a liquid
do not have a definite shape, but they have a definite volume
happens when one-liter of soda is poured into a fourliter container?
Properties of liquids Liquids do not expand to fill the volume of a container Liquids are characterized by their ability to flow
motor oil.The resistance of a liquid to flow The difficulty of a liquid to flow easily Honey. corn syrup have a high viscosity 45 What is viscosity? .
Behavior of liquids Cohesion is the force of attraction between LIKE particles Adhesion is the force of attraction between UNLIKE particles 46 .
Surface tension (video) Tendency of particles to pull together at the surface of a liquid due to cohesion 47 .
Question Describe the viscosity of a liquid. 48 . Describe a liquid’s shape.
Questions How is adhesion different from cohesion? Explain surface tension. 49 .
Properties of gases Gases do not have a definite shape or volume (video) They fill all the available space in a container 50 .
Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter Matter is made of tiny particles in constant motion 51 .
liquids. and gases different from one another? 52 .Question How are solids.
Gas laws Boyle’s and Charles’ law describe the behavior of gases with changes in temperature. pressure. and volume 53 .
Charles Law Charles’ law describes a relationship between the temperature and volume of a gas (constant pressure) 54 .
Charles’ Law As the temperature of a gas increases. the volume of a gas increases Heating air causes it to expand 55 .
Question How can you explain the fact that gas particles expand to fill space? 56 .
Pressure The force that particles of a substance (gas/liquid) will apply over a certain area 57 .
Boyle’s Law Boyle’s law describes the relationship between the volume and pressure of gases (constant temperature) 58 .
the more pressure 59 Boyle’s law . then the pressure of a gas increases (Boyle’s law) The smaller the space a gas occupies.If the volume of a gas decreases.
Plasma Plasma (phase) most common phase in the universe. very high energy (found in stars) 60 . dangerous.
61 .Question What are the four phases of matter? Describe the plasma phase of matter.
vaporization.Phase changes (video) Phase changes in matter are melting. freezing. and sublimation 62 . condensation.
Physical changes involve the changing of physical properties Type of matter remains the same What is a physical change? 63 .
freezing. vaporization. 64 .Questions Describe each of the five phase changes (melting. and sublimation). condensation.
hardness. texture. odor would be a physical change 65 . phase.Physical changes Changing color. shape.
Melting video Phase change from a solid to a liquid 66 .
Melting point Temperature which a solid changes to a liquid Physical property 67 in .
Questions How is melting different from freezing? 68 .
but mass remains constant Adding or removing energy from matter results in phase changes 69 Phase changes (video) .Involve a change in volume.
Vaporization Phase change from a liquid to a gas 70 .
The temperature in which a liquid boils Point at which a liquid changes to a gas Boiling point (video) 71 .
Freezing (video) Phase change of a liquid to a solid The temperature in which this occurs is the freezing point 72 .
Condensation Condensation is the phase change from a gas to a liquid Sublimation is a phase change from solid to a gas 73 .
74 .Question Describe a difference between condensation and vaporization.
Sublimation examples Dry ice and iodine are examples solids that undergo sublimation 75 .
Chemical properties Describe how a substance changes into new substances are chemical properties Ex: flammability 76 .
The change of a substance into a new and different substance Also known as a chemical reaction video Chemical changes 77 .
How is a chemical change different from a physical change? 78 .Questions What is another name for a chemical change? Describe sublimation.
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