DATA STRUCTURES AND OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING IN C

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C++
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C++ is an Object Oriented Programming language. Developed by Bjarne Stroustrup Created at Bell Labs in the 1980's and called C with Classes A superset of C Adds additional features to improve the language Adds functions and features to support Object Oriented Programming (OOP)

1.3

Introduction to C++

Where did C++ come from?
 Derived

from the C language  C was derived from the B language  B was derived from the BCPL language

Why the ‘++’?
 ++

is an operator in C++ and results in a cute

pun

C++
 

Traditionally, C programs use the file extension .C, and C++ programs use the extension .CPP. C++ compiler uses the file extension to determine what type of program it is compiling.

A Sample C++ Program #include <iostream> //In older C++ #include<iostream.h> using namespace std; int main() { int i; cout << "This is output.\n"; // this is a single line comment /* you can still use C style comments */ // input a number using >> cout << "Enter a number: "; cin >> i; cout << i << " squared is " << i*i << "\n"; return 0; }

C++ - Program Explained…
iostream file  Namespace  Variables  Output operator ( << - insertion operator)  Input operator ( >> - extraction operator)  Comment  Return type of main()

(<iostream> is to C++, is what stdio.h is to C.)  Notice one other thing: there is no .h extension to the name iostream. The reason is that <iostream> is one of the new-style headers defined by Standard C++. Newstyle headers do not use the .h extension

Explanation of code

Program statement cout << “……..”;
 

cout (see-out) used for output to the monitor “<<“ inserts “Press…a number.\n” in the data bound for the monitor Think of cout as a name for the monitor
“<<“ points to where the data is to end up

‘\n’ causes a new line to be started on the monitor

Explanation of code

Program statement cin >> x;

  

cin (see-in) used for input from the keyboard “>>” extracts data from the keyboard Think of cin as a name for the keyboard

“>>” points from the keyboard to a variable where the data is stored

Basic concepts of OOPs
Objects  Classes  Data Abstraction and Encapsulation  Inheritance  Polymorphism  Dynamic binding  Message Passing

Object X

Object Y

OOPs
 

Data

Data

Treats data as critical element Does not allow data to move freely around the program Divides the program into number of entities called Objects and Builds the data and functions that operates on data around the objects. Data of an object can only be accessed by the functions associated with that object.

Communication Functions Functions

Object Z

Data

Functions

Basic concepts of OOPs
Objects : Run time entitity. Eg. A person, place or an item.  Classes :  is a collection of objects of similar type. Eg. Mango,apple, orange are members of the class fruit.  are user defined data type.

Object: Student Data: Name Date–of-birth Marks ……….. Functions: Total Average Display ………..

Data Abstraction and Encapsulation:
 Wrapping

up of data and functions into a single unit (called class) is known as encapsulation.  Insulation of data from the direct access by the program is called data hiding or information hiding.  The act of representing essential features without including including the background details.

Inheritance
 Is

the process by which objects of one class acquire the properties of objects of another class.  Provides the idea of reusability.

Polymorphism
 Ability

to take more than one form.

Operator overloading  Function overloading

Dynamic Binding
 Binding

means linking a function to be executed in response to the function call.  Also called as late binding.  The code associated with a given function call is not known until the time of execution of the function (run time)

Message Passing
 Objects

communicate with each other as follows:

By creating classes and defining the objects  By creating objects of the type of class  Establishing the communication among the objects.

STRUCTURE OF C++ PROGRAM

Include files Class declaration Member functions definitions Main function Program

Introducing C++ Classes
In C++, to create an object, you first must define its general form by using the keyword class.  A class is similar syntactically to a structure.

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