Concrete Technology

Hot and Cold Weather

Harza Engineering Company

Hot weather concreting
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ACI 305 defines as: “Any combination of high air temperature, low humidity, and wind velocity tending to impair the quality of fresh or hardened concrete or otherwise resulting in abnormal properties.”

Undesirable effects plastic state
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Increased water demand Increased rate of slump loss and corresponding tendency to add water at the job site Increased rate of setting resulting in greater difficulty with handling, finishing, and curing, and increasing possibility of cold joints Increased tendency for plastic cracking Increased difficulty in controlling entrained air content

Undesirable effects hardened state
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Decreased strength resulting from higher water demand and increased temperature level Increased tendency for drying shrinkage and differential thermal cracking Decreased durability Decreased uniformity of surface appearance

Precautions for Hot Weather Concrete

Water demand

Setting time

Mitigating effects of hot weather
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Pre-cooling the concrete

Sprinkling aggregate stockpiles  Shading stockpiles  Use of chilled water  Use of ice
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Use of retarding admixture Transporting concrete in reflective equipment Cooling placing area - fog spray Wetting forms and reinforcement

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Shading the placing area Minimizing delays in placement Placement at night or cooler part of the day Prompt application of curing

Plastic shrinkage cracking

Cause of plastic shrinkage cracking
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Rapid surface drying
High temperature  Low humidity  Wind  Insufficient bleed water on the surface

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If evaporation approaches 1.0 kg of water/m2/hour precautions are necessary

Measures to avoid plastic shrinkage cracking Fog spray
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Plastic sheeting Monomolecular film “Confilm” (90% water - do not finish into concrete) Wind breaks If they occur, close cracks with float, pushing sides of the crack together

Strength

Drying shrinkage

Cold weather concreting
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ACI 306 defines as “a period when for more than 3 successive days the mean daily temperature drops below 4.4 0C.” Furthermore, in moderately cold weather, as in the fall or early spring, when heavy frost or freezing is forecast at the job site, all unformed concrete surfaces should be protected from freezing for at least 24 hours after it is placed.

Purpose of protection
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Prevent damage from freezing of critically saturated concrete Provide an environment for continued strength development Air-entrainment is essential for long term protection of concrete from freeze-thaw damage

Measures to be taken
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Placing temperature
Heated water  Heated aggregates

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Additional cement or accelerator Use of Type III portland cement Insulation Heated enclosure

Needs to be vented for CO2

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Maintain temperature records Monitor strength development with the maturity concept (ASTM C 1074)

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