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Human Nervous System
• Consists of huge networking of nerves cells or neurones • Divided into 2 subsystem : – Central nervous system (CNS). – Peripheral nervous system (PNS).

Human Nervous System

Central Nervous System (CNS)

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)


Spinal cord

Cranial nerves

Spinal nerves

Human Nervous System
• CNS consists of BRAIN & SPINAL CORD. • PNS consists all nerve tissues OUTSIDE the CNS (cranial nerves & spinal nerves). • PNS consists of 12 pairs of cranial nerves & 31 pairs of spinal nerves.

Spinal nerves

The Role Of Human Nervous System
• PNS links receptors & effectors to the CNS. • Cranial nerves send impulses to & from brain. • Spinal nerves send impulses to & from spinal cord • Generally nervous system divided into 3 components : – Sensory receptors. – Control/integrating centre. – Effectors.

The Role Of Human Nervous System
• Sensory receptors detect impulses & generated nerve impulses. Then it carried out through afferent nerve/pathway to integrating centre for interpret Integrating centre receives impulses from various receptors. The information then interpret & generate new impulses for action. Impulses then relayed along efferent pathway to effectors for action/response. Coordinate parts of the body to give appropriate response to the stimulus

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Af fe re nt pa t

Receptor detect the stimuli Transmit impulses

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STIMULI Peripheral Nervous System

CNS interpret impulses Then transmit new impulses

Control / Integrating centre


en t pa th wa y

Peripheral Nervous System
Effectors respond / take action



Parts Of The Human Brain
3 main parts of human brain. Cerebrum Cerebellum. Other parts of human brain. Thalamus Pituitary gland. Medulla oblongata.




Pituitary gland

Spinal cord Vertebra

Main parts of the brain
1. • • • Cerebrum Largest and most complex part Outer region is the cerebral cortex Divided into 2 halves: i) Left cerebral hemisphere – controls the right side of the body ii) Right cerebral hemisphere – controls the left side of the body Receives sensory input, integrate functions before commanding appropriate responses & coordinates the activities of the other parts of the brain Controls voluntary actions, receives & interprets impulses from sensory organs & controls behavior & emotion

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Main parts of the brain
1. Cerebellum • Located above the medulla oblongata & partly beneath the cerebrum • Controlling & maintaining posture and balance of the body, controlling & coordinating muscular activities & helping promote smooth voluntary movements • Evaluates information, sends a plan for coordinated movements back to cerebrum & cerebrum will then sends appropriate commands to the muscles.

Main parts of the brain
1. Medulla oblongata • Lowest part of the brain, connects directly to the spinal cord & smallest component of the brain • Controls all involuntary actions & coordinates all reflex actions 4. Hypothalamus • Maintain homeostasis & regulating sleep, hunger, thirst, body temperature, water balance & blood pressure

Main parts of the brain
1. Pituitary glands • Secrete hormones which influence other glands & body function 3. Thalamus • Sorting information which go in & out of the cerebral cortex • Integrates the information from the sensory receptors to the cerebrum by enhancing certain signal & blocking others


What is Spinal Cord?
• Contained within the vertebral column • Surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid (absorb shock & provide nutrients) • Consist of: 4. Grey matter – consist mainly of cell bodies of neurones 5. White matter – comprises myelin-coated axon of neurones that extend the whole length of the spinal cord

What is Spinal Cord?
• Spinal nerves emerge from the spinal cord through dorsal root & ventral root • Dorsal root – contain axons of the afferent neurones (conduct nerve impulses from sensory receptors to the spinal cord) & the cell bodies of afferent neurones are clustered in the dorsal root ganglion • Ventral root – contain the axons of the efferent neurones (conduct nerve impulses away from the spinal cord to the effectors) • Dorsal & ventral roots join to form spinal nerve

The Structure of Spinal Cord

Main Functions of Spinal Cord
1. Process certain types of sensory information & sends out responses via the efferent neurones 2. Contain neurones that convey signals to & from the brain 3. Contain the neural pathway for reflexes


What is a neurone?
• The basic functional unit of the nervous system • Specialised to generate and transmit impulse • Possesses: d) A cell body – consist of a cytoplasm and a nucleus e) branches that are known as dendrons, dendrites and axon

Structure of neurone
• Dendrons – the branches that point outwards from the cell body • Dendrites – dendrons fine terminal branches • Dendrons and dendrites receive messages/impulse towards the cell body • Axon – another type of projection that send impulse away from the cell body • Dendrons and axon are covered with fatty myelin sheath formed by Schwann cells • Nodes of Ranvier - uncovered parts between the Schwann cells • The myelin sheath act as an electrical insulator and Nodes of Ranvier speed up the transmission of nerve impulses along axon

Myelin sheath

Nodes of Ranvier

Types of neurones and their functions • b) c) d) 3 basic types: Afferent/sensory neurone Efferent/motor neurone Interneurone/relay neurone

a) Afferent/sensory neurone
• has long dendron and short axon • the cell body is at the side of the nerve • receive and transmit impulse from the sensory organ to the CNS

b) Efferent/motor neurones
• has a short dendron and a long axon • the cell body is at the end of the nerve • transmit impulses out from the CNS to tissues and organs in the body (effectors)

c) Relay neurone/interneurone
• the cell body is at the end of the nerve • located in the CNS • send impulse between sensory neurones and motor neurones

Transmission of impulse along the three types of neurone

The transmission of information along the neurone
• Information transmitted along neurone by way of electrical signal called nerve impulses. • Impulse – wave of positive charges that travel along the axon to the synaptic terminal. • Stimulation must be strong to allow transmission of impulse in the neurone • Once the magnitude or size of the stimulation reaches a threshold level, a full-sized impulse is generated to travel the entire length of the axon.


What is a synapse?
• Synapse - site where two neurone cells communicate. • Beyond the synaptic terminal is a narrow space known as the synaptic cleft that separates the synaptic terminal from the dendrite of a receiving neurone.

The Transmission of Information Across Synapses
• The transmission of nerve impulses across the synaptic cleft occurs via a chemical process which involve chemical substances known as neurotransmitters

The Transmission of Information Across Synapses
• Neurotransmitters stored in a small synaptic vesicles clustered at the tip of a synaptic terminal. • The transmission of nerve impulses across synapses is an active process and requires energy which generate by mitochondria (abundant at the synaptic terminal).

The Transmission of Information Across Synapses
• After relayed its message, neurotransmitter is rapidly broken down by enzymes or taken up again by the synaptic terminal and recycled. • There are many types of neurotransmitter; acetylcholine, noradrenaline, serotonin and dopamine.

Functions of synapse
• Controlling and integrating the nerve impulses • Facilitating the transmission of nerve impulses in one direction

Mode of Transmission of Impulses Along the Neurone
1. A neurone: b) Transmits information in the form of electrical signals. c) Produces an impulse which is like an electrical current passing along its length. 4. Conduction of nerve impulses:  Involves changes of charges on the side and outside of a neurone  Involves ions of which the most important are sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+).

Mode of Transmission Along the Neurone
• Key processes which occur before, during and after an impulse passes along a neurone. b) When at rest, the surface membrane of a neurone is polarised (more positive charges on the outside and more negative charges in the cytoplasm)

Mode of Transmission Along the Neurone a) An impulse start when a stimulation causes this polarised membrane to depolarise (charges reversed) section by section down the neurone.

Mode of Transmission Along the Neurone a) Repolarisation occurs (just behind the depolarised section) soon after.

Voluntary Action of the Skeletal Muscle
Action that under conscious control such as walking ….. Voluntary action of the skeletal muscles is governed by the cerebral cortex of the cerebrum.

Involuntary Action of the Skeletal Muscle
 Involuntary action that involve skeletal muscles allow immediate actions that does not require conscious effort.  Example: if a finger touches a hot stove or pricked with a sharp pin the reaction is to pull the finger away immediately.  When the responses to the stimuli are involuntary, they are called reflexes.  Reflexes are rapid, automatic responses to stimuli.  The nerve pathway involved in a reflex action is called a reflex arc.  A simple reflex arc involves communication between the neurones in the peripheral nervous system and the spinal cord.

1. Provide a means for immediate withdrawal from dangerous stimuli. 2. Coordinate rapid automatic responses without the need for instructions from the brain. 3. The pulling away of fingers from a sharp pin or hot stove involves three types of neurones: afferent neurone, interneurone and efferent neurone. 4. Knee-jerk reflex involves the simplest neural circuit because it involves only two kinds of neurones: afferent neurone and the efferent neurone.

Involuntary Action of Smooth Muscles, Cardiac Muscles or Glands
 The autonomic nervous system  Controls involuntary actions involving the glands, the cardiac muscles of the heart and the smooth muscles of the internal organ.  Connects the medulla oblongata and hypothalamus with the internal organs and regulates the internal body processes that not require conscious effort.

Involuntary Action of Smooth Muscles, Cardiac Muscles or Glands
1. The autonomic nervous system can be divided into: b) The sympathetic system c) The parasympathetic system - These system work together, one activating (sympathetic system) and other inhibiting (parasympathetic system) the action.

Sympathetic system

1. Prepares the body for stressful situations or an emergency, in which the responses are associated with “fight or flight”. 4. Increases the pulse rate, blood pressure and breathing rate. 6. Slow down the digestive system so that more blood is available to carry oxygen to the brain, heart and muscle

Parasympathetic system

1. Prepares the body during ordinary situations or brings on the responses associated with a relaxed state. 4. Decreases the pulse rate, blood pressure and breathing rate. 6. Stimulates the digestive system to continue breaking down food.

Disease of the Nervous System
Parkinson's disease b) Progressive disorder of the CNS that typically affects victims around the age of 60 years onward c) Affects muscular movements, causing tremors of the arms, jaws, legs and face. d) Experience difficulty in maintaining normal postures and experience impaired balance and coordination.

Disease of the Nervous System
Alzheimer’s disease b) A neurological disorder – loss of neurones in area of the brain for memory and other mental abilities; c) Affects victims around the age of 60 years onwards, causes the loss of reasoning and the ability to care for one self.


1. Which neurone transmit nerve impulses from the central nervous system to the effector?


The diagram shows the pathway of nerve impulses.

B. C. D. E.

Which statement is true? P transmit nerve impulses from R to S. R receives nerve impulses from S. T causes the finger to respond S transmit nerve impulses from the central nervous system to Q

1. The diagram shows a neurone of a mammal.

B. C. D. E.

What is the function of this neurone? To produce adrenaline To connect to another efferent neurone To send an impulse from a receptor to the central nervous system To send an impulse from the central nervous system to an effector

 Which statement is incorrect?

B. Afferent neurones transmit nerve impulses from the receptors to the CNS. C. Efferent neurones transmit nerve impulses from the effectors to the CNS. D. Interneurones connect the afferent and efferent neurones in the CNS. E. Efferent neurones transmit nerve impulses from the CNS to the effectors.


The diagram shows a neurone.

What is the part labelled X called? A Nucleus B Dendrite C Myelin Sheath D Node of Ranvier

• • 3. 4. Do checkpoint 3.2 on page 89. Do question 1 and 3 only. State the role of the nervous system. Draw and label a simple diagram of a synapse. Describe the transmission of information across a synapse.