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Do You have Personality
• The way we use the term personality
– Good Personality
• But Psychologists define it as
– A person’s unique and relatively stable behaviour patterns
• Consistency of who you are, have been, and will become • Special blend of talents, values, hopes, loves, hates etc.
• Character and Personality
– Judgment or evaluation
defined as a relatively stable set of characteristics that influence an individual’s behaviour.. .. Humanistic. – Shaped by heredity and environment • Four major theories of personality – – – – Trait theory Psychodynamic. Behaviouristic....Personality • .
FIGURE 2.1 Nature and Nurture: The Determinants of Personality .
bold. cautious. ambitious. helpful. anxious. passionate.000 words or less • Aggressive. curious. optimistic. cheerful. humble. funny. orderly. calm. religious. confident…on and on and on… .Trait Approach – Describe yourself in 18. emotional. serious. mature. honest. dull. kind. thoughtful.
Few people have it – Central traits – Core qualities that capture the essence of the person – Secondary traits – less consistent relatively superficial aspects of a person . • For Individuals – Cardinal trait – All of person’s activities can be traced to the trait.Classifying Traits • Allport identified several kinds • Common traits – Characteristics shared by most member of the culture.
autonomous. always late.Personality description according to Allport • • • • Name – Age – Cardinal traits – None Central traits – Possessive. likes spicy food . dramatic. self-centered. trusting • Secondary traits – Prefers colorful clothes.
– Raymond Cattell identified 16 traits (Source or Primary traits) • Self-assured/apprehensive...calm. organised.(lazy) Emotional stability.... curious...Trait theory • Behaviour broken into observable traits..(insecure) Openness to experience. self-confident..(Reserved) Agreeableness. – More recently five basic factors • • • • • • The Big Five Personality traits Extraversion.. reserved/outgoing.(practical) . warm... Cooperative. assertive. Gregarious.(disagreeable) Conscientiousness.hardworking.creative.
Costa. 229–237. R.3 The Hierarchical Organization of Personality Source: Adapted from R. . Reprinted by permission of Sage Publications. 52.” Educational and Psychological Measurement. Copyright 1992. pp. Inc. McCrae and P. T. "Discriminant Validity of NEO-PIR Facet Scales.FIGURE 2.
4 A Big Five Personality Profile .FIGURE 2.
Behavioural theories • Personality is a collection of learned behaviour patterns – Acquired through classical and operant conditioning – Knowing some are honest will not help us in predicting behaviour in specific situation (College students and honesty) .
Psychodynamic theory • Sigmund Freud • Emphasizes unconscious determinants of behaviour..drives and impulses.the mediator.uncensored – Superego.decision making ..do’s and don’t’s – Ego....conscience. Primitive.. – Id..rational. • Personality as interaction of three elements..values....
Other Organizationally Relevant Personality Traits • • • • • • • Locus of control Self-monitoring Self-esteem Type A and Type B personality Need for achievement Need for affiliation Need for power .
or outside forces are responsible for what happens to them. luck. effort.Locus of Control • External Locus of Control: describes people who believe that fate. • Internal Locus of Control: describes people who believe that ability. or their own actions determine what happens to them. .
structured work setting ...likely to be managers..Personality Characteristics in Organizations • Locus of control – Individual’s generalized belief about internal control (self-control) versus external control (Control by situation or others) – Internals. High job satisfaction..prefers participative style – Externals.
Locus of Control – Organizational Implications • Externals are less satisfied with their jobs. • Almost all successful salespeople are internals. high absenteeism rate. . It’s pretty difficult to succeed in sales if you don’t believe you can effectively influence outcomes. are alienated from the work setting.
.Definition Self-Monitoring: The extent to which people try to control the way they present themselves to others.
not vigilant to situational cues..more unpredictable – Low.....Personality Characteristics in Organizations • Self-Monitoring – Extent to which people base their behaviour on cues from people and situations – High.consistent .attention to what is appropriate in particular situations and behave accordingly.internal states.
.Definition Self-Esteem: The extent to which people have pride in themselves and their capabilities.
..nice guy.Personality Characteristics in Organizations • Self-esteem. bad guy ...negative feedback..feeling of self-worth – Positive.more affected by others.aware of + and ..positive feedback. Believe + more than – – Low..
measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire . is extremely competitive. and has a strong sense of urgency.Definitions Type A Personality: A person who has an intense desire to achieve. walking. – are always moving. and eating rapidly – Feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place – Strive to think or do two or more things at once – Cannot cope with leisure time – Are obsessed with numbers.
– Never suffer from a sense of urgency with its accompanying patience – Feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or accomplishments unless such exposure is demanded by the situation – Play for fun and relaxation rather than to exhibit their superiority at any cost – Can relax without guilt .Definitions • Type B Personality: A person who tends to be easygoing and relaxed.
– Rorschach inkblot tests – Thematic apperception tests • Questionnaire based – Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) – Thomas Profile – Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) . motivations and conflicts.Personality Assessment Tests • Projective tests: Participants are asked to project their thoughts onto a given image. Taps unconscious attitudes.
Irving B. • Scores are usually tabulated using Exner scoring system – synthesis of multiple images in the blot – the location of the response – variety of determinants used to produce the response (i. Source: Weiner. (2003). .e. incongruous. what makes the inkblot look like what it is said to resemble) – the contents of the response (what the respondent actually sees in the blot) – the degree of mental organizing activity that is involved in producing the response.. Principles of Rorschach interpretation. or incoherent aspects of responses. and any illogical.Rorschach Inkblot Test • Created by Hermann Rorschach this test uses a series (usually 10) of inkblots to assess human personality.
Rorschach Inkblots .
disorders. anger…developed by psychologists Henry A. repressed fears. Morgan at Harvard during the 1930s. Murray and Christiana D. Broadly focusing on – What happened before the event – What is happening now – The thinking of characters – What would be the outcome of the story . • A series of pictures (usually 31) are shown and the subject is asked to narrate a story for each picture presented.Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) • Projective tests that tap into human unconscious to assess attitude. personality.
• The MBTI claims to measure four bipolar preferences – Extraversion (E) ---.Introversion (I) [How you relate to others] – Sensing (S) ----.Feeling (F) [The way you make decisions] – Judging (J) ---.The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) • A personality test that taps four characteristics and classifies people into one of 16 personality types.Perceiving (P) [ The way you live life] .Intuition (N) [The way you generate information] – Thinking (T) ---.
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