Manufacturing Design

materials. Chemical Processing – Mid-volume: Consumer durables. white goods and several industrial products • Variety: Number of alternative products and variants of each product that is offered by a manufacturing system – Variety of product offerings is likely to introduce variety at various processes in the system.Factors Influencing Process Choices • Volume: Average quantity of the products produced in a manufacturing system – Low volume: Turnkey project management firms such as L&T and BHEL – High volume: Consumer non-durable and FMCG sector firms. Automobile. and skill of workers • Flow: Flow indicates the nature and intensity of activities involved in conversion of components and material from raw material stage to finished goods stage . alternative production resources.

paper. medical practice Project Organization Turnkey projects. L&T. stopping & starting expensive Maintenance. conveyor belt. low variety Customized Unique. wood. capacity balance. sugar Mass manufacturing. low variety Mass Production High volume. manufacturing pcb fabrication. visually countable) Operations Issues Maintenance. BHEL Jumbled Capacity and cost estimation. Heavy Automation. capacity planning Product types High volume. salt. handling uncertainty Low volume. scheduling. multiple entities complex. / services tools. tailor. automobiles. job shop. cost accounting Planning.Industry Classification Industry Type Process Characteristics/Exa Process/Flo mples w type Refining. cost estimation. high variety Jumbled One . Continuous (not divisible) Assembly line (discrete. fast food. crude oil. processing.

High Job shop.Process Selection Criteria • Volume and variety inverse relation High . Batching •Flow: Process structure. automobiles Low .Low Sugar. intermittent flow .Low High . project organization Volume Variety Examples Economically in Economically feasible infeasible •Process: Process choice.High Low.

Process and Flow Types Process Continuous Flow Continuous Characteristics Orderly. maintenance Routing. complex. streamlined. maintenance. uncertainty . classes in universities Job shop/ Project organization Jumbled – No flow Mixed. scheduling Bakeries. planning. crude oil Operations issues Capacity planning. visually countable Disconnected line flow (Intermittent) Line with breaks. Assembly line Batch Connected line Discrete flow continuous. handling risk. Cost estimation. continuous (not naturally divisible) Examples Salt. turnkey flow projects. Batching according to varieties (process) or properties (manufacturing) Automobiles Capacity planning. no Tools.

Process Properties Process Type/ Properties Continuous Assembly Batch Job shop/ Project Organization Flow Flexibility Variety Continuous Low No flow High High Low High Low High Low High Volume Labour content and skill Low High Capital Investment Low Variable cost .

• Throughput (assembly line) = 20 minutes. all working simultaneously. When one station is finished with a car. a total of three different cars can be operated on at the same time. Traditional = 35 minutes . car assembly is split between several stations. By having three stations.Assembly Line: Example • Assembly of a car: – install the engine – install the hood – install the wheels • Traditional setup: – Only one car assembled at a time • Assembly line. it passes it on to the next. each one at a different stage of its assembly.

more variety (seats. flexible. inflexible. United. Jumbled etc • Product characteristics – Variety and Volume • Management perspective – Two extremes ruled out: (High variety – High volume. low cost. Not feasible economically – Economics favors positions close to the diagonal – Can operate in vicinity of diagonal as niche players (Rolls Royce using job shops) – Firms use product-process matrix to define products • Commercial airlines. Low variety – Low volume). high cost. air deccan) and compete on price.Process-Product Matrix • Dimensions representing product and process characteristics • Process characteristics – Continuous. Delta lowered price and frills but kept same production system and couldn’t cut costs enough . routes etc). meals. no variety (south west.

airport layout • Layout decisions important: • Require substantial investment of money and effort • Involve long term commitments • Have a significant impact on cost and efficiency of operations . work centers etc • Design of new or redesign of old facilities • Hospital. equipment.Layout Planning • Physical arrangement/ configuration of various resources. departments. factory.

Layout Planning Objective and Types • • • • • • • Facilitate attainment of product or service quality Use workers and space efficiently Avoid bottlenecks Minimize material handling costs Eliminate unnecessary movement of workers or materials Minimize production time or customer service time Design for safety .

Types of Layouts 1. 4. 5. Process Product Fixed Position Combination Group Technology (Cellular) . 3. 2.

business. pediatrics. crisscross flow Increased material handling (jeeps. banks.Process Layout 1. drills. grinding machine Items move back and forth between machines. forklifts. libraries . milling machine. science etc). Process • • • • • • Arrangement of resources based on their process characteristics For products or services with variety of process requirement Machine shop arrangement of lathes. boxes etc) and production control Service environments: Hospitals(surgery. maternity etc) colleges (engineering.

Process Layout • Advantages – Can handle a variety of processes – Not particularly vulnerable to equipment failures (arrangement by type not processing sequence. less interdependence between successive operations) – Less specialized equipment (lower cost and maintenance) • Disadvantages – – – – WIP high Routing and scheduling challenges Equipment utilization rates low Material handling adds to costs .

repetitive processing • Smooth and rapid flow of components through system • Assembly line: Tata motors (Indica) • Services fewer instances (cafeteria. Product Layout • Layout of resources according to process sequence of a product • Set of resources for every product dedicated • More suitable for standardized.Product Layout 2. buffet table) .

Product Layout • Advantages – – – – High rate of output. stress – Inflexible system – Highly susceptible to shutdowns due to equipment breakdowns . low unit cost due to high volume Low material handling cost High utilization of labor and equipment Routing and scheduling do not require much attention once operating • Disadvantages – Repetitive jobs. low labor morale.

material. dams. power plants • Items remain stationary. equipments are moved • Focus on timing of material and equipment delivery (not clog the site) • Layout should enable managers to gain better control of material flow • Lack of storage space can be an issue (urban construction) • Administrative burden. coordination required higher . workers. buildings. aircraft building.Fixed Position Layout • Bulky difficult to move product and in quantities of one • Ship.

nurses. combinations used to suit situations • Supermarkets (Process Layout) but use conveyor belt at cash register and stock rooms • Hospitals ( Process Layout) but doctors. medicines brought to patient (Fixed position) • Faulty products from a product layout repaired using customized processing • Move to capture benefits of the basic layouts .Combination Layout • Three basic layouts are ideal.

Group Technology Layout • Group components and resources into cells • Identify items with similarities in design or manufacturing characteristics • All parts follow same route with minor variations (skipping an operation) • Cells become miniature versions of product layouts • Dell Computer’s Server plant uses cells. an operator assisted by web based instructions assembles any of the 10 basic server platforms in various configurations • Identifying similarities and grouping time consuming and involves considerable data analysis .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.