Physiological Systems of the Human Body
 Functioning of the human body is a coordinated action of various systems.
       

1) skeletal system 2) circulatory system 3) respiratory system 4) Digestive system 5) excretory system 6) regulatory system 7) reproductive system 8) muscular system

Skeletal system
 It is a frame work of the body.  Provides mechanical stability for the body to protect the

   

delicate organs and serves as an anchorage for the muscles in order to make possible through liver action. Also serves as a reservoir for calcium and phosphorus and contains the bone marrow in which blood cells are formed. It consists of 206 bones and enclosed by a membrane called “periosteum” from which a new bone is formed in the healing of fractures. Top-cranium skull Middle-pelvis Bottom-foot bones Articular cartilage (capsule)


 Helps in supplying the O2 and digested food to different parts of our body and removing CO2 from the blood.  HEART-pump-heart beating  Pumping-Pulmonary (to the lungs) and Systematic circulation (to other organs of the body). .Circulatory System  It is a type of Transport system.

Circulatory System  Arteries-blood vessels which carry pure blood from the heart to various parts  Veins-blood vessels through which impure blood returns to the heart  Superior vena cava  Inferior vena cava  Pulmonary veins-carry pure blood from lungs to the heart  Pulmonary artery-carry impure blood heart to lungs .

Circulatory System .

Respiratory System  It is concerned with Breathing and Respiration.  NOSE(starting point)-LUNGS(ending point)  Alveoli-gas exchange take place  Breathing 1) Inspiration 2) Expiration .

Respiratory System .

water.  Combustion products-CO2. fats and protiens.reaches to stomach…wall-grandular cells secrete HCl.Digestive System  Food.  Intestine-small and large  Digestive system burns carbohydrates.  Gullet. pepsin and mucus.pieces and mixed with saliva in the mouth.  Respiratory + Excretory systems  Food+O2 Energy + Wastes (CO2) Metabolic activity .urea and N2 substances.


 Lungs-CO2(volatile).water.  Removes waste products formed during combustion of the food from our body. .  Kidneys-nitrogen breakdown products interms of Urine (non volatile).  Liver-via bile remove certain waste. Kidneys. Skin and large intestine.Excretory system  Lungs. salt and other products.  Sweat glands.


. Spinal cord.Regulatory system  Nervous system-for regulation of rapid events  Endocrine system.cerebrum.through the back bone and also acts as a communicator b/w various parts and brain. cerebellum and the brain stem.for regulation of slower metabolic         processes. Peripheral Nervous System Sensory (inward path) and Motory nerves (outward path)---communication wires. Central Nervous System Brain. Neurons Endocrine system Works by using hormones which are carried through circulatory system.

 Fertilization –in fallopian tube.Reproductive system  A fetus develops through repeated cell division by means of reproductive system. .

Muscular system  Movements of various parts are caused by muscles.  1) voluntary muscles : arm muscles  2) involuntary muscles: food canal  3) cardiac muscles: heart  Muscle contraction is regulated via nerves.  Sensors—muscles spindles sends the signals to the central nervous system so that feedback and control is obtained. .  A bundle of muscle fibers in a muscle supplied by a single motor nerve fiber is called a “Motor Unit” because all the muscle fibers contract simultaneously when the nerve fiber is stimulated.


 100 Trillion  Fluid in character  similar cells forms---Tissues.  Two or more tissues of dissimilar physiology forms Heart. stomach.SOME FACTORS ABOUT CELL  Basic building block of Human body. .  EX: Digestive system-- Mouth. Muscle nerves. liver. intestines. Blood vessels etc. Lungs. kidney. blood. rectum. Skin. bones etc. trachea.

 To sustain the cells a fluid called “Interstitial or Extra cellular fluid” is able to flow to each cell to bring nourishment to it. to remove waste products from it and to respond to electrochemical impulses. .  The fluid which lies inside the cell is known as “ intracellular fluid”.SOME FACTORS ABOUT CELL  The cells of the tissues are held by the product called “Intercellular cement”.

fish.CHRACTERISTICS OF LIVING ORGANISMS—(virus. . cell. man)  a) Metabolism: Living organism ingests substances containing energy—liberates energy– uses to maintain activities and excrete waste products.  An organism is able to sustain itself for a period of time by this process.

expansion. .  Results in contraction .  c) Irritability: ability of an organism to respond to outside stimulus. secure food. temperature or current.  Ex: harmful bacteria influence.  Tasks : warm itself. discharge. avoid threatening situations. chemical or physical change.CHRACTERISTICS OF LIVING ORGANISMS  b) Motility: move on its own with out the assistance from the outside.

 e) Reproducibility: to reproduce one’s own kind of species by repeated cell division.  LIVING .CHRACTERISTICS OF LIVING ORGANISMS  d) Growth: ability to grow. energy. function and chemical structure. form.  Ex: size.

 2) diameter ≈ 20 μ  3) semi permeable outer membrane with a T=100Á  4) has inner fluid substance “cytoplasm” (organells+inclusions).General characteristics of a human cell  1) Nearly Spherical in Shape.  5) Inner control unit “nucleus” filled with nucleoplasm has the nuclear membrane.  Nucleus— nuleoli contains RNA & DNA. .

Average cell structure .

Average cell structure .

 2) The relative concentration of the substance inside & outside of the cell. of concentration of substances inside & outside of the cell.Basic Processes in Cells  a) Diffusion: takes place as a result of difference combination with a carrier protein.  4) Pressure difference inside & outside of the cell. which the cell can regulate. .  Transportation is through intermolecular spaces in the membrane or in Factors affecting the rate of diffusion:  1) Permeability of the membrane.  3) Potential inside and outside of the cell.

 By which the cell substance can cross the cell membrane. b) Active transport: When a cell moves molecules or ions uphill against a concentration gradient. .  In this a carrier can be used.  By this substances in a lower concentration of liquid are moved in to higher levels of concentration.  Creates an balance of charges & energy.

 Certain substances approach & rest on the cell membrane the cell can engulf them & forms some sort of capsule.  This capsule then travels through the membrane in to the cytoplasm. . c) Pinocytosis: carrier is not used.

 i) In the interstitial (outside) fluid.  ii) In the intercellular fluid.Cell Potential Genesis: Resting state  The concentration of the ions inside and outside the cell are markedly different. the concentration of K + ions is much higher than in the interstitial fluid. the concentration of Na+ and Cl.ions are much higher than in the intercellular (inside) fluid.  iii) There is an electrical potential difference between the inside and outside fluids.  (In skeletal muscles-90 mv approx) .


 As a result the inside of the cell becomes electrically negative wrto the outside.  When the membrane is not stimulated i. it is highly permeable to K+ but only slightly permeable to Na + .e. in the resting state.  Because of its steep concentration gradient.Resting potential  The membrane of a cell which is a semi permeable plays an important role in the maintenance of the above differences. . K+ tends to leak out at a high rate.

Resting voltage  Is depending upon :  a) the relative difference in concentration (chemical gradient)  b) any external sources resulting from the transport of ions across the membrane (electrical gradient) .

.Resting potential  However an equilibrium is reached when the tendency for K + to diffuse out is balanced by the electric field that has been set up.  At this point. the interior of the cell is about 60 to 90 mv negative relative to the external fluid.

is given by the Nernst relations : (T = 293°K) .Nernst Relation  This potential. which is referred to later as the chemical gradient.

Electrical characteristics of the Human Cell  Net Gradient:  A chemical gradient is formed due to a difference in concentration (10 to 1) producing a potential gradient as given by the Nernst relation. the sodium current balances the potassium current with a resultant current of zero. the cell’s internal potential will not change and will remain at its – 90 mV resting level. .  Since the net current though the membrane is zero.  An electrical gradient is formed as a result of a potential (90mV)that may exist across the membrane due to some other source.  The net result is that the sodium and potassium currents are equal.

thus.Electrical characteristics of the Human Cell  Cell in Resting State or polarized state :  In this state potassium ions can pass fairly readily through the membrane as the membrane offers medium resistance. almost impermeable to sodium ions and. offers a high resistance to the passage of these ions.  This membrane is. .  A large net gradient affects the movement of sodium ions into the cell. however.

Resting potential .

Cell Condition after a Stimulus  When a cell receives a stimulation above a certain “threshold” value.  A much lower resistance is offered to the flow of sodium ions. this balance is upset and the cell will go through a cycle known as an “ Action Potential”.  The membrane permeability to potassium ions is unaltered but the permeability to sodium ions is increased thus flows in to the cell. . thus increasing the sodium ionic current.

 This increased

sodium ionic current causes more positive ions to pass into the cell than are passing out of the cell, causing the internal cell potential to drop from – 90 mV in an attempt to achieve sodium current and potassium current balance.

Cell Depolarization
 As this potential decreases, the net sodium gradient

across the membrane decreases and the net potassium gradient across the membrane increases, causing the currents to decrease and increase, respectively.
 This process continues until current balance is again

obtained, at which time the internal cell potential is + 20 mV.
 The cell is then referred to as being in a depolarized


 This causes the sodium ionic current to be considerably lower than the potassium ionic current .Cell Repolarization  By the time the cell has fully depolarized the characteristics of the membrane have begun to revert back to their pre-stimulus state. . the internal cell potential thus begins to go negative with the process continuing until the – 90 mV resting potential of the cell is once again obtained.

 The cell action potential.Action Potential from a Cell  Suppose a stimulus is applied to the cell.  Bioelectric currents are due to positive and negative ion movement within a conductive fluid. .  As these ions possess finite mass and encounter resistance to movement within the fluid their speeds are limited. shows a finite “rise time” and “fall time”.  Time scale : 1 ms for nerve cells  150-300 ms in heart muscles. the output of the microelectrode would appear as shown below. thus.  This waveform is known as the “Cell action potential”.


Sodium Potassium Pump Phenomenon  The ionic concentration gradient across the cell membrane is maintained by virtue of metabolic energy expended by the cell in “Pumping” ions against the ionic gradient formed by the differing ionic concentration between the inside and outside of the cell.  This action has been referred to as the “Sodium – potassium pump”. .

the cell depolarizes without requiring the addition of any further positive ions to the inside of the cell from the stimulus source. .Threshold of Stimulus Causing Action Potential  A cell may be stimulated. or it may be artificially produced by some external current stimulus. or caused to depolarize and then repolarize.  Note: This current may be produced by other cells. it may be produced by ionic currents existing as nerve impulses.  Once this threshold level is reached.  A cell will be stimulated when sufficient positive ions are added to the inside of the cell to cause its resting potential to be decreased from its – 90 mV level to approximately – 60 mV. by subjecting the cell membrane to an ionic current.

All-or-nothing law  Regardless of the method of excitation of cells or the intensity of the stimulus. which is assumed to be greater than the threshold of stimulus. . the action potential is always same for any given cell.

(several ms) . but a much stronger stimulation is required. during which another action potential can be triggered. there occurs a “relative refractory period”.Refractory periods  Following the generation of an action potential . there is a brief period of time during which the cell can not respond to any new stimulus. (1 ms for nerve cells)  Following the ARP .  This period is called the “ absolute refractory period”.

Refractory periods .

.2- 0.4 mm/s.Propagation rate  The rate at which an action potential moves down a fiber of a nerve cell or is propagated from cell to cell is called the “propagation rate or conduction velocity”.  This value is depending on the type and diameter of the nerve fiber and is from 20-140 mm/s. it is very slower ranging from 0.  But in heart muscle.

regardless of how long the stimulus is continued or if it is removed. a grater than normal stimulus is required in order to initiate another action potential. etc.Characteristics of Action Potential  a) once the “threshold” has been reached. calcium. b) a second stimulus will not have any effect while the cell is in the depolarizing phase. potassium.. . by changing the concentration levels of sodium. by introducing drugs in to the fluid surrounding the cell. the sequence     can’t be turned off or changed. d) The threshold level can be increased or decreased by altering the permeability of the membrane. c) when a cell is repolarizing. the action potential will take about 10 ms to depolarize the repolarized cells. e) Once the threshold is reached.

 under certain conditions of stimulation. the repolarization process is random.Synchronous Depolarization  Consider a group of cells in close proximity to one another……. these cells may all depolarize at the same time (synchronous depolarization) . however. .  Repolarization of the individual cells will occur at different times.

combinations of synchronous and asynchronous depolarization occur in a group of cells.  The stimulation may result in one cell depolarizing. the action of this cell depolarizing will then act as a stimulus on its adjacent cell causing it to depolarize also.  In practice. the group of cells described previously will not all depolarize at the same time (asynchronous depolarization).  This chain reaction would proceed until all cells in a particular area have depolarized.Asynchronous Depolarization  Under other conditions of stimulation. .

Stimulation is not synchronous and the potential externally seen .

then the intracellular potential for both a polarized cell and a depolarized cell can be determined.Electrical Analog of the Cell  After assigning resistance values inversely proportional to the relative permeability of the membrane and assuming potassium and sodium concentration ratios. .  The values assumed are analogous to actual values four in a cell.

the permeability of membrane to K and Na ions flow through membrane.Cm = membrane capacitance.RNa. ENa Ek are the Sodium potassium Nernst potentials. Rd is the permeability of membrane to Na ion flow in depolarizing condition. . RK.



Bioelectric potentials----origin  The depolarization and repolarization undergone by a cell from time to time. and is the source of all bioelectric potentials. the charges tend to migrate through the body fluids towards the still unexcited cell areas.  Thus. each cell in the human body is a minute voltage generator. which are of interest to clinicians and biomedical engineers.  These are actually ionic voltages produced by the coordinated electrochemical activity of large group of cells. give rise to voltage waveforms.  In this type of synchronized action of many cells. .

are highly significant for diagnosis and therapy. so monitored.Bioelectric potentials----origin  Such charge migration constitutes an electrical current and hence. . sets up potential differences between various portions of the body including its outer surface.  The bio potentials.  These PD can be conveniently picked up by placing conducting plates at any two points on the surface of the body and measured with the help of a sensitive instrument.

6 ms-0.1-100 2-200 Neuronal activity of brain Cerebrum of the brain Skin muscles Pulse duration 0.Characteristics of the various Bioelectric signals Bioelectric Spectrum signal (Hz) ECG 0.1 s 5-2000 10-100000 Deep needle 20-5000 SE or NE EGG 0.05-0.05-100 Potential range (µv) 10-5000 covers fetal range Sensing devices used Surface Electrodes Needle Electrodes SE &NE Signal origin Heart muscles EEG Electro encephalogram Cerebral potentials EMG 0.2 10-350 SE Peristaltic movement of the gastro intestinal tract ERG 0.5-1000 Corneal electrodes Miniature SE Retina of the eye EOG DC-100 10-3500 Corneal-retinal potential .01-200 0.

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