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Apart from the electrode –electrolyte interface, there is
also the skin interface. when an electrode is placed on the skin surface, there is some electrical resistance at the electrode-skin interface. The skin consists of three layers, Epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous layer.
Stratum corneum(we see dead cells) Stratum granulosum Stratum (basale) germinativum(where new skin cells form) Deep layers of skin consist of vascular and nervous
components, as well as sweat glands, sweat ducts and hair follicles.
With the exception of sweat glands, no particular characteristics
affecting the electrode performance.
showing the various layers .Magnified section of skin.
This ensures a low value of electrode-skin interface resistance.Epidermis We are most interested at epidermis. the selected skin site is to be well prepared by cleaning with Alcohol or Acetone and by applying a commercially available conducting jelly (electrode paste). . as that is the main contact with the electrode Since the skin’s natural resistance is high compared to the resistance of the fluids.
whereas. . Surface electrodes usually have resistances of 2000 to 10000 ohms depending on their size. A simple series equivalent circuit of an electrodeelectrolyte interface is shown in figure. small needle electrodes have a much higher resistance.
the equivalent circuit modified as shown. when an electrode makes contact with the skin via an electrolyte paste. Rs becomes the effective resistance of the paste between the electrode and the skin. and RS is the total resistance in the circuit due to resistance in electrolyte and electrode lead wire. Here. Rd and Cd represent the impedance associated with electrode-electrolyte interface. Ehc is the half-cell potential. Now. However. . The epidermis of the skin may be considered as a semi permeable membrane and the potential difference across it is represented by Ese.
as shown in figure. The dermis and subcutaneous layer under it behave in general as pure resistance Ru.Re. The epidermic layer has also an electrical impedance. Thus. . it can be seen that to obtain a more stable electrode. which is represented by the parallel circuit Ce. the effect of the epidermis (stratum corneum) has to be reduced.
All these methods tend to short out Ese. . Ce and Re. thus improving the stability of the signal. Psychogenic electrodermal responses or the galvanic skin reflex (GSR). is the contribution of the sweat glands and sweat ducts. This is achieved by many ways: by rubbing with a pad soaked in acetone or by puncturing the epidermis with dental burrs.
. Thus there is a potential difference between the lumen of the sweat duct and the dermis and subcutaneous layers. The fluid secreted by sweat glands contains Na+. the concentrations of which differ from those in the extracellular fluid. and Cl ions. K+.
There also is a parallel RpCp combination in series with this potential that represents the wall of the sweat gland and duct. These components are often neglected when we consider biopotential electrodes unless the electrodes are used to measure the electrodermal response or GSR. as shown by the broken lines. .
.Motion artifact If a pair of electrodes is in an electrolyte and one moves while the other remains stationary. This potential is known as “motion artifact” and can be a serious cause of interference in the measurement of biopotentials. a potential difference appears between the two electrodes during this movement.
This artifact can be significantly reduced when the stratum corneum is removed by mechanical abrasion with a fine abrasive paper. . it is reasonable to expect that motion artifact is minimal for nonpolarizable electrodes. Because motion artifact results primarily from mechanical disturbances of the distribution of charge at the electrode–electrolyte interface.
the choice of a gel material is important. That removal of the body’s outer protective barrier makes that region of skin more susceptible to irritation from the electrolyte gel. . Therefore. This method also helps to reduce the epidermal component of the skin impedance.
thereby renewing the source of motion artifact. Remembering the dynamic nature of the epidermis. . note also that the stratum corneum can regenerate itself in as short a time as 24 h.
and this change appears as motion artifact.5 mm skin punctures through the barrier layer short-circuits the skin potential and reduces the stretch artifact to less than 0. Stretching the skin changes this skin potential by 5 to 10 mV. .2 mV. Ten 0.
physical activities from human body.Invasive and Non Invasive Sensors that are used to measure electrical. . chemical.
γ-ray Contact with blood Intrusion into the body Minimally invasive Contact with blood Intrusion into the body Non-invasive Surface or remote diagnosis / therapy . Invasive Ionization (radiation) X-ray. UV.
Types of electrodes A wide variety of electrodes can be used to measure bioelectric events. 3) Micro Electrodes: Used to measure bioelectric potentials near a single cell.EEG and EMG potentials on the surface of the skin. . or EMG potentials from a specific group of muscles. but nearly all can be classified as belonging to one of three basic types: 1) Surface Electrodes: Used to measure ECG. 2) Needle Electrodes: Used to penetrate the skin to record EEG potentials from a local region of the brain.
An electrolyte soaked pad or gel is used to establish and maintain the contact. this terminal is used to attach the lead wire to the electrocardiograph. A terminal is placed on its outside surface near one end. it consists of a metallic conductor in contact with the skin. Metal-plate electrode used for application to limbs is shown.METAL-PLATE ELECTRODES: SURFACE In its simplest form. . It consists of a flat metal plate that has been bent into a cylindrical segment.
The electrode is traditionally made of German silver (a nickel–silver alloy). its concave surface is covered with electrolyte gel. Before it is attached to the body with a rubber strap or tape. A limb electrode .
It is coated with electrolyte gel and then pressed against the patient’s chest wall. In these applications the electrode is often fabricated from a disk of Ag that may have an electrolytically deposited layer of AgCl on its contacting surface. Metal-disk electrode .Metal-disk electrode The structure shown can be used as a chest electrode for recording the ECG or in cardiac monitoring for long-term recordings.
In recording EMGs. or gold-plated disks to minimize the chance that the electrode will enter into chemical reactions with perspiration or the gel. investigators use stainless steel. platinum. . Electrodes used in monitoring EMGs or EEGs are generally smaller in diameter than those used in recording ECGs.
. In choosing suitable cardiac electrodes for patient- monitoring applications. The thin. physicians are more and more turning to pregelled. Disk-shaped electrodes such as these have also been fabricated from metal foils (primarily silver foil) and are applied as single-use disposable electrodes. These devices are ready to be applied to the patient and are disposed after use. flexible foil allows the electrode to conform to the shape of the body surface. disposable electrodes with the adhesive already in place.
Disposable foam-pad electrodes
It consists of a relatively large disk of plastic foam material
with a silver plated disk on one side attached to a silverplated snap similar to that used on clothing in the center of the other side.
The silver-plated disk serves as the electrode and may be
coated with an AgCl layer.
A layer of electrolyte gel covers the disk. The electrode side of the foam is covered with an adhesive
material that is compatible with the skin.
A protective cover or strip of release paper is placed
over this side of the electrode and foam, and the complete electrode is packaged in a foil envelope so that the water component of the gel will not evaporate away.
A modification of the metal-plate electrode that
requires no straps or adhesives for holding it in place is the suction electrode.
Such electrodes are frequently used in
electrocardiography as the precordial (chest) leads, because they can be placed at particular locations and used to take a recording.
They consist of a hollow metallic cylindrical electrode that makes contact with the skin at its base. . and the electrode is then placed on the chest wall. the bulb is squeezed. and a rubber suction bulb fits over its other base. Electrolyte gel is placed over the contacting surface of the electrode. An appropriate terminal for the lead wire is attached to the metal cylinder.
Used as a precordial electrode .
This electrode can be used only for short periods of time. the suction and the pressure of the contact surface against the skin can cause irritation. The bulb is released and applies suction against the skin. holding the electrode assembly in place. .
that the actual contacting area is relatively small. Although the electrode itself is quite large. This electrode thus tends to have a higher source impedance than the relatively large-surface-area metal plate electrodes used for ECG limb electrodes. .
. But it still can be present. such as the Ag/AgCl electrode.FLOATING ELECTRODES We noted that one source of motion artifact in biopotential electrodes is the disturbance of the double layer of charge at the electrode–electrolyte interface. The use of nonpolarizable electrodes. Floating electrodes offer a suitable technique to do so. can greatly diminish this artifact. and efforts to stabilize the interface mechanically can reduce it further.
Figure (a) depicts a floating electrode known as a top- hat electrode. its internal structure is illustrated in cross section in Figure(b). the element is surrounded by electrolyte gel in the cavity. The principal feature of the electrode is that the actual electrode element or metal disk is recessed in a cavity so that it does not come in contact with the skin itself. . Instead.
The cavity and hence the gel does not move with respect to the metal disk. The electrode element can be a disk made of a metal such as silver coated with AgCl or sintered Ag/AgCl pellet instead of a metal disk. These electrodes are found to be quite stable and are reusable after appropriate cleaning between uses. so it does not produce any mechanical disturbance of the double layer of charge. .
. open-cell foam saturated with electrolyte gel. disposable modification of the floating electrode is shown in cross section in Figure (c). thereby diminishing the motion artifact that sometimes results from differential movement between the skin and the electrolyte gel. It has one added component—a disk of thin. A single-use. The other surface of the foam that is placed against the skin is able to move with the skin.
is irregularly shaped and can change its local curvature with movement. on the other hand.FLEXIBLE ELECTRODES:SURFACE The electrodes described so far are solid and either are flat or have a fixed curvature. who usually weigh less than 2500 g. . The body surface. Electrodes for detecting the ECG and respiration by the impedance technique are attached to the chest of premature infants.
A carbon-filled silicone rubber compound in the form of a thin strip or disk is used as the active element of an electrode. The carbon particles in the silicone make it an electric conductor. A pin connector is pushed into the lead connector hole. and the electrode is used in the same way as a similar type of metal-plate electrode. The below figure shows one technique employed to provide flexible electrodes. .
Carbon-filled silicone rubber electrode .
. as shown in Figure.Flexible thin-film electrode The basic electrode consists of a 13 mm-thick Mylar film on which an Ag and AgCl film have been deposited.
An AgCl layer is then grown on the surface of the silver film via the electrolytic process. and a silver film approximately 1 micrometer thick is deposited over this and the Mylar. The flexible lead wire is attached to the Mylar substrate by means of a conducting adhesive. .
. these electrodes have a layer of silver thin enough to be essentially x-ray transparent. Consequently. the infant’s skin is also protected from the irritation caused by removing and reapplying the adhesive tape that holds the electrode in place.Advantage In addition to the advantage of being flexible and conforming to the shape of the newborn’s chest. so they need not be removed when chest x rays of the infant are taken.
. They can take the form of percutaneous electrodes.INTERNAL ELECTRODES:NEEDLE Electrodes can also be used within the body to detect bio potentials. or they may be entirely internal electrodes. in which the electrode itself or the lead wire crosses the skin. in which the connection is to an implanted electronic circuit such as a radio telemetry transmitter.
and the joint is encapsulated in a plastic hub to protect it. No electrolyte gel is required to maintain this interface. usually made of stainless steel. only the tip is left exposed. with a sharp point. The shank of the needle is insulated with a coating such as an insulating varnish. because extracellular fluid is present. A lead wire is attached to the other end of the needle. The basic needle electrode consists of a solid needle. .
is shown in Figure(a). A shielded percutaneous electrode can be fabricated in the form shown in Figure(b). frequently used in electromyography. When it is placed in a particular muscle. . it obtains an EMG from that muscle acutely and can then be removed. This electrode. It consists of a small-gage hypodermic needle that has been modified by running an insulated fine wire down the center of its lumen and filling the remainder of the lumen with an insulating material such as an epoxy resin.
Here two wires are placed within the lumen of the needle and can be connected differentially so as to be sensitive to electrical activity only in the immediate vicinity of the electrode tip. Multiple electrodes in a single needle can be formed as shown in Figure(c). The needle itself is connected to ground through the shield of a coaxial cable. . thereby extending the coaxial structure to its very tip.
Percutaneous wire electrodes
The needle electrodes just described are principally for
acute measurements, because their stiffness and size make them uncomfortable for long term implantation.
When chronic recordings are required, percutaneous
wire electrodes are more suitable.
A fine wire—often made of stainless steel ranging in
diameter from 25 to 125 microm—is insulated with an insulating varnish to within a few millimeters of the tip.
This noninsulated tip is bent back on itself to form a J-
The tip is introduced into the lumen of the needle, as
shown in Figure(d).
the technician applies a mild uniform force to straighten out the barb and pulls it out through the wire’s track. . The needle is inserted through the skin into the muscle at the desired location. leaving the electrode in place. It is then slowly withdrawn. as shown in Figure(e). Note that the bent-over portion of wire serves as a barb holding the wire in place in the muscle. To remove the wire. to the desired depth.
. Realizing that wire electrodes chronically implanted in active muscles undergo a great amount of flexing as the muscle moves (which can cause the wire to slip as it passes through the skin and increase the irritation and risk of infection at this point. they developed the helical electrode and lead wire shown in Figure(f). or even cause the wire to break).
too. Of course. It holds the wire in place in the tissue when the needle is removed from the muscle. The uninsulated barb protrudes from the tip of the needle and is bent back along the needle before insertion. the external end of the electrode now passes through the needle and the needle must be removed—or at least protected—before the electrode is connected to the recording apparatus. is made from a very fine insulated wire coiled into a tight helix of approximately 150 microm diameter that is placed in the lumen of the inserting needle. . It.
(a) Suction electrode. (b) Cross-sectional view of suction electrode in place. . showing penetration of probe through epidermis. (c) Helical electrode that is attached to fetal skin by corkscrew-type action.Intracutaneous needles Another group of percutaneous electrodes are those used for monitoring fetal heartbeats.
Implantable electrodes Often when implantable wireless transmission is used. In this case the radio transmitter is implanted in the body. we want to implant electrodes within the body and not penetrate the skin with any wires. . The simplest electrode for this application is shown in Figure(a).
Wire-loop electrode .
Insulated multistranded stainless steel or platinum wire suitable for implantation has one end stripped so that an eyelet can be formed from the strands of wire. The eyelet can be sutured to the point in the body at which electric contact is to be established. .
Platinum -sphere cortical-surface potential electrode Figure(b) shows another example of an implantable electrode for obtaining cortical-surface potentials from the brain applied this electrode for the radiotelemetry of subdural EEGs. . .
. A small slit is made in the exposed dura. The electrode consists of a 2 mm-diameter metallic sphere located at the tip of the cylindrical Teflon insulator through which the electrode lead wire passes. The assembly is then cemented in place onto the calvarium by means of a dental acrylic material. and the silver sphere is introduced through this opening so that it rests on the surface of the cerebral cortex. and a burr hole is drilled. The calvarium is exposed through an incision in the scalp.
Multielement depth electrode Deep cortical potentials can be recorded from multiple points using the technique as shown in Figure(c). .
The other ends of the electrodes can be attached to appropriate implantable electronic devices or to a connector cemented on the skull to allow connection to an external recording apparatus. By staggering the ends of the wires as shown. . This kind of electrode consists of a cluster of fine insulated wires held together by a varnish binder. we can produce electrodes located at known differences in depth in an array. Each wire has been cut transversely to expose an uninsulated cross section that serves as the active electrode surface.
and three dimensional electrode arrays. each one will be somewhat different from the other. when such clusters are made individually.ELECTRODE ARRAYS Although implantable electrode arrays can be fabricated one at a time using clusters of fine insulated wires. Furthermore. . A way to minimize these problems is to utilize micro fabrication technology to fabricate identical two. this technique is both time-consuming and expensive.
One-dimensional plunge electrode array .
Two -dimensional array .
Three -dimensional array .
. Such electrodes must be small with respect to the cell dimensions to avoid causing serious cellular injury and thereby changing the cell’s behavior.MICROELECTRODES To be able to measure potential differences across the cell membrane we must have an electrode within the cell.
the electrode used for measuring intracellular potential must also be strong so that it can penetrate the cell membrane and remain mechanically stable. In addition to being small. .
They have tip diameters ranging from approximately 0. . Microelectrodes can be formed from solid-metal needles. Electrodes that meet these requirements are known as microelectrodes.05 to 10 mirom. from metal contained within or on the surface of a glass needle. or from a glass micropipette having a lumen filled with an electrolytic solution.
The structure of a metal microelectrode for intracellular recordings. .METAL MICROELECTRODES A fine needle of a strong metal that is insulated with an appropriate insulator up to its tip.
. but a great deal of patience and practice are required to gain the skill to make them. Very fine tips can be formed in this way. The electric current etches the needle as it is slowly withdrawn from the electrolyte solution. The metal needle is prepared by electrolytic etching. using an electrochemical cell in which the metal needle is the anode.
platinum–iridium alloy. Suitable strong metals for these microelectrodes are stainless steel. The compound tungsten carbide is also used because of its great strength. and tungsten. Only the extreme tip of the electrode remains un insulated. The microelectrode and supporting shaft are usually insulated by a film of some polymeric material or varnish. .
SUPPORTED-METAL MICROELECTRODES The properties of two different materials are used to advantage in supported metal microelectrodes. and a metal with good electrical conductivity constitutes the contacting portion of the electrode. A strong insulating material that can be drawn to a fine point makes up the basic support. .
Metal filled glass micropipette The classic example of this form is a glass tube drawn to a micropipette structure with its lumen filled with an appropriate metal. .
The tube can then be heated to the softening point and pulled to form a narrow constriction. the glass not only provides the mechanical support but also serves as the insulation. two micro pipettes filled with metal are formed. When it is broken at the constriction.Preparation This is prepared by first filling a glass tube with a metal that has a melting point near the softening point of the glass. The active tip is the only metallic area exposed in cross section where the pipette was broken away. In this type of structure. .
(c) Final structure of glass-pipette microelectrode. . (b) Capillary narrowed through heating and stretching.(a) Section of fine-bore glass capillary.
A metal film is deposited uniformly on this surface to a thickness of the order of tenths of a micrometer. leaving just the tip. . A polymeric insulation is then coated over this. with the metal film exposed.. A solid glass rod or glass tube is drawn to form the micropipette. coated with metal film The figure shows the cross section of the tip of a deposited-metal-film microelectrode. Glass micropipette.
coated with metal film .Glass micropipette.
The electrode is frequently a silver wire prepared with an electrolytic AgCl surface. A cap containing a metal electrode is then sealed to the pipette. Platinum or stainless steel wires are also occasionally used. Electrolyte solution that is frequently 3M KCl. The metal electrode contacts the electrolyte within the pipette. .MICROPIPETTE ELECTRODES A glass micropipette electrode filled with an electrolytic solution.
narrow structure that is just wide enough to accommodate the gold strips in the region of the tip. The silicon substrate is next etched to a thin. The gold strips are then further insulated by depositing SiO2 over their surface.MICROELECTRODES BASED ON MICROELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY The basic structure consists of narrow gold strips deposited on a silicon substrate the surface of which has been first insulated by growing an SiO2 film. .
. The silicon substrate is etched a millimeter or two back from the tip so that only the gold strips and their SiO2 insulation remain. The insulation is etched away from the very tip of the gold strips to expose the contacting surface of the electrodes.
Beam-lead multiple electrode .
Multielectrode silicon probe .
Multiple-chamber electrode .
Peripheral-nerve electrode .
because the ratio of length to cross-sectional area is much higher in this portion than it is for the shaft. The microelectrode contributes a series resistance Rs that is due to the resistance of the metal itself.ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF MICROELECTRODES We must derive an electrical equivalent circuit from physical considerations. . A major contributor to this resistance is the metal in the shank and tip portion of the microelectrode.
we can consider the microelectrode to be a coaxial cylinder capacitor. the capacitance per unit length (F/m) is given by . In the shank region. The metal is coated with an insulating material over all but its most distal tip. so a capacitance is set up between the metal and the extracellular fluid. This is a distributed capacitance Cd that we can represent in lumped form by separating the shank and tip from the shaft.
showing origin of distributed capacitance .Electrode with tip placed within a cell.
The capacitance per unit length (F/m) is given by Note that this capacitance comes from only that portion of the electrode shaft that is submerged in the extracellular fluid. so we can simplify the calculation by unwrapping the circumferential surface of the shaft and considering the system to be a parallel-plate capacitor of area equal to the circumferential surface area and of thickness equal to t. so Cd2 is zero. the thickness of the insulation layer. . Often only the shank is submerged. Here the ratio of diameters would be practically unity.
Equivalent circuit .
are associated with the reference electrode. A similar set of components. . Cw. Rma. Cmb. and Ema. There is also a capacitance associated with the lead wires. Rmb. The other significant contributions to the equivalent circuit from the metal microelectrode are the components contributed by the metal–electrolyte interface. and Emb. Cma.
as shown in the equivalent circuit. whereas the remainder of it is between the microelectrode and the intracellular fluid. Cd1. . so there is a series resistance Ri. The tip of the microelectrode is within a cell. associated with the electrolyte within the cell membrane and another series resistance Re due to the extracellular fluid. but in more detailed analyses an equivalent circuit of greater complexity is required. Some of the distributed capacitance of the shank. is between the microelectrode and the extracellular fluid. The cell membrane itself can be modeled simply as a variable potential Emp.
Simplified equivalent circuit .
The above circuit neglects the impedance of the reference electrode and the series-resistance contribution from the intracellular and extracellular fluid and lumps all the distributed capacitance together. . we see that this circuit can behave as a high-pass filter and significant waveform distortion can result. Under circumstances in which the input impedance of the amplifier connected to this electrode is not sufficiently large. The effective impedance of metal microelectrodes is frequency dependent and can be of the order of 10 to 100 MΩ.
lower this impedance by increasing the effective surface area of the tip of the microelectrode through the application of platinum black. . We can. the impedance can be reduced by applying an Ag/AgCl surface to the electrode tip. At lower frequencies. however.
because the glass wall of the electrode is much thicker in this region and the capacitive contribution is quite small. Cma. . In series with this is a resistive element Rt corresponding to the resistance of the electrolyte in the shank and tip region of the microelectrode. and Ema. The distributed capacitance due to the shaft region has been neglected.Glass micropipette microelectrode The internal electrode in the micropipette gives the metal– electrolyte interface components Rma. Connected to this is the distributed capacitance Cd corresponding to the capacitance across the glass in this region.
showing the origin of distributed capacitance .Electrode with its tip placed within a cell.
In addition. a potential known as the tip potential Et arises because the thin glass wall surrounding the tip region of the micropipette behaves like a glass membrane and has an associated membrane potential. The liquid-junction potential Ej corresponds to the liquid junction set up between the electrolyte in the micropipette and the intracellular fluid. . There are two potentials associated with the tip of the micropipette microelectrode.
as is the case for the metal microelectrode. The equivalent circuit also includes resistances corresponding to the intracellular Ri and extracellular Re fluids. . These are coupled to the microelectrode through the distributive capacitance Cd. The equivalent circuit for the reference electrode remains unchanged from that shown for the previous electrode.
Equivalent circuit .
the micropipette’s major impedance contribution is resistive. This can be illustrated by approximating the equivalent circuit. . Unlike the metal microelectrode.
which can be on the order of tens of picofarads. which is given by . This resistance generally ranges in value from 1 to 100 MΩ. Here the overall series resistance of the electrode is lumped together as Rt. The total distributed capacitance is lumped together to form Ct. All the associated dc potentials are lumped together in the source Em.
Note that the micropipette-type microelectrode behaves as a low-pass filter. positive-feedback. The high series resistance and distributed capacitance cause the electrode output to respond slowly to rapid changes in cell-membrane potential. negative- capacitance amplifiers are used to reduce the effective value of Ct. . To reduce this problem.
The transducer can be active or passive depending upon conversion of non electrical variable into electrical signal. transducer is required to convert physiological variables into electrical signals which are easier to be processed.TRANSDUCER Generally. . logarithmic or square. The relationship between input and output variable can be linear.
The active transducer directly converts input variable into electrical signals while passive transducer modifies either excitation voltages or modulates the carrier signals. . The passive transducers are externally powered while active transducers are self generating and require no external power.
ACTIVE TRANSDUCERS .
. The passive transducer is part of a circuit normally an arrangement similar to a wheatstone bridge which is powered by an ac or dc excitation.PASSIVE TRANSDUCERS There are only three passive circuit elements that can be used to change voltage at the output of the circuit according to the physical variable : (1) resistors (2) capacitors and (3) inductors.
The inductance L = n2 Gμ (n = number of turns in coil. G = form factor of coil and μ = permeability of core material inside the coil). .INDUCTIVE PASSIVE TRANSDUCERS Variable induction : The property of inductance is varied in the circuit to change the output voltage in accordance with the input variable.
Induction Displacement Transducer .
core remains stationary inside the coil but the air gap in the magnetic path of the core is varied to change the net permeability. Variable reluctance : In this. thereby varying the output signal as per the input variable (displacement). .
Variable Reluctance Transducer .
Linear Variable differential transformer .
The mass of the core and the diaphragm are very small and the system has a high stiffness. .Applications 1. LVDT is used as a catheter-tip blood pressure transducer. circular. In this service. elastic diaphragm exposed to blood pressure. the core of the LVDT is affixed to a small.
2. The movement of a bourdon tube and. the pressure inside the tube can be measured by connecting the core of the LVDT to the tip of the bourdon tube. LVDT is used in Ballistocardiography for picking up the movement of the ballistocardiograph platform (on which a subject lies supine) due to the pumping action of the heart. thereby. . 3.
4. Vibrations of several body segments can be
monitored by using LVDT to study the effects of vibrations on the human body placed on a vibration platform.
PASSIVE CAPACITANCE TRANSDUCERS
Variable capacitance :
The capacitance (C) of a capacitor having two parallel
plates of area ‘A’ which are separated by a distance ‘d’ is : C = Εo Εr A/d (Ε0 = dielectric constant of free space and Εr = relative dielectric constant).
Variation of Capacitance with Displacement
Variation of Capacitance with Displacement .
Variation of Capacitance with Angular Displacement .
To obtain a rapid response time. The capacitance method has been applied to the measurement of physiological events. the elastic element is made as small and as stiff as possible.Applications 1. the other plate is nearby and fixed. . An elastic element exposed to blood pressure constitutes one plate of the capacitor. particularly blood pressure.
to record volume and cardiac output for each heart beat. The capacitance microphone is used for the detection of heart sounds. This principle is used by placing electrodes on the chest and back and correlating the output of this. A miniature capacitance microphone is used as a high fidelity pulse pick-up. 4. 2. 3.An unusual application is that the dielectric property of the living tissues itself as part of the capacitor. .
TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT It has been seen that a person in shock has reduced blood pressure in circulating system which results into low body temperature. The temperature of the joint of an arthritic patient is closely linked with the amount of local inflammation. . Special heated incubators are used for maintaining the body temperature of infants. Infection and illness are usually reflected by a high body temperature.
The temperature can be measured by (1) thermocouples (2) thermistor and (3) radiation and fiber optic detectors .
Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) Electrical resistance of an electrical conductor is a function of temperature .
Thin-Film Gold Temperature Sensor .
beads.Thermistors The resistance of thermistor can be given as Thermistors can be formed into disks. Most thermistor thermometers use the principle of wheatstone bridge to obtain a voltage output which varies as per input temperature. Thermistor probes are available with resistance from a few hundred ohms to several megohms. rods or any desired shapes. .
Such type of thermometers can detect areas of poor circulation.Infrared thermometers: Our skin is perfect emitter of infrared radiation and the energy emitted is proportion to the body temperature. locate breast cancer or other unknown sources of heat in the body. . A device sensitive to infrared radiation can measure the emitted energy from a patient without clothing (room temperature 21ºC) and directly indicates the body temperature.
. The thermograph is an infrared thermometer incorporated into a scanner which can be used to scan entire surface of body or some part of body like a television camera. The infrared energy detected in scanning is used to modulate the intensity of a light beam so that to get the image on the photographic film in which the brightness depends on the detected infrared radiation. The image is called a “thermogram”.
2.Applications 1. Sufficient amount of current passed through the thermistor to raise its quiescent temperature to approx 1200 c. A heated thermistor is mounted on the tip of a catheter or hypodermic needle which is inserted in to the blood vessel. (cooling effect) . (change in R) 3. The use of a thermistor for the respiration rate measurement is of special interest. For the measurement of blood flow. They are used for continuous measurement of skin and body core temperatures.