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• The ideal control methodology or strategy should satisfy the requirements:
– To guarantee the stability and particularly, robustness – To be as efficient as possible as required by the desired performance criteria – To be easy to implement and operate in real time through the use of digital computers.
• As processes increase in complexity, they become less amenable to direct mathematical modeling based on physical laws, since they may be:
– Distributed, stochastic, nonlinear, and time varying – Subject to large unpredictable environment disturbances – Have variables that are difficult to measure, have unknown causal relationships, or too difficult or expensive to evaluate in real-time.
Benefits of advanced controls • • • • • Increased throughput Increased product recovery Energy conservation Reduced disturbance or other processing units Minimum rework or recycle of off-spec products • Reduced operating manpower • Increased plant flexibility .
Advanced controls • In this chapter the following advanced controls will be discussed – Predictive control – Adaptive control – Inferential control – Statistical process control – Intelligent control (AI) .
Model based controllers • Model based controllers may be classified into two categories – Optimal control – Adaptive control .
Adaptive control • Generalized approach .
Two approaches • Model reference adaptive control .
• Gradient search method and liapunov method can be used to determine the parameters of controllers. .
• Model identification adaptive control .
• The following methods can be used for parameter estimation – Least square method – Method of instrumental variables – Maximum likelihood method – Stochastic approximation method The controller approach is also known as self-tuning control. .
Optimal control .
• The following methods are used for optimization – Linear programming – Non-linear programming – Gradient method – Dynamic programming – Calculus of variation – Kalman filter .
Predictive control .
Predictive controller .
Inferential control .
Example of inferential control .
Artificial intelligence • Artificial intelligence is subdivided into the following major categories: – Expert systems – Robotics – Vision – Natural language processing – Artificial neural networks(ANN) – Fuzzy logic .
Expert system .
Expert control system .
Structure of real time expert system .
Neural network analogy with human brain .
generalize and extrapolate results.Advantages of neural networks • Good fit for nonlinear models. • Ability to adapt. • Speed of execution in recall mode. • Ease of maintenance. .
Three layer fully connected neural network .
Plant modeling using neural network .
Cascade neural network controller .
Feed forward architecture .
Linearization architecture .
Functional operation of a fuzzy controller .
Statistical process control • SPC is also called as statistical quality control(SQC). involves the application of statistical concepts to determine whether a process is operating satisfactorily. .
Statistical process control • Problem solving techniques associated with SPC include: – Analysis of processes for stability and the effects of process modifications (control charts and capability indices) – Defining problems and setting priorities (Pareto charts) – Identifying causes for good and bad performances (cause and effect diagram – fishbone) – Qualifying relationships between process or product variables (scatter plots or other correlation tools) .
Example of SPC .
Algorithms for processes with dead time • Smith predictor algorithm • Analytical predictor algorithm • General purpose algorithm .
Smith predictor algorithm .
Preliminary smith predictor scheme .
Final smith predictor scheme .
Block diagram of smith predictor .