• Lebih mengenal proses pengelasan dan efeknya pada material • Untuk melihat strukturmikro dan hardness pada Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) • Mengetahu cacat-cacat las, penyebab dan usaha penanggulanganya. • Industrial radiography techniques
• Welding is the joining of multiple pieces of metal by the use of heat and or pressure. A union of the parts is created by fusion or recrystallization across the metal interface. Welding can involve the use of filler material, or it can involve no filler.
What commercial and technological importance does welding have?
• Provides a permanent joint • Weld joint can be stronger than parent material
– If the filler material has superior strength characteristics and proper techniques are used
• Usually the most economical way to join components • Can be done in the field away from a factory
these defects can reduce the quality of the joint
. not allowing for convenient disassembly • The welded joint can suffer from certain quality defects that are difficult to detect. are inherently dangerous • Welds are permanent bonds.Limitations?
• Expensive in terms of labour cost • Most welding processes involve the use high energy.
• Arc Welding
– A fusion welding process in which the coalescence of the metals is achieved by the heat from an electric arc between an electrode and the work
• Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)
– An arc welding process that uses a consumable electrode consisting of a filler metal rod coated with chemicals that provide flux and shielding
• Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)
– Arc welding process in which the electrode is a consumable bare metal wire and shielding is accomplished by flooding the area with gas
consumable bare wire electrode.• Submerged Arc Welding
– Arc welding process that uses a continuous. arc shielding is provided by a cover of granular flux
the heat being generated by electrical resistance to current flow at the junction to be welded
.• Resistance Welding
– A fusion welding process that utilizes a combination of heat and pressure to accomplish coalescence.
• Oxyacetylene Welding
– A fusion welding process performed by a high-temperature flame from a combustion of acetylene and oxygen
C2 H 2 O2 2CO H 2 HEAT 2CO H 2 1.5O2 2CO2 H 2O HEAT
Fusion Weld Joint
• Fusion Zone
– A mixture of filler metal and base metal that has completely melted – High degree of homogeneity among the component metals that have been melted during welding – The mixing of these components is motivated largely by convection in the molten weld pool
but high enough to change the microstructure – This metal consists of the base metal which has undergone a heat treatment due to the welding temperatures. cooling rate. but immediately solidified before any mixing could take place
• Heat Affected Zone (HAZ)
– The metal in this region has experienced temperature below its melting point. and the metal’s thermal properties
.• Weld Interface
– The narrow boundary that separates the fusion zone and the heat affected zone – This interface consists of a thin band of base metal that was melted or partially melted (localized melting within the grains) during the welding process. so that its properties have been altered. time at elevated temp. distance from fusion zone. peak temp reached. – The amount of metallurgical damage in the HAZ depends on the amount of heat input.
• Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) cont’d
– The effect on the mechanical properties is usually negative. due to the shrinkage in the fusion zone
. and it is most often the region of the weld joint where failure occurs
• Unaffected Base Metal Zone
– Where no metallurgical change has occurred – The base metal surrounding the HAZ is likely to be in a state of high residual stress.
magnetic particle. dye or fluorescent penetrant inspection Internal: Ultrasonic flaw detection.Weld Defects:
Surface: Visual examination.
phosphorus or niobium pick-up from parent metal
– Large depth/width ratio of weld bead – High arc energy and/or preheat – Sulphur.
Hydrogen Induced HAZ Cracking
– Hardened HAZ coupled with the presence of hydrogen diffused from weld metal – Susceptibility increases with the increasing thickness of section especially in steels with high carbon equivalent composition – Can also occur in weld metal – Increase welding heat beneficial – Preheating sometimes necessary – Control of moisture in consumables and cleanliness of weld prep desirable
– Poor ductility in through-thickness direction in rolled plate due to nonmetallic inclusions – Occurs mainly in joints having weld metal deposited on plate surfaces – Prior buttering of surface beneficial for susceptible plate
or tears at weld toes. or unfused root of partial penetration weld – Heat treatment may need to include low temperature soaking – Grinding or peening weld toes after welding can be beneficial
• Occurs in creep resisting and some thick section structural low alloy steels during post weld heat treatment
– Poor creep ductility in HAZ coupled with thermal stress – Accentuated by severe notches such as preexisting cracks.
Surface: Visual inspection
Internal: Ultrasonic flaw detection.2.
often showing ‘herringbone’ array ( B )
– The gas may arise from contamination of surfaces to be welded. or be prevented from escaping from beneath the weld by joint crevices
• Resulting from the entrapment of gas between the solidifying dendrites of weld metal.
or by nitrogen contamination from the atmosphere – If the weld wire used contains insufficient deoxidant it is also possible for carbon monoxide to cause porosity
.Uniformly Distributed Porosity
• Resulting from the entrapment of gas in solidified weld metal
– Gas may originate from dampness or grease on consumables or workpiece.
– Unstable arc conditions at weld start. coupled with inadequate manipulative technique to allow for this instability
. where weld pool protection may be incomplete and temperature gradients have not had time to equilibrate.
– Excessive contamination from grease. dampness. or atmosphere entrainment – Occasionally caused by excessive sulphur in consumables or parent metal
• Resulting from shrinkage at the end crater of a weld run
– Incorrect manipulative technique or current decay to allow for crater shrinkage
normally revealed by radiography
Linear Slag Inclusions
– Incomplete removal of slag in multi-pass welds often associated with the presence of undercut or irregular surfaces in underlying passes
.3. Solid Inclusions
or electrodes with cracked or damaged coverings – Can also arise from isolated undercut in underlying passes of multi-pass welds
.Isolated Slag Inclusions
– Normally by the presence of mill scale and/or rust on prepared surfaces.
low current) and/or incorrect weld preparation (eg. root face too large) Both cause the weld pool to freeze too rapidly
. dye or fluorescent penetrant inspection
– – Incorrect weld conditions (eg. Lack of Fusion and Penetration
– – This type of defect tends to be sub surface and is therefore detectable only by ultrasonics or X-ray methods Lack of side wall fusion which penetrates the surface may be detected using magnetic particle.4.
Lack of side-wall fusion
Lack of root fusion
Lack of inter-run fusion
Lack of penetration
all shape defects can be determined by visual inspections
– Incorrect assembly or distortion during fabrication
. Imperfect Shape
– Deposition of too much weld metal. often associated with in adequate weld preparation – Incorrect welding parameters – Too large of an electrode for the joint in question
– Poor manipulative technique – Too cold a welding conditions (current and voltage too low)
• Results from the washing away of edge preparation when molten
– Poor welding technique – Imbalance in welding conditions
– Incorrect edge preparation providing insufficient support at the weld root – Incorrect welding conditions (too high of current) – The provision of a backing bar can alleviate this problem in difficult circumstances
due to incorrect root preparation or too cold of conditions – May also be caused by incorrect welding technique
– Shrinkage of molten pool at weld root.
5. and are thus to be avoided
. Miscellaneous Faults
– Accidental contact of an electrode or welding torch with a plate surface remote from the weld – Usually result in small hard spots just beneath the surface which may contain cracks.
– Incorrect welding conditions and/or contaminated consumables or preparations. and adhere to the parent metal remote from the weld
. giving rise to explosions within the arc and weld pool – Globules of molten metal are thrown out.
– Melting of copper contact tube in MIG welding due to incorrect welding conditions
The first weldment was prepared without preheat treatment. For each of these samples:
a) Examine the microstructure of the weldments in a traverse from weld metal to parent metal. comment on the microstructures describing the time-temperature history and how this history resulted in the observed structure.
. Some radiographs of weld defects are provided. An electrode with relatively low hydrogen content was used. Examine these radiographs and describe the defects responsible. sketching about five different areas. citing ways of avoiding the problem.PROCEDURE
1. The second was preheated to 150˚C. Students are provided with weldments of approximately 0. The electrode used produces a large amount of hydrogen which diffuses into the weld metal.4% C steel. b) Conduct a microhardness traverse across the HAZ and correlate the hardness with the microstructure observed in (a). Using the Fe-C diagram and your knowledge of the phase transformations in steel.
ID # Q13 Q18 Q10 H2 H1 J3 F10 F2 F7 983 983 982 852 852 850 Position Comments 1gf Shallow undercut by cap pass 4gf Incompletefusion at the root 1gf Incompletefusion at the root 4gf Incompletefusion at the root & slag throughout 1gf Porosity throughout 4gf Slag inclusions 1gf Slag inclusions 2g Incompletefusion at the root 3gf Minor slag 2g Slag inclusions 3gf Slag inclusions at the root & inner passes 3gf Slag inclusions 2g No defects 3gf Slag inclusion at the root & porosity 4gf Minor slag & film scratch Results Acceptable Fail Fail Fail Fail Acceptable Fail Fail Acceptable Acceptable Fail Fail Acceptable Fail Acceptable Page
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