EXTERNAL PARASITE

By NOR HAYATI HAMZAH FACULTY OF NURSING AUCMS

NHSP 1103 PARASITOLOGY/intake apr11

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The medical term for head lice infestation is Pediculus humanus capitis.  NHSP 1103 PARASITOLOGY/intake apr11 2 . Head lice are parasitic insects found most commonly behind the ears and near the neckline at the back of the neck.

 A head lice infestation can be psychologically disturbing. NHSP 1103 PARASITOLOGY/intake apr11 3 . but head lice are not a health hazard and are not responsible for the spread of any disease.

NHSP 1103 PARASITOLOGY/intake apr11 4 .

NHSP 1103 PARASITOLOGY/intake apr11    5 . Nymphs (immatures) molt three times before becoming sexually mature adults.  Each adult female deposits anywhere from 50150 eggs (nits) during her lifetime. Nits hatch in 5-9 days. Young and adult head lice feed on blood several times a day. The head-louse life cycle (egg to adult) requires about 21-27 days on the human host. The adult stage can live approximately one month (30-40 days).

Body lice can be transmitted quickly because they are so active.Body lice are spread in several ways.  sharing clothing. or towels with an infested person.  lying on furniture that has recently been in contact with an infested person is another method of transmission. NHSP 1103 PARASITOLOGY/intake apr11 6 . bedding.

Symptoms of Head Lice:     Scalp itching Sensation of something moving in the hair Red or pustular sores on the scalp caused by scratching Swollen lymph nodes in the front and back of the neck NHSP 1103 PARASITOLOGY/intake apr11 7 .

Finding nits within a quarter inch from the scalp confirms an infestation that needs to be treated. NHSP 1103 PARASITOLOGY/intake apr11 8   . Usually there are many more nits than adults or nymphs. whereas dandruff can be easily moved on along the hair shaft. Nits can be distinguished from dandruff flakes as they are extremely adherent to the hair shaft.Diagnosis of Head Lice  A head lice infestation is diagnosed by direct visualization of the lice in any portion of the life cycle.

Itchy scalp  infection  Insecticide reaction and overuse  NHSP 1103 PARASITOLOGY/intake apr11 9 .

NHSP 1103 PARASITOLOGY/intake apr11 10 .

Only those with live lice or eggs within 1 cm of the scalp should be treated. all household members should be checked for head lice. if a case of head lice is identified. It is also recommended that all hair care items and bedding belonging to the infested person be cleaned. NHSP 1103 PARASITOLOGY/intake apr11 11   .

NHSP 1103 PARASITOLOGY/intake apr11 12 .

NHSP 1103 PARASITOLOGY/intake apr11 13 .  Ivermectin (Stromectol) is an antiparasitic drug given as a single dose that has also been shown to effectively treat resistant head lice infestations. given as a 10-day course. However. neither of these drugs is FDA approved for use as a pediculicide.Oral Agents Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Septra. Bactrim) is an oral antibiotic. which has been shown to be effective at treating resistant infestations of head lice.

then washed off after 8-12 hours. left to air dry. NHSP 1103 PARASITOLOGY/intake apr11 14 . it should only be used for resistant cases of head lice.  Because it has a high alcohol content. it is highly flammable and can cause difficulty breathing if it is ingested. For these reasons.Malathion Malathion is a prescription lotion that is applied to the hair.

NHSP 1103 PARASITOLOGY/intake apr11 15 . and permethrin 5% (Elimite) is available by prescription. Permethrin is a cream rinse that is designed to leave a residue after rinsing that kills emerging nymphs. so reapplication is usually not needed.Permethrin is the preferred first-line treatment for head lice.  Permethrin 1% (Nix) is available over the counter.

If your child has lice. combs. towels.Prevention  Never share hair brushes. hats. be sure to check policies at schools. NHSP 1103 PARASITOLOGY/intake apr11 16  . and nurseries. day-care centers. or clothing with someone who has head lice. bedding. preschools. Many do not allow infected children to be at school until the lice have been completely treated. hair pieces.

including head lice. Frequent cleaning of carpets and all other surfaces in child-care centers prevents spread of all types of infections. NHSP 1103 PARASITOLOGY/intake apr11 17 .

NHSP 1103 PARASITOLOGY/intake apr11 18 .

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