TIME MANAGEMENT

WHERE DO WE NEED TO SPEND OUR TIME?
 Reading

Books/Magazines  Physical Exercise  Active Hobbies  Children/Family  Writing Letters to Relatives/Friends  Socialising & Social Work

SETTING GOALS & PRIORITIES
 Career  Status

/ respect  Material possessions  Relationships  Leisure  Learning  Spiritual Growth

THE REQUIREMENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Decide on Importance Check Attainment Minimise Conflict Review Priority Ensure ‘S M A R T’ Criteria Enlist Support from Others Plenty of Self-Confidence

WRITING “SMART” GOALS

Specific Measurable Attainable Realistic Time bound

THE PROCESS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Formulate Vision Identify Strengths & Weaknesses Research Opportunities & Threats Select Key Goals Make Action Plans Have Contingency Plan Determination to Implement

HOW EXECUTIVES SPEND TIME
• • • • • • • •

Reading, Writing, Dictating Discussions with boss, subordinates, colleagues Customers/Visitors with or without appointment Incoming/Outgoing telephone calls Meetings Travel & movement time Waiting time Searching for papers

HANDLING TELEPHONES
        

Educate callers Plan / Consolidate Calls May I help you? Take notes while talking Avoid ping-pong Use e-mail or call-back Screen appointments Have phone discussion meets Learn to terminate calls

HANDLING VISITORS
        

Quiet Hour Schedule Appointments Go to Them/Stand up Change environment (ODP) Be candid with “gottaminits” Say ‘no’ tactfully and firmly Use verbal/non-verbal cues Meet at reception/special room Make office optionally comfortable

HANDLING PAPERWORK/MAIL
        

Action, Information, Reading Do, delegate, delay, dump Read - Swap, Speed, Selective Write - Think, Condense, Summary Standardise Letters & Reports Manage by Exception Use Technology & Trust Telephone, Personal Contact Stop Irrelevant Mail/Subscriptions

MANAGING MEETINGS
        

Decide Objectives Circulate Agenda Select Participants Be on Time Conducive Environment Prepare Thoroughly Professional Chairmanship Action every Item Distribute “Minutes”

IMPORTANT Vs URGENT MATRIX

1

I. URGENT & IMPORTANT

2

II. NOT URGENT BUT IMPORTANT

3

III. URGENT BUT NOT IMPORTANT

4

IV. NOT URGENT NOT IMPORTANT

Things which matter most must never be at the mercy of things which matter least

Goethe

PutPut first things First First Things first!!!

Organizing Yourself Organizing Yourself
Start with a Yearly Calendar Don’t forget to schedule in time to satisfy all roles Consistently Develop Weekly and Daily Plans

ORGANISE YOURSELF
        

Have a daily ‘To-do’ List Focus on ‘A’ not ‘C’ priorities Understand boss’s/organisation’s priorities Consult goals for allocation for time/energy Schedule for week/month – advance planning Look for “Do” instead of “Due” date Prepare ‘PERT’ for large assignments Manage relationships/network for support Decide priority based on need, not sycophancy

MANAGING BOTTLE-NECKS
 Be

a squeaking wheel  Bypass the system  Announce that you will take action  Make it a matter of honour  Use positive reinforcement

AVOIDING CRISES
Start early enough  Clear communication – no misunderstandings  Periodic status reports for early warning  Follow-through after delegating  Make a contingency plan

ENDING YOUR WORK-DAY
 Tidy

up  Evaluate your day
Was I proactive or reactive? Did I establish & accomplish my major goal? Did others intrude unduly on my time? Was I guilty of wheel spinning activities? If I were to live this day over, what would I do?

 Plan

the next day’s activities

ASSERTIVENESS
 Assertiveness

the ability to communicate your needs, feelings, opinions, and beliefs in an open and honest manner without violating the rights of others

is

ASSERTIVENESS
Is not the same as aggressive behaviour 2. Aggressive behaviour enhances self at the expense of others 3. Assertiveness produces positive outcomes for all; Aggressive acts result in negative outcomes
1.

WHAT WILL IT DO
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Increases self-confidence Elevates self-esteem Gain respect of others Improves communication Enhances decisionmaking ability

Examples of Passive Behaviour
Avoiding eye contact  Quiet, strained voice  Sentences not finished  Nervous movements - fiddling with objects  Physically backing away  Apologising a lot  Agreeing without questioning

Examples of Aggressive behaviours
Glaring/staring  Loud voice  Lots of interruptions  Finger wagging  Hands on hips  Physically moving towards the other person  Blaming  Stating opinions as facts

HOW TO BE ASSERTIVE
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Be honest & direct about your needs & feelings Express yourself firmly & directly Be reasonable in your requests State your viewpoint without being apologetic Be honest when giving or receiving feedback Learn to say “no” to unreasonable expectations Paraphrase what others have stated to you

HOW TO BE ASSERTIVE
8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Recognise & respect the rights of those around you Use appropriate tome of voice Be aware of body posture and body language Maintain eye contact Use “I” statements to express self Don’t let others impose their values/ideas on you Encourage others to be clear and direct Take ownership

What Is Stress?
 Stress
 Psychological,

Emotional, Physiological Response Environmental

 Stressors
 Threatening

Conditions

Why Is Stress Management Important?
 Organizational

Costs  Individual Costs
 Health

Impairment  Job Burnout  Performance Decline

Exhibit 6.1: Relationship Between Stress and Job Performance

Experiencing stress
STRESSORS
Anticipatory, Encounter,Time, Situational

REACTIONS
Physiological, Psychological

RESILIENCY
Physical Psychological Social

Exhibit 6.2: Model of the Stress Management Process
Potential Stressors Personal Factors Family problems Financial problems Health problems Organizational Factors High stress occupation Job role Overload Under-utilization Role ambiguity Role conflict Responsibility for others Job Environment Poor working conditions Organizational politics Poor work relationships Environmental Factors Economic Uncertainty Technological Change Politics

Experienced Stress (SYMPTOM AWARENESS)
Stress Management Individual Seek help Time management Change jobs Build resiliency Personality Companionship Experience Health (Exercise, diet) Relaxation Recreation Organizational Job Design Selection & Placement Training & Mentoring Team Building Employee Assistance Communicating Wellness Promotion

Consequences Psychological Heart Disease Ulcers Headaches Emotional Anxiety Depression Burnout Behavioral Aggression Productivity Avoidance Successful Coping High self esteem Goal accomplishment Feeling of well being

Managing Stress: Objectives
 Becoming

Symptoms  Determining the Sources  Determining the Cause  And then…
 Cope

Aware of Negative Stress

temporarily with the stress  Eliminate stressors  Develop resiliency

How Can Awareness of Stress Symptoms Be Enhanced?
 Physical

Symptoms  Psychological Substitutes
Never Constant fatigue Low energy level Recurring headaches Gastrointestinal disorders Bad breath Sweaty hands or feet Dizziness High blood pressure Pounding heart [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] Rarely [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] Sometimes Often Always [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] []

Types of Stressors: Causes
 Time  Encounter  Situational  Anticipatory

Managing Stress
Eliminate Stressors
Permanent effects Enactive approach Long time required

Develop Resiliency
Long term Proactive approach Moderate time required

Temporary coping mechanisms
Short term Reactive approach Immediate

Resiliency:
 Physiological
 Cardiovascular

conditioning  Proper diet
 Social
 Supportive  Mentors  teamwork

Psychological
–Balanced –Hardy

lifestyle

personality wins strategy techniques

relations

–Small

–Relaxation

Short term strategies
 Reframing  Imagery

Types of stressors and what we can do about them
 Time

Stressors

 Work

overload  Lack of control
 Elimination
 Principles

Strategies

of time management  Delegation

Eliminating time stressors: Time management
 “Effective

time management can enable managers to gain control over their time and organize their fragmented, chaotic environment.”

Effective time management means…
 Spending

time on important, not just urgent matters  Distinguishing clearly between importance and urgency  Focusing on results not methods  Not feeling guilty when saying no

Effective time management
URGENCY High Low

IMPORTANCE

High

Low

80/20 Rule
Activities Trivial Vital Time Spent 80% 20% Results 20% 80%

Efficient time management
 Too

little time; too much to do  How do I get more done?

Schedule
 Schedule
• • •

Activities

Horizontal Scheduling Vertical Scheduling Directing and Controlling

Rules
Read selectively  Make lists   Everything in its place   Prioritize   Multitask the routine   Discretionary task jar  Divide up the big jobs   Critical 20%  Best time for important jobs   Arrange non-interrupted time

  

Don’t procrastinate Keep track of time Set deadlines Use waiting time Designate time for busy work Closure on one thing a day Schedule personal time Limit worry time Long term objectives Continuous improvement

Tips for managers
Hold routine meetings at end of day  Set time limit  Hold meetings only if needed  Agendas, minutes  Start on time  Paper work decisions  Organize  Limit interruptions

 Delegate  Empowerment:

allow for initiative  Give credit to those who deserve it

Types of stressors and what we can do about them

Encounter Stressors:
  

Role Conflicts Issue Interaction Delegation Interpersonal skills

Elimination Strategies:
 

Conflict resolution

Resilience

Social support; Collaboration
 

Self awareness EQ

Types of stressors and what we can do about them
 Situational
 Rapid  Work

Stressors:
working conditions

 Unfavourable

change

 Elimination

Strategies:

redesign  Changing jobs
 Short

term Strategies  resiliency

Work redesign
 Level

of task demand  Level of autonomy (individual control & discretion)  Level of interest  Feedback

Types of stressors and what we can do about them
 Anticipatory
 Unpleasant  Fear

Stressors:
expectations

 Elimination
 Time

Strategies:

management

Priorities; planning

 Short

term strategies  Resiliency

Stress and Self awareness
 Values  Attitude

towards change  Cognitive style  Interpersonal orientation

“There is more to life than increasing its speed.”
Mahatma Gandhi

Thank you

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