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GAS TURBINE

HISTORY
The earliest example of jet propulsion can be traced as far back as 150 B.C.to an Egyptian named Hero. Hero invented a toy that rotated on top of a boiling pot due to the reaction effect of hot air or steam exiting several nozzles arranged radially around a wheel. He called his invention anaeolipil.

General Turbine Characteristics

Useful work or propulsive thrust can be obtained from a gas turbine engine. It may drive a generator, pump, or propeller or, in the case of a pure jet aircraft engine, develop thrust by accelerating the turbine exhaust flow through a nozzle.

PRO & CONS


Large amounts of power can be produced by such an engine that, for the same output, is much smaller and lighter than a reciprocating internal combustion engine. Reciprocating engines depend on the up and-down motion of a piston, which must then be converted to rotary motion by a crankshaft arrangement, whereas a gas turbine delivers rotary shaft power directly.
Although conceptually the gas turbine engine is a simple device, the components for an efficient unit must be carefully designed and manufactured from costly materials because of the high temperatures and stresses encountered during operation. Thus, gas turbine engine installations are usually limited to large units where they become cost effectiv

Basic Gas Turbine Cycle

gas turbine operates by doing the following: 1. Continuously drawing in fresh air. 2. Compressing the air to a higher pressure. 3. Adding and burning fuel in the compressed air to increase its energy. 4. Directing the high-pressure, hightemperature air to an expansion turbine that converts the gas energy to mechanical energy of a rotating shaft. The resulting low-pressure, lower temperature gases are discharged to atmosphere.

BRAYTON CYCLE
The Joule-Brayton (JB) constant pressure closed cycle is the basis of the cyclic gas turbine power plant
with steady flow of air (or gas) through a compressor, heater, turbine, cooler within a closed circuit.

Cont.
The turbine drives the compressor and a generator delivering the electrical power, heat is supplied at a constant pressure and is also rejected at constant pressure.

CONTI.

Major Turbine Components

Air inlet system


Compressor Combustion section

Turbine
Exhaust system Support systems Base and supports

METHOD FOR IMPROVE EFFICIENCY


REHEAT

REGENERATOR
INTERCOOLING

EFFICIENY & PRESSURE RATION RELATION

Gas Turbine Cycle with Reheat

A common method of increasing the mean temperature of heat reception is to reheat the gas after it has expanded in a part of the gas turbine. By doing so the mean temperature of heat rejection is also increased, resulting in a decrease in the thermal efficiency of the plant. However , the specific output of the plant increases due to reheat

Gas Turbine Cycle with Inter-cooling


The cooling of air between two stages of compression is known as intercooling. This reduces the work of compression and increases the specific output of the plant with a decrease in the thermal efficiency. The loss in efficiency due to intercooling can be remedied by employing exhaust heat exchange as in the reheat cycle.

Simple Cycle with Exhaust Heat Exchange(Regenerative cycle)

TUTORIAL

TUTORIAL
The earliest example of jet propulsion can be traced as far back as 150 B.C.to an Egyptian named Hero. Hero invented a toy that rotated on top of a boiling pot due to the reaction effect of hot air or steam exiting several nozzles arranged radially around a wheel. He called his invention anaeolipil.

PROBLEM
A gas turbine is supplied with gas at 5 bar and 1000 K and expands it adiabatically to 1 bar. The mean specific heat at constant pressure and constant volume are1.0425 kJ/kg K and 0.7662 kJ/kg K respectively.
(i) Draw the temperature-entropy diagram to represent the processes of the simple gas turbine system.

(ii) Calculate the power developed in kW per kg of gas per second and the exhaust gas temperature.

Q.2
Find the required air-fuel ratio in a gas turbine whose turbine and compressor efficiencies are 85% and 80%, respectively. Maximum cycle temperature is 875C. The working fluid can be taken as air (cp = 1.0 kJ/kg K, = 1.4) which enters the compressor at 1 bar and 27C. The pressure ratio is 4. The fuel used has calorific value of 42000 kJ/kg. There is a loss of 10% of calorific value in the combustion chamber.

Q.3
In a simple gas turbine plant air enters the compressor at 1 bar and 27c and leaves at 6 bar.it is then heated in the combustion chamber to 700c and then enters the turbine and expands to 1 bar. c and T are 0.80 and 0.85 res. And the combustion efficiency is 0.98. the fall in pressure through c.c. is 0.1 bar. (i) thermal efficiency
(ii) work ratio (iii) air rate

(iv) specific fuel consumption


(v) air fuel ratio