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Growth and Division of the cell

Life cycle initiation, growth, and death

Cell cycle
Cells divide to produce new cells

Hela cells

Cell cycle arrest

Plants Animal cells

Reasons that might cause a cell to divide:


growth and complexicity of Multicellular organisms; replacement of Old and damaged cells; Single-celled organisms such as bacteria divide to make new, independent organisms.

Some cells never stop dividing


1. apical meristems 2. cambia

The Cell Cycle


1. Longer growth Phase resting stage or interphase G1, S, G2 2. Brief Division Phase 1. karyokinesis

2. cytokinesis

G1 Phase
Synthesis of nucleotide nucleotides are monomer of nucleic acid, consists of a nitrogenous bases, a sugar, and a phosphate group

genes in the nucleus are replicated

Genes polymers of nucleotides specific sequence of nucleotides Genome- totality of genes of an organism Chromosomes- linear sequence of genes

G2 Phase Synthesis of alpha and beta tubulins Synthesis of protein for processing chromosomes Synthesis of enzymes for nuclear breakdown

Plant cell in interphase stage

MITOSIS a duplication division


nuclear genes are copied, separated from the other and packed into each own nucleus

STAGES OF MITOSIS

1. Prophase.
Stage of chromosome shortening and thickening

Events:
1. Disappearance of nuclear membrane 2. Appearance of spindle fibers 3. Appearance of chromosomes 4. Chromosomes attachment to the spindle fibers

Onion root tip cells

CENTROMERE/KINETOCHORE FOR MICROTUBULE BINDING

2. metaphase. stage of chromosome alignment

Metaphase plate

Late metaphase - division of the centromere by the enzyme separase

Anaphase promoting complex APC Checkpoints

Molecular mechanism of chromosome segregation. At the metaphaseanaphase transition, APC/CCdc20 ubiquitinates securin. Degradation of securin activates separase. Separase then cleaves the Scc1 subunit of cohesion, allowing chromosome segregation. In response to sister-chromatid not properly attached to the mitotic spindle, the spindle checkpoint promotes the assembly of checkpoint protein complexes that inhibit the activity of APC/C, leading to the stabilization of securin, preservation of sister-chromatid cohesion, and a delay in the onset of anaphase

Anaphase stage of chromosome migration


What moves the chromosomes to opposite poles?

TELOPHASE

stage of nuclear reconstitution


Major cell activities of this stage
1. Disappearance of the chromosomes
2. Disappearance of spindle fibers 3. Appearance of nuclear membrane 4. Appearance of nucleolus

Cytokinesis

Division of the cytoplasm .

It is accomplished by formation of cell plate.

TELOPHASE STAGE IN ONION ROOT TIP

I think his cells are immortal No mitosis???

Lets identify stages of mitosis..

Thank you.

Ross D. Vasquez