You are on page 1of 30

HASAN FATHY

Born in 1900 in Alexandria


Agriculture to architecture professor at the Faculty of Fine Arts and was head of the Architectural School Ambivalent towards western architecture influence Fathys belief Egypt can not be built on technology alone, progress should be in respect with the faith and social values of the Egypt Search for cultural identity, urge to break free from the colonial influence Ideology Rather than believing that people could be behaviorally conditioned by architectural space, fathy felt that human beings, nature, and architecture should co exist in harmonious balance Architecture is a communal art, should reflect the personal habits and traditions of the community rather than reforming and eradicate them As he was not against to the innovation, he felt that technology should be subservient to social values and appropriate to popular needs He was for the integration of nature and industry sustainability

Technology should be subject to economy and materials of a particular of region, so that quality and values inherent in the traditional and human response to the environment would be preserved Science should be subordinated to philosophy, faith and spirituality. On Arab architecture

It begins with the interior and goes to the exterior. The function of the space is primary. The outer form must express forces on the inside
Space has it own values.Islamic architecture is one of space but of walls.we are in need of an era of non functionalism. We are in need of quality with human touch.

Political scenario of Egypt in Fathy period


Want to establish an Egyptian identity Nostalgia for the past and desire for the change Concerns about protection of family and privacy

Thesis of space
Study on Islamic architecture in general and medieval quarter of Cairo.This forms the basis for the many earlier designs. Elements from history

Courtyard
Regulate the temperature and filter the dust from the air in the city qa a The main reception room of the house, its a open courtyard flanked by T shaped alcove, completely internalized due to the density and noise of the house; Ultimately it became a simple covered central courtyard flanked by alcoves Fathy adopted and altered the qa to suit to the modern day need

Royal society for agriculture Bhatim Failure of dome construction Fathy was influenced by the vernacular character of the Nubians Fatimid tomps made of mud bricks Deir al saman monastery 6th century

Six general principles that guided Hasan Fathy throughout his career

Beliefs in the primacy of human values in architecture The importance of a universal rather than limited approach The use of appropriate technology
Application of technology must be relevant to both its user and its context

The need for socially oriented, cooperative construction techniques The essential role of tradition Re establishment of national cultural pride through the act of building
Fathy saw as architecture as art that involved every aspect of human endeavor Fathy encouraged a deeper respect for the use of tradition in architecture

Early attempts with mud


Nubian house forms Guest room separated from the private rooms of the house, windows open to the street Private rooms connected with the private courtyard Thesis of space Kallini house

Organisation of courtyards
Cross axial positioning of private and common courtyard physically and visually separated but connected Fathy saw the courtyard as a place of refuge within home

To him house is the place for peacefulness and holiness

Gouaches and Pharanoic garden


Mud architecture - Durability, long history Architecture unity with the nature The need for architecture is to join rather than separate people Characteristic of his work Use of natural ventilation, local materials, energy conserving design techniques Suq open air market central distribution area for isolated agricultural community Oriented in such a way to maximize the air movement within Higher parts of buildings are positioned brilliantly to shade the lower parts, to minimize heat gain Air scoops the catch the air and funnel them down to storage space

New Gourna 1945 47


Residence for different tribal group Theatre, Market area, Travelers inn, Mosque Earliest attempt in building with the mud brought this project to him

Antiquities department of Egypt new gourna village


Fathys best known project Officially sanctioned opportunity to test his radical ideals

The reason behind the construction of village


Fathy saw this project as a opportunity to find solution to the housing problem and provide safe housing, sanitary in an inexpensive way Village generally divided in to four quarters for the five tribal groups

The main street which separate the four quarters connects the public buildings

50 acres of land to house 7000 people


Each tribe is divided into separate family groupings Fathy maintained this division in his proposal The main street divide the layout in to four quarters. One quarter for each tribal group The main streets are 10M wide for better circulation, ventilation, privacy The main streets giving accesses to the semiprivate square, connected by the inner streets of 6M wide The inner streets were not straight, having many bends and corners to provide shading, and discourage the strangers to use as thoroughfare Individual houses Area and the requirements of the houses were according to the occupants original houses Plan of the houses vary to meet the need of the occupants

Proposed plan

Early settlement over Pharaonic tombs

Nubian vaults made of mud to cool the summer and heat the winter

Irregular plan is made for variety and originality in design and for constant visual interest , to avoid the identical housing fathy Attention to the individuals and personality of the inhabitants are novel at that point of time Gourna

Basis of the economy agriculture and crafts works


The core of the community revolves around the market and travelers inn Market for sale and shipment of the agricultural product, located near the railway line

Railway line was considered as a commercial entry to the village


Travelers inn promotion of arts and crafts Reason behind the absence running water supply

Mosque at gourna
The "Gourna Village experiment" was not just an architectural experiment. To Hassan Fathy it was more like the development of a town on a cultural, social level following the regional traditions. Relating to the people and knowing their needs while asking them to participate in the construction of their town was a major part of the project

Criticism The public buildings instead of drawing new life cause the death of the village The authorities expected a improved version of typical Egyptian rural set up, not of romantic ideas includes theatre etc. The intended users are not occupying the village now Few changes have been made by the occupants doors and windows are filled in otherwise the original design remain intact

The failure is due to the reluctance of the intended occupants to relocate their bases

Fathys view on city planning


One has to consider the man who is being planned for There should be harmony in the visual images he going to encounter in the streets, squares & open spaces Surprises to not to bore him and overwhelm him Increase in generalization Home to city center crescendo City centre to home decrescendo

Mosque has much in common with the Nubian construction


Interesting composition of elements with the known elements Dome construction square to octagon to circular

Application of wooden screen in his houses


Reason Reduces the reflected heat and radiation Wood absorb the moisture and cool the air passes through it

Design feature
Rounded balustrade to not deflect the light Up to the eye level spacing between the balustrade are very small vice versa above the eye level

Fathys view on culture


Culture is the unique human response of the man to his environments in his attempt to answer both physical and spiritual needs Environmental principles must be integrated with the cultural imperatives

Stopplaere house luxor 1950


Archeological site office and residence for a Archeological director Two central courtyards provides privacy to both the areas

Steeped squinches at the bottom of the dome

Sloping pier extends from main building separates office and residence

1951 fathy became director of the school building department


School is divided in to administrative and communal facilities, offices,library, mosque and assembly hall Two Class room facing each other divided by courtyard

Fathy designed the entire building with the natural ventilation to avoid the soaring cost mechanical heating and cooling Square class room with the domical roof connected with the rectangular vaulted space for ventilation purpose The rectangular space to contain water to cool the air The design is remarkably functional and environmentally comfortable

The school at fares

Dome over the administrative area

The Monastirli house 1950 Less vernacular and more ornate Modeled after the waterside houses Bosphorous Istanbul

The open wooden pergola Egyptian ottoman architecture

Hasan fathy with ekistics community Housing program for Iraq reconstruction project - 1956

Late career 1967 89