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The 2008 Mumbai attacks were a series of ten coordinated terrorist attacks across Mumbai, India's financial capital and its largest city. The attacks, carried out by Pakistani terrorists using automatic weapons and grenades, began on 26 November 2008 and ended on 29 November 2008.At least 173 people were killed and at least 308 were injured in the attacks. Eight of the attacks occurred in South Mumbai, at Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, the Oberoi Trident, the Taj Mahal Palace & Tower, Leopold Cafe, Cama Hospital, the Orthodox Jewishowned Nariman House, the Metro Cinema, and a lane behind the Times of India building behind St. Xavier's College. There was also an explosion at the Mazagaon docks in Mumbai's port area, and a taxi blast at Vile Parle. By the early morning of 28 November, all sites except for the Taj Mahal Palace had been secured by Mumbai Police and security forces. An action by India's National Security Guards on 29 November resulted in the conclusion of the Taj Mahal Palace encounter, ending all fighting in the attacks. Ajmal Amir Kasab, the only terrorist who was captured alive, disclosed that the attackers were members of Lashkar-e-Taiba, the Pakistan-based militant organization, considered a terrorist organization by India, the United States, and the United Kingdom, among others. The Indian Government said that the attackers came from Pakistan, and their controllers were in Pakistan. The attacks drew widespread condemnation across the world.

The terrorists had planned the attack several months ahead of time and knew some areas well enough to "vanish" and reappear after security forces had left. Several sources have quoted Kasab telling the police that the group received help from local Mumbai residents.The terrorists used at least three SIM cards purchased on the Indian side of the border with Bangladesh, pointing to some local collusion.There are also reports of one SIM card purchased in New Jersey, USA. Police have also mentioned that Faheem Ansari, an Indian Lashkar operative who has been arrested in February 2008, has scouted the Mumbai targets for the November attacks. Later, the police arrested two Indian suspects, Mikhtar Ahmad, who is from Srinagar in Kashmir and Tausif Rehman, a resident of Kolkata. They supplied the SIM cards, one in Calcutta, and the other in New Delhi. Blood tests on the terrorists indicate that they consumed cocaine and LSD during the attacks, to sustain their energy and stay awake for 50 hours. Police says that they found syringes on the scenes of the attacks. There were also indications that they had been consuming steroids.

The attackers travelled by sea from Karachi, Pakistan, across the Arabian Sea to Mumbai. They entered via speed boats that were on board trawlers. The trawlers left Pakistan and stopped at Porbandar, India, before landing in Mumbai. The first events were detailed around 20:00 IST on 26 November, when 10 Urdu-speaking men in inflatable speedboats came ashore at two locations in Colaba. They reportedly told local Marathispeaking fishermen to mind their business before they split up and headed two different ways; the fishermen's subsequent report to police received little response

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The Taj Hotel and the Oberoi Trident were the two hotels attacked, among the four locations targeted. Two terrorists held fifteen hostages, including seven foreigners, in the Taj Mahal hotel. A rescue team of 200 commandos flew into Mumbai from New Delhi to take charge of the Situation.CNN reported at 23:00 that the hostage situation at the Taj had been resolved and quoted the police chief of Maharashtra state as saying that all hostages were freed; however, it was later learned that there were still hostages in the hotel. Forty people were being held as hostages in the Oberoi Trident hotel.Six blasts were reported to have taken place at the Taj hotel and one at the Oberoi Trident. The Taj Mahal Hotel was reported to be completely under government control at 04:22 and Indian commandos killed two terrorists inside Oberoi hotel and took control of the building. Wasabi restaurant on the first floor of the Taj Hotel was completely gutted Both hotels were on fire and were surrounded by Rapid Action Force personnel and MARCOS and NSG commandos. Reports emerged of terrorists receiving live feeds broadcast by television stations; feeds to the hotels were subsequently blocked. All terrorists were out of the Taj hotel, and police and firefighters were working to rescue the estimated 50 people trapped inside. It was on 29/11 that the operation Taj was completed successfully.

The Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus was attacked by two terrorists, one of whom, Ajmal Amir Kasab was later caught alive by the police & the other was killed to death by Mumbai police. The attacks began here around 21:20, when two terrorists armed with AK-47 rifles entered the passenger hall, opened fire and threw grenades, killing at least ten people. There was helter and skelter running of the people which took place after the first firing took place at C.S.T The incident at C.S.T was very terrifying and after the attacks the station was all messed up with blood, bodies of the dead and the injured people all over.

The Chabad house was seized and attacked during the November 2008 Mumbai attacks. At around 9:45 pm local time on Wednesday, November 26, four terrorists took advantage of the fact that local security forces were operating in several locations throughout the city. Newscasters were calling it the "final assault", and the building is near the Leopold Cafe, another building attacked during the strike. Initially it was reported that six Israeli Jews were being held hostage, though that later jumped to eight, with a Chabad spokesman in Israel, Moni Ender, saying there were at least eight Israelis inside the house, including Rabbi Gavriel Holtzberg and his wife Rivka Holtzberg. The rabbi's two-year-old son escaped earlier Thursday along with his nanny, Sandra Samuel, 44, who had worked as a cook for the centre for the previous five years.

It was reported that gunmen fired indiscriminately towards the crowd. Initially, late Thursday evening, State officials in India confirmed to the Associated Press that eight hostages were released from the Chabad House. Later, the Israeli Foreign Ministry spokesman Yigal Palmor disputed that, and said the eight people seen near Chabad House were not hostages, and that they were local Indians from a home in the same compound, and not Jewish hostages. Early Friday morning a large blast was heard at the centre, as fighting continued even though other sources were reporting that the building was under the control of the Indian security forces. During the siege, a US Chabad official, Rabbi Levi Shemtov, talked with one of the terrorists, calling on Holtzberg's cell phone. The FBI and other negotiation experts helped guide him through the process which included around five phone calls. Having to find an Urdu speaker to speak with him, they were unable to directly speak to any of the hostages, but Shemtov did say he heard the voice of one woman screaming in English, "please help immediately."

Shortly before dawn on Friday, Indian security forces began an attack on the Chabad House which was completed after sundown that evening. TV footage showed troops abseiling from a helicopter into the building, and soldiers on the ground closing in.Initially it was reported five hostages[ were killed at the Chabad House, then six on Friday, eight by Saturday morning and the final number of six on Sunday, when two missing Israelis made contact with the Israeli Foreign Ministry. When the raid ended at sundown, everyone inside the building was dead, including the rabbi and his wife. According to ZAKA members, at least one hostage (Rabbi Holtzberg) might have been killed in the crossfire on Friday when the commandos moved in. The others were killed by the terrorists; some on Wednesday, some on Thursday. This claim of ZAKA members was rejected by Israeli government authorities as stories and irresponsible comments. Some of the victims had been bound. The rabbi's wife and Orpaz had been killed many hours before. A handout provided by Indian police identified the two terrorists killed at Nariman House as a certain "Nasir" alias Abu Umar, and "Babar Imran".

Ten terrorists took part in the attacks, nine of whom were subsequently shot dead by security forces and one(Kasab) was caught alive by the Mumbai police. They looked young, in their early twenties, and wore T-shirts, black shirts, and jeans. Some witnesses have even said that they smiled and looked happy as they shot their victims. In this photo composite of five of the nine suspected Islamic militants killed during last month's attack on Mumbai are shown in a release by Indian police in Mumbai, India.Police have identified the militants as clockwise from top left, Abdul Rahman, Abdul Rehman Chota, Babar Imran alias Abu Akasha, Nasir alias Abu Umar, and Ismail Khan. Photos of the other suspects are not included because their bodies are too badly burned.

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The only terrorist captured alive after the Mumbai massacre has given police the first full account of the extraordinary events that led to it – revealing he was ordered to ‘kill until the last breath’. Azam Amir Kasab, 21, from Pakistan, said the attacks were meticulously planned six months ago and were intended to kill 5,000 people. He revealed that the ten terrorists, who were highly trained in marine assault and crept into the city by boat, had planned to blow up the Taj Mahal Palace hotel after first executing British and American tourists and then taking hostages. As it is, their deadly attacks have left close to 200 confirmed dead, with the toll expected to rise to nearly 300 once the hotel has been fully searched by security forces. Kasab chillingly went through details of Wednesday night’s killing spree across the city, which ended when he was cornered by police. He pretended to be dead, which probably saved his life. It was only when he was being transferred to hospital by ambulance that his accompanying officer noticed he was still breathing. Once inside Nair Hospital, Kasab, who suffered only minor injuries, told medical staff: ‘I do not want to die. Please put me on saline.’ And as Indian commandos ended the bloody 59-hour siege at the Taj yesterday by killing the last three Islamic gunmen, baby-faced Kasab was dispassionately detailing the background to the mayhem. He described how its mastermind briefed the group to ‘target whites, preferably Americans and British’. Some of the militants, including Kasab, posed as students during a visit to Mumbai a month ago, filming the ‘strike locations’ and familiarising themselves with the city’s roads.

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At least 164 people (civilians and security personnel) were killed in the attacks. Among the dead were 30 foreign nationals from 10 countries. In addition, nine terrorists were killed and one was captured. The bodies of many of the dead hostages showed signs of torture or disfigurement.A number of the casualties were notable figures in business, media, and security services. The Government of Maharashtra announced Rs. 5 lakh (about 10,000 USD) compensation to the kin of those killed in the terror attacks and Rs. 50,000 (about 1,000 USD) to the seriously injured.

Hemant Karkare (हेमंत करकरे) (12 December 1954 – 26 November 2008) was the chief of the Mumbai AntiTerrorist Squad. He was killed during the 2008 Mumbai attacks after being shot three 3 times in the chest. Earlier, Karkare was involved in the investigation of the serial bomb blasts in Thane, Vashi and Panvel, and led the investigation of the 29 September blast in Malegaon.

Sandeep Unnikrishnan (March 15, 1977 – November 28, 2008) was a Major in the Indian Army serving in the elite National Security Guards (NSG). He was killed in action while fighting terrorists in the November 2008 Mumbai attacks. “Do not come up, I will handle them.” These were probably the last words which Major Sandeep Unnikrishnan told his men as he was hit by bullets while engaging well armed terrorists inside the Taj Hotel, Mumbai during the Black Tornado operation.

Vijay Salaskar (िवजय सालसकर) was a Senior Police Inspector and encounter specialist serving with the Mumbai police.He is widely credited with killing 75– 80 criminals in encounters — most of these were members of the Arun Gawli gang.Salaskar was killed while fighting terrorists in the November 2008 Mumbai attacks.Captured terrorist Ajmal Amir Kasab claimed responsibility for the killing.Before his death Salaskar was head of the Anti-Extortion Cell, Mumbai.

Political reactions in Mumbai and India included a range of resignations and political changes. Reactions included condemnation of the attacks by Indian Muslim organizations and personalities and insurgent movements. The business establishment also reacted, with changes to transport, and requests for an increase in self-defense capabilities. International reaction for the attacks was widespread, with many countries and international organizations condemning the attacks and expressing their condolences to the civilian victims. Many important personalities around the world have very strongly condemned the attacks

The army was reported to have secured one of the hotels, and eight hostages were freed at the Jewish outreach group. After two days of gunfire and explosions, the attack was incorrectly reported to have ceased as of the early morning of 28 November in Mumbai. The fires were out and soldiers were leading hostages and holed-up guests to safety and removing bodies of those killed in the attacks. Nariman House and the Oberoi Trident were cleared of hostages by Indian commandos. Later news reports indicated that there were still two or three terrorists in the Taj, with explosions heard and gunfire exchanged. Fires were also reported as having been caused at the ground floor of the Taj with plumes of smoke arising from the first floor. The final operation at the Taj Mahal Palace hotel was completed by the National Security Guards at 08:00 on 29 November, killing three terrorists and resulting in the conclusion of the attacks. The security forces rescued 250 people in Oberoi, 300 in Taj and 12 families of 60 people in Nariman House.

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