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**Lubrication & Journal bearings
**

(7 - 8 Lectures)

TOPICS

1. Definitions and Objectives 2. Types of Lubrication 3. Dynamic Viscosity 4. Bearing Characteristic Number 5. Stable & Unstable Lubrication 6. Hydrodynamic Lubrication 7. Design Considerations 8. Heat Balance-Self-Contained Bearings 9. Clearance 10. Pressure-Fed Bearings 11. Loads and Materials 12 Boundary lubrication 13. Types of Journal Bearings

Announcements

• • HWK 3 Due Wed. 15/11 Quiz 3 on Monday 13/11 Ch 14

**Definitions and objectives
**

• The role of a bearing is to provide relative positioning and rotational freedom while transmitting a load between a shaft and a housing. There are two general types of bearings:

• Rolling-contact bearings (anti-friction bearings, rolling bearings). In the rolling-contact bearings the load is transmitted by rolling rather than by sliding. Journal Bearings (plain bearings, bushings, sleeve bearings). In journal bearings, the load is transmitted by sliding and the problem of this class of bearings is essentially a lubrication

•

•

problem.

Definitions and objectives

• Journal Bearings:

–

cylindrical or semicylindrical bushing made of a suitable material. The Journal is the part of shaft or gear in bearing

• Among applications:

1. High speed, high temperature, high varying loads:

• • • Automotive engines: connecting rod, crankshaft,…Metal alloys Turbo machinery: Metal alloys Nylon, Teflon, rubber

2. Light loads, low speeds with little or no lubrication:

**Types of Lubrication 1. Hydrostatic
**

Low speed, light load

4. Elastohydrodynamic

For rolling contact (gears, rolling bearings)

6. Solid Film

Extreme Temperatures (Graphite or Molybdenum disulfide))

Types of Lubrication

• Hydrodynamic Lubrication (HDL)

(a) Full, thick Fluid film lubrication - surfaces separated by bulk lubricant film; Film conditions required for lubrication.

**2. Boundary (Thin Film)Lubrication
**

(b) partial lubrication (mixed) - both bulk lubricant and boundary film play a role; (c) boundary lubrication - performance depends essentially on boundary film

Viscosity

Shear Stress

F du τ = =µ A dy

µ is absolute or dynamic viscosity

c=

(lbf.s/in2 or reyn. In ips system and Pa.s in SI system) du/dy is the rate of shear or velocity gradient If rate of shear is constant: du/dy = U/h With h= c (clearance)

Fig. 12.1

F U τ = =µ A h

U =µ c

Viscosity v.s. temperature

In general, Viscosity decreases with temperature increase. The increase in temperature comes from friction

Petroff’s Law

Petroff used a concentric shaft to define a group of dimensionless parameters That allow the prediction of an acceptable coefficient of friction.

U τ= µ c

2π rN =µ c A = 2π rl

Shear torque in lubricant

Ts = (τA) r ;

Friction torque

**4π 2 µ r 3lN Ts = 2π (τ ) r 2 l = c W T f = fWr = f (2 r lP )r ; P= 2rl 2 µN r T f = Ts ⇒ f = 2π P c
**

µN S = P r 2 c

r/c = clearance ratio Bearing Characteristic Number (Sommerfeld Number)

f r = 2π 2S c

**Stable and unstable lubrication
**

The McKee Brothers Plot

b c (a) Full, thick Fluid film lubrication - surfaces separated by bulk lubricant film; Film conditions required for lubrication. (b) partial lubrication (mixed) both bulk lubricant and boundary film play a role; (c) boundary lubrication performance depends essentially on boundary film • Boundary lubrication should be expected for slow speeds: U<10 ft/min (0.05 m/s)

a

1’ 2’

f = 0.001-0.005 Similar to precision BB

0.08-0.14 For steel on Bronze

2

1

**Hydrodynamic Lubrication (HDL)
**

• For lubricated bearing the minimum film thickness h0 occurs to the left of load line because the shaft is pushed by the pressure build up on the right. The shaft is playing the role of a pump.

**Hydrodynamic Lubrication (HDL) Nomenclature
**

Fig. 12.6

• •

e: eccentricity h0 minimum film thickness

∀ ε = e/c = eccentricity ratio • ß bearing angular length

**Hydrodynamic Lubrication (HDL)-Theory B. Tower
**

• Tower investigated bathtype lubrication in 157° partial bearing. He was able to determine the pressure distribution in oil film in axial and radial directions. • Reynolds used Tower’s findings to propose a relationship between friction, pressure and velocity. His work is given under mathematical form in the following.

Hydrodynamic Lubrication (HDL): theory O. Reynolds

**• Assuming pressure varies in x-direction only (no leakage) • Assuming Velocity varies in x & y directions
**

dp dx dydz − pdydz +τdxdz − τ ΣFx = p + dx dp ∂τ = dx ∂y

∂τ + dx dxdz = 0 ∂y (1)

**Hydrodynamic Lubrication (HDL): theory
**

• Assuming Newtonian viscous fluid + u = u(x,y) ∂u τ =µ (2) ∂y • Assuming Constant viscosity and substituting Eq. (1) into (2): dp = µ ∂ 2u or ∂ 2u = 1 dp (3) 2 2 dx ∂y ∂y µ dx • Integrating (3) twice (holding x constant):

1 u= 2µ

dp 2 y + C1 y + C2 dx

(4)

**• Assuming no slip at boundaries: u =0 @ y = 0 ⇒ C2 = 0
**

u =U @ y =h ⇒ ⇓ C1

U = h

h dp − 2µ dx

(5)

**Hydrodynamic Lubrication (HDL): theory
**

• The velocity distribution in film is:

1 dp u= 2µdx

h 0

(y

2

) −U − hy

h

(7)

y

(6)

•

Flow rate:

Q =∫ udy

•

Uh h 3 dp = − 2 12µ dx

Incompressible flow:

dQ =0 dx

d dx

3 h µ dp dx

(8 − a)

dh dx (12 −10)

= 6U

The above is the Reynolds Eq. For one-dimensional flow. Considering Leakage (2-D): ∂ h3 ∂p ∂ h3 ∂p

∂x µ ∂x

+

∂z µ ∂z

= 6U

dh dx

(12 −11)

**Hydrodynamic Lubrication (HDL):Theory
**

• There are no general analytical solutions to the 2-D Reynolds Equation. • The Summerfeld Solution to Eq. 12-11

r f c

r 2 =φ c

µN P

(12 −12)

Design Considerations

Two groups of variables in the design of sliding bearings (eq:12.12) A• • • B• • • • The independent variables: The viscosity µ, The load per unit of projected bearing area, P The speed N The bearing dimensions r, c, β and l The dependent Variables or performance factors: The coefficient of friction f The temperature rise ∆T The volume flow rate of oil Q The minimum film thickness ho

The first (A) are somewhat under designer control and the second (B) are not.

Design Criteria for Journal Bearings (See Lab Manual for details) • The value of the important parameter l/d is taken between 0.25 and 1.5. Values up to 2 were used in earlier designs. Nowadays the value of l/d is confined between 0.25 and 0.75. Short bearings are preferred when shaft deflections and misalignments are expected. The nominal value of clearance ratio r/c can be taken approximately as:

• 1000 for precision bearings when 25<d<150 mm • 500 for general machinery • 250 for rough machinery The choice of the values of r/c depends on the tolerances and surface roughness of shaft and bearing.

•

**Design Criteria for Journal Bearings (See Lab Manual for
**

details)

3. The minimum film thickness h0 can be estimated from one of these equations (Trumpler’s design criteria): h0 ≥ 0.0002 + 0.00004d (in) h0 = 0.00025d (in) or h ≥ 0.005 + 0.0004d (mm)

0

•

• •

The outlet temperature of the oil should be kept below 250°F (121°C). A value of 70°C (160°F) is usually specified as the average operating temperature Starting unit load Pst=Wst/ld is kept below 300 psi Design factor on starting load should be at least 2.

**Relationship between variables
**

Viscosity Charts In IPS units

**Relationship between variables
**

Viscosity Charts In SI Units

**Relationship between variables
**

Viscosity Charts

**Relationship between variables
**

Minimum Film Thickness & Eccentricity ratio Chart

Optimal design Zone

**Relationship between variables
**

Minimum Film Thickness Angular position vs. S

**Relationship between variables
**

Coefficient of friction variable vs. S

**Relationship between variables
**

Flow variable vs. S

**Relationship between variables
**

Maximum pressure ratio vs. S

**Relationship between variables
**

Terminating Position of film pressure & maximum film pressure vs. S

**Relationship between variables
**

Lubricant Temperature rise ∆T

Taking T1 as reference temperature:

Q ∆T Q −Q ∆T = ρ C Q∆T 1− 1 s H loss = ρ C p Qs + ρ Cp p s 2 2 Q

(a ) (b)

(c)

The heat loss due to friction

H

loss

=

2πTN 4π Pr lNc fr = J J c

fr / c (1 − 0.5Qs / Q )[Q / ( rcNl )]

JρC p ∆T

Equating (a) to (b)

With ρ = 0.0311 lbm/in3 & Cp = 0.42 Btu/lbm.°F for petroleum lubricants and J=9336 lbf.in/Btu

4πP

9.70∆TF

=

Ppsi

=

fr / c (1 − 0.5Qs / Q )[Q / ( rcNl )]

(12 −15)

**Relationship between variables
**

Lubricant Temperature rise vs. S

**Sample problems on HDL
**

The analysis problems are of two general categories: • When the viscosity is specified as in example 121 through 12-4 of 7th ed. The solution is straight forward. 2) The problem becomes more complex when only the lubricant inlet temperature is specified. To solve this type of problem an iterative procedure has to be followed. An example of the procedure is given in the following.

Problem # 12-12 (Modified)

A 2-1/2 x2-1/2-in sleeve bearing uses grade 20 lubricant. The axialgroove sump has an inlet temperature of 110° F. The shaft journal has a diameter of 2.500 in and the radial clearance is 0.002 in. lf journal speed is 1120 rev/min and the radial load is 1200 Ibf. Estimate (a) The magnitude and location of the minimum oil-film thickness. (b) The eccentricity. (c) The coefficient of friction. (d) The power loss rate. (e) Both the total and side oil-flow rates. (f) The maximum oil-film pressure and its angular location. (g) The terminating position of the oil film. (h) The average temperature of the side flow. (i) The oil temperature at the terminating position of the oil film.

• Given: d = 2.5 in, b = 2.504 in, cmin = 0.002 in, W

Problem # 12-12

= 1200 lbf, SAE = 20, T1 = 110°F,N = 1120 rev/min, and l = 2.5 in.

• Required (see list) • Solution: to find any of these performance factors we need to have the bearing characteristic 1.25 2 18.67µ number: S. 2µ N 18.67 µ r

S =

c

av

P

=

.002

1200 2.5 ×2.5

av

=( 625)2

av

192

= 3.8 ×104 µav

•

To find average viscosity (From Fig. 12-11; 12) we fneed ∆T T =T1 + 2 to have the average operating film temperature Tf (Eq. 12-14):

Procedure: (good for IPS and SI system) • For a first trial assume ∆T = (General) 20 – 80 °F (10-50°C)

Problem # 12-12

• • • Find µav = 3.8 µreyn Calculate (From Fig. 12-11; 12) using Tf = 130°F Calculate S = 3.8x104x3.8x10-6 = 0.144

**∆TF or ∆TC using 12-18 or Fig 12-23; 24 with 9 S=0.144 and l/d =1.70∆T = 1.3 ⇒ ∆TF = 192 ×1.3 / 9.70 = 25.7 o F
**

F

Ppsi

• •

Recalculate Tfcal = 110+25.7/2≅122.85 °F Compare Tfcal to Tfassum if |difference| less than 6 °F or 3 °C Recalculate, For our case Tfassum -Tfcal = 130-122.85= 7.15 >6 °F need to re-iterate:

1’ 2’ 3’ 4’

assume ∆T =30 °F

Tf = 125°F µav ≅ 4.3 µreyn 6’ 5’ 7’

∆TF ≅ 27 °F

Tfassum -Tfcal = 125-

Tfcal = 110+27/2≅123.5°F

S ≅ 0.163

123.5=1.5<6 °F (125+123.5)/2= 124.25 °F

ACCEPT: Tf = 125°F or Tf =

Problem # 12-12

µav = 4.3 µreyn (From Fig. 12-11 for oF; 12 for oC) using Tf = 125°F yielding S=0.163 • Using Fig 12-16 with S=0.163 and l/d =1

• •

**h0/c = 0.49 ⇒ h0 = 0.0098 in Using Fig 12-17 ⇒φ = 56 ° e= c- h0 =.002-.00098 = 0.001in. or using Fig. 12-16 ⇒ ε =e/c = 0.5 ⇒ e = 0.001 in. f :Fig 12-18 ⇒ (r/c)f= 4 f= 4/625=0.0064
**

fWrN)/778x12= H = 0.121 Btu/s =436 Btu/hr H = 126 j/s=453 KJ/hr

d) Power loss: H=(2πTN)/(778x12)= (2π

Problem # 12-12 e)

Using Fig 12-19 with S=0.163 and l/d =1 ⇒ Q/rcNl = 4.15 ⇒ Q = 4.15x1.25x0.002x18.67x2.5=0.48 in3/s Using Fig 12- 20 ⇒ Qs/Q=0.61⇒Qs = 0.29 in3/s f) • • • Using Fig 12-21 ⇒ P/Pmax = 0.44 ⇒ Pmax = 192/0.44=436 psig Using Fig 12-22 ⇒ θ Pmax = 18° & θp0 = 82° See part (a) Tav = 125°F T2= 110+30=140 °F

NOTE: In cases where l/d curve is not available the interpolation equation (12-15; 16) may be used when necessary.

Sample problem on Design of HDL Journal Bearings (to be solved during help session) • Design a journal bearing to carry a radial load of 1500 lb while the shaft rotates at 850 rpm. The shaft stress analysis determines that the minimum acceptable diameter at the journal is 2.10 in. • The shaft is part of a machine requiring good precision. • Power loss in the bearing should not exceed 1% of the 15 hp driving power.

**Procedures for design of oil lubricated journal bearings • A- Full-film (Hydrodynamic) Lubrication
**

• Step1: Often, the shaft diameter at the bearing is determined by strength and deflection analyses. If the shaft diameter is not known Table 12-5 or Table 288 of the Standard Handbook of Machine Design can be utilized to get a rough estimate of the unit load P=W/ld (with W being the applied load). This value is combined with the value of l/d (ratio of bearing length to bearing diameter), determined in the next step, to find the dimensions of the bearing.

Procedures for design of oil lubricated journal bearings • Step2: The value of the important parameter l/d is taken between 0.25 and 1.5. Values up to 2 were used in earlier designs. Nowadays the value of l/d is confined between 0.25 and 0.75. Short bearings are preferred when shaft deflections and misalignments are expected. • Step3: The minimum film thickness h0 can be estimated from one of these equations:

h0 = 0.00025d (in)

h0 ≥ 0.0002 + 0.00004d h0 ≥ 0.005 + 0.0004d (in) (mm)

**Procedures for design of oil lubricated journal bearings
**

Step4: The nominal value of clearance ratio r/c (r = bearing radius and c = clearance) can be taken approximately as: 1000 for precision bearings when 25<d<150 mm 500 for general machinery 250 for rough machinery The choice of the values of r/c depends on the tolerances and surface roughness of shaft and bearing. This guideline when combined with the results of steps 1 and 2 will allow you to get the nominal value of c.

**Procedures for design of oil lubricated journal bearings
**

• Step5: Now the bearing characteristic number (S = Sommerfeld number) can be determined from the chart of Fig. 12.164 . • Step6: Next, the viscosity µ of the oil is determined 2 using: c P µ = S r N Where: P (unit load) = W/ld, with W being the applied load. N = speed in revolutions per second.

**Procedures for design of oil lubricated journal bearings
**

• Step7: The outlet temperature of the oil should be kept between 200°F (93°C) and 250°F (121°C). A value of 70°C (160°F) is usually specified as the average operating temperature [2, 9, 18-20]. The chart of Fig 12-11 or 12-12 [3,4]) can be entered to select an oil grade. If the selected lubricant has a viscosity higher than the value computed in step 6, recalculate S and find the new h0. • Step8: Now, find the friction coefficient from Fig. 12-17. The friction coefficient should be kept as low as possible consistent with h0 (i.e. in the optimum zone between the minimum friction line and the maximum load line in Fig. 12.14 [3,4]. As a general rule friction coefficients below 0.01 are acceptable (see Table 28-1 of the Standard Handbook of Machine Design [5]).

**Procedures for design of oil lubricated journal bearings
**

• Step9: Power loss due to friction can be calculated from: fWrN H= (hp) • 1050 • Its value can be compared to the input power to take a decision concerning f and h0. • Step10: Select a suitable bearing material from Table 12-5 [3,4] or from Tables 28-2 to 28-4 of the Handbook [5]. Unit load, maximum operating temperature and conditions should be used as criteria for material selection. • Step11: Write a summary of your design results.

**Self-Contained Bearings
**

Pillow-blocks or pedestal bearings are used for: •Fans, •Blowers •Pumps and small motors

Examples of Pillow-blocks with Polymer Bearings

Ring oiled bearing

**Self-Contained Bearings
**

Two general types of lubrication: 1) Oil-Ring and 2) Oil Bath Since the warm lubricant stays within the bearing housing; it should be designed such that the heat generated by friction is dissipated. As seen above the heat generated (in Btu/s) by friction can be estimated:

**2πTN 4π Pr lNc fr H gen = = J J c
**

Where J= 9336 in.lbf/Btu Or in (hp)

(b)

H gen =

fWrN (in hp) 1050

(12 −17a;19a) See Eq. 12-18 for ħCR

and Table 12-2 for α

The heat to be dissipated & surface temperature of housing are respectively:

1+α T +αT∞ Tb = f 1+α

H

loss =

CR

A

(T f −T∞)

(12 −17b;19b)

Tf is the average film temperature which is unknown and found by trial and error to satisfy Hgen=Hloss as in the following example. See also (Eq. 12-20) for Tf

Example on self-contained bearings

Example on self-contained bearings

Example on self-contained bearings

Among the independent variables under designer’s control, clearance is the most difficult to hold accurate during manufacture and It may also increase during service because of wear. When selecting a clearance for a JB a number of performance variables and expected in service wear should be taken into account.

Bearing Noisy+ h0 decreases

Clearance

Clearance

Table 12-3: Max., Min. & Average Clearances for 1.5 in. dia. JB based on fit

Clearance

Temperature limits for mineral oils

O2 insignificant

Oils with antioxidants + O2 supply unlimited

**Pressure-Fed Bearings
**

•At high bearing loads and high temperature: turbo machinery, car engines, ESP, …. •Lubricant is supplied at supply pressure Ps through supply hole drilled opposite to load bearing area side.

**Pressure-Fed Bearings
**

Unit load

W /2 W P= = 2rl ' 4rl ' l '− w l'= 2

(12 −23)

Velocity Profile

w

u=

ps 8µl '

c 2

−4 y 2

(12 − 21)

**Pressure-Fed Bearings
**

Centrally located full annular groove

Example of pressure-fed Grooved bearings

Circumferential groove axial pressure distribution

**Pressure-Fed Bearings
**

Natural circulation of oil Pressure-Fed lubricant

Velocity

u=

1 dp 2 U y y − hy − dx 2µ h

(6)

u=

ps 2 2 c −4 y 8µl '

(12 − 21)

ps c 2 umax = 8µl '

Side-Flow Unit load

Qs from Fig. 12-19; 20

πp rc (1+1.5ε Qs = 3µl '

3 s

2

)

(12 − 22)

P=

W 2rl

P=

W /2 W = 2rl ' 4rl '

(12 − 23)

(12 − 28) (12 − 29)

Temperature rise ∆T from Fig. 12-23; 24

0.0123( fr / c ) S W 2 ∆TF = (1 +1.5ε 2 ) ps r 4 978(106 )( fr / c ) S W 2 ∆TC = (1 +1.5ε 2 ) ps r 4

Use charts with l/d

Use charts with l’/d

**Example on Pressure-Fed Bearings
**

Problem 12-34; 16 (modified)

• An eight-cylinder diesel engine has a front main bearing with diameter 3.5 in. and length 2 in. The bearing has a central annular oil groove 0.250 in. wide. It is pressure-lubricated with SAE 30 oil at an inlet temperature of 180°F and at a supply pressure of 50 psi. Corresponding to a radial clearance of 0.0025 in, a speed of 2800 rev/min, and a radial load of 4600 lb, find the temperature rise and the minimum oil-film thickness.

•

• •

Given: d = 3.5 in, l = 2.0 in, Ps = 50 psi, w = 0.25 in; cmin = 0.0025 in, W = 4600 lbf, SAE = 20, T1 = 180°F; N = 2800 rpm Required: ∆TF, h0, Pmax, θ Pmax & θp0 Solution: Use Eq. 12-28 to compute ∆TF

0.0123( fr / c ) S W 2 ∆TF = (1 +1.5ε 2 ) ps r 4

r 1.75 = =700 c 0.0025

l −w =0.875 in 2

Problem # 12-34; 16 (modified)

(12 − 28)

l'=

P=

r = c

**W 4600 = =751 psi 4rl ' 4 ×1.75 ×0.875
**

av

S

2µ N P

=

2800 ( 700)2 60 µav =3.045 ×104 µav 751

Problem # 12-34; 16

• 2.

• • • •

**For a first trial assume ∆T = 30 °F Tf = 180+30/2 = 195 °F
**

Find µav = 1.4 µreyn (From Fig. 12-11; 12) using Tf = 195°F Calculate S = 0.0426 Use S = 0.0426 and l’/d = ¼ to find ε = 0.93 from Fig. 1215; 16 & (r/c)f = 2.2 from Fig. 12-17; 18 2 Calculate

**∆TF∆T = 0.0123(2.2) 0.0426× 4600 = 22.64°F
**

F

(1+1.5×0.93 )50×1.75

2

4

• •

Recalculate Tfcal = 180+22.64/2≅191.3 °F Compare Tfcal to Tfassum if |difference| >6 °F Recalculate, For our case Tfassum -Tfcal = 195-191.3= 3.7 <6 °F

ACCEPT: ∆T = 30 °F

Problem # 12-34; 16

• Using Fig 12-14; 16 with S=0.0426 and l/d =1/4 h0/c = 0.07 ⇒ h0 = 0.000175 in

Trumpler’s Criteria satisfied? • h0 ≥ 0.0002+0.00004(3.5)=0.00034 in not satisfied? • Tmax = Ts+ ∆T= 180+22.64=202.64 °F <250 °F OK

•

• •

**Pst = 751 psig <350 psi not satisfied?
**

Using Fig 12-20; 21 ⇒ P/Pmax = 0.16 ⇒ Pmax = 751/0.16=4694 psig Using Fig 12-21; 22 ⇒ θ

Pmax

= 8° & θp0 = 24°

JOURNAL BEARING LOADS & MATERIALS

A- Loads: Typical values of unit load P

**JOURNAL BEARING LOADS & MATERIALS
**

B- Materials: To minimize wear of journal bearings, Metallic Materials (Table 12-5 for Hydrodynamic Lubrication and 12-6 for Boundary Lubrication) are selected for: 1. Mechanical Properties • Conformability: to compensate for small shaft misalignments and deflections (i.e. Low E and yield: Lead base Babbit=90% Pb + 10% Cu) ∀ • Embeddability: to allow foreign particles to become embedded into the bearing which prevents scratching of shaft and sleeve (Tin base and Lead base Babbit) ∀ • High Fatigue Strength: to support the compressive cyclic loading (Trimetal, Silver, Steel base, Solid Brass…)

**JOURNAL BEARING MATERIALS
**

2. Thermal Properties • High Thermal Conductivity: to remove heat rapidly from the bearing (Ag, Cu, Pb). • Thermal Coefficient of Expansion not too different from that of casing and shaft. 3. Metallurgical Properties • Compatibility: to avoid fusing under heat and contact dissimilar materials (Mainly not same melting point) for shaft and bearing are more compatible than similar materials. 4. Chemical Properties • Corrosion Resistant: to resist corrosion by lubricant improvement additives (Sn, Al, Ag...). Non-Metallic Materials (Table 12-6) such as Wood, Rubber, Carbon Graphite, Derlin, Teflon, Nylon… Most have low thermal conductivity.

JOURNAL BEARING MATERIALS

**Boundary (thin-film)-Lubrication
**

• In certain applications boundary lubrication should be designed for (see your lab manual for the procedure of boundary lubrication design). • Boundary lubrication should be expected for slow speeds (start ups and shut downs) : U<10 ft/min (0.05 m/s).. • In boundary lubrication the bearing performance depends essentially on boundary film. • The coefficient of friction is reduced by using animal and vegetable oils containing fatty acids that stick to metal surfaces.

**Materials for Boundary (thin-film, boundary friction, oilite, oiles and bushed pins)-Lubrication
**

To minimize metal-to-metal contact in boundary lubrication: •Mix animal or vegetable oils with lubricant •Use porous metallic materials (Table) •Use non-metallic materials •Use indented bearings

Table 12-8

Sample problem on Design of Boundary-Lubricated Journal Bearings

•

Design a boundary lubricated plain-surface bearing to carry a radial load of 2.5 kN from a shaft rotating at 1150 rpm. The nominal minimum diameter of journal is 75 mm.

Given: Boundary lubricated JB. W=2.5 kN; n= 1150 rpm; d = 75 mm

• Solution: (see class work)

**Types of Radial Journal Bearings
**

(Plain Bearings, sleeves)

Radial

Thrust Journal Bearing

Thrust

Journal Bearings

Types of bearings

Plain Bearings

Self-lubricated Journal Bearings

Journal Bearings

Bushes

Polymer Bearings

Types of Bearings

Radial Journal Bearings for Pinion Shaft in Gear Box for GE Turbine

Types of Bearings

• Housing for Gear Box showing Radial Journal Bearing Supports

Types of Bearings

Radial Journal Bearings for Pinion Shaft in Gear Box for GE Turbine

Types of Radial Journal Bearings

Types of Radial Journal Bearings

Types of Radial Journal Bearings

Typical Groove Patterns

Thrust Journal Bearing

**Thrust Journal Bearing
**

• Thrust Bearing for GE Turbine Shaft

- Hydro dyanamic Lubrication
- 40 Fluid Film Bearings
- Types of Bearing Oil Pads2
- Hydrodynamic Journal Bearings-Types, Characteristics, & Applications (John C. Nicholas)
- Bearing Ppt
- Journal_Bearing_Vibration
- Design of Journal Bearings
- Difference between Hydrostaics and Hydrodynamics
- Tribology - Lubricants and Lubrication
- Hydrodynamic Bearing Theory
- Lubricant and Lubrication Fundamentals
- JOURNAL BEARING APPARATUS
- Understanding Journal Bearings
- Hydrodynamic Lubrication Theory
- Journal Bearing
- bearing design
- Journal Bearing
- Basic Vibration Analysis
- hydrostatic journal bearing
- Tribology_02
- Vibration Intermediate
- Bearing Design in Machinery [Avraham Harnoy]
- Lubrication and Lubricant Selection
- Basics of Vibration Analysis
- Most Common Cause of Bearing Failure
- Bearings.ppt
- Vibration Adv 0402
- 88401485 Handbook of Lubrication and Tribology Vol I 2E CRC 2006
- Chapters 1 9
- 37188066 Kinematics of Machine Lab Manual

- Mason v. Graham, 90 U.S. 261 (1875)
- Charles S. White and American Metal Products Company v. The Fafnir Bearing Company, 389 F.2d 750, 2d Cir. (1968)
- A Review Paper On Failure Analysis of Cylindrical Roller Bearing
- Dynamic Analysis of Overhung Rotor System with Bearing Defect
- The Roller Mill Patent, 156 U.S. 261 (1895)
- Review on Design of Agitator to Optimize its Performance
- Yukon Dana Ring & Pinion Installation
- Liberty Engine History (1918)
- As 3890-1991 Rolling Bearings - System Life and Reliability
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- Layne & Bowler Corp. v. Western Well Works, Inc., 261 U.S. 387 (1923)
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