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Submitted by: guidance of:

Prabhat Kumar Patel Vijay Laxmi Sahu

Under the
Prof. S. S. Sharma

Samay Nath Shukla


Introduction Basic components Component description Designing consideration Circuit diagram Working Advantages and Scope Conclusion

There are many system which requires a constant voltage supply for their working with some additional features to perform reliable operation. This type of multifunction power supply can be used to provide a constant voltage which involves special features like:

Power fail detection Zero cross signal for main power supply Inbuilt battery back-up
In case of power failure, there is an inbuilt battery which comes into


Step-down transformer (230/12V) LM317 IC (adjustable voltage regulator) LM7805 IC (5V voltage regulator) 74HC14 (hex inverter schmitt trigger) bridge rectifiers Zener diode LED Resistor and Capacitor Connectors Fuse On/off switch

Components description

LM317 IC

It is an adjustable 3 terminal positive voltage regulator over an output voltage range of 1.2V to 37V.

The output voltage equation for regulator is

Vout = 1.25Vin (1+ R2/R1 ) + IR2

2) LM7805 IC
It is a fixed voltage regulator which gives a constant output voltage of +5V.

3) 74HC14
it provides 6 inverting buffer with Schmitt trigger. Basically Schmitt trigger is an inverting comparator with positive feedback. This converts an irregular shaped waveform to a square wave or pulse.

4) Bridge Rectifier
It is used for the conversion of AC supply into DC.

5) Zener diode
It is used for maintaining a constant voltage when it is in saturation region.

6) Other components
Resistor, capacitor, LED, fuse, step-down transformer etc are also used for the purpose of different functions along with protection of this power supply.

Designing Consideration
Bridge Rectifier : Zener Diode : Resistors :
BR1= 2.5Amp , BR2= 1Amp ZD1= 4.7V , ZD2= 7.5V R1= 200ohm , R2,R3,R5= 1kilo-ohm , R4= 700ohm , R6= 500ohm , R7= 10ohm , R8= 200ohm , R9,R10,R11,R12= 1kilo-ohm

Capacitors : Miscellaneous :

C1= 100nF , C2= 10nF , C3,C5,C7= 0.33uF , C4= 4700uF , C6= 1nF , C8= 220uF S1 on/off switch

F1- 2.5A fuse

F2- 1A fuse


The mains power supply of 230V AC is step down to 12V by the step down transformer. The RC components connected across the supply prevents noise to enter, which may come from supply side. The secondary output of the transformer is fed to the two bridges BR1 and BR2 and output of approx. 10.8V is obtained.

10.8V obtained is given as input to IC1 LM317 and IC2 7805. IC2 gives us constant power supply of +5 volts and the O/P of IC1 can be adjusted using the potmeter1, to supply power to battery for charging purpose .
This charged battery can be utilized to give power to some components of embedded system during the power failure.

Working continued.

Now the question is how we know that power failure has occurred? Transistor is used to solve out this problem but the
transistor should be specifically of switching type . During the normal state +10volts supplies to the transistor and since the threshold of zener is 7.5V, for the value of voltage above than this zener is in on state and the output is 0 volts but when the power failsvoltage at TP2 falls below 10V and transistor stops conducting and CON5 provides high signal at pin3.


The outputs from pins 2, 3 and 4 of connector CON6 provide different signals with a frequency that is double the frequency of the mains power supply (100 Hz). These signals are active near zero crossings of the mains power supply and can be used for several purposes, such as: 1. The control unit can use them to measure the frequency of the mains power supply. 2. These can be used to synchronise the operation of the control unit with zero crossings of the mains power supply. 3. he amplitude of signal TP4 is proportional to the secondary voltage of the transformer. The control unit can measure it and determine the secondary voltage of X1.

The components used are popular low cost components with other facilities of : +5V output battery charger zero crossing signal power fail detection

Since the circuit is cost efficient due to use of low cost components and it is performing multiple functions so it can be utilized in embedded system to perform reliable and stable operation.

Since the circuit design and configuration is best for those type of system which requires +5V constant supply and where failure of power supply should not effect the working which may causes undesirable effects so we will ultimately improve our control and performance of embedded system.

Thank You