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INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW OF MANUFACTURING

1.What is Manufacturing? 2.Materials in Manufacturing 3.Manufacturing Processes 4.Production Systems

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Manufacturing is Important

Technologically Economically

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Technology - the application of science to


society and its members live better
They are all manufactured

Manufacturing - Technologically Important

Technology provides the products that help our

provide society and its members with those things that are needed or desired

What do these products have in common? Manufacturing is the essential factor that makes
technology possible 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover,

Manufacturing - Economically Important


U.S. economy:

Sector

% of GNP

Manufacturing

20%
5% 5% 70%

Manufacturing is
one way by which nations create material wealth

Agriculture, minerals, etc. Construction & utilities Service sector retail, transportation, banking, communication, education, and government

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Manufacturing - Technologically

Application of physical and chemical processes


to alter the geometry, properties, and/or appearance of a starting material to make parts or products


Manufacturing as a technical Process:

Manufacturing also includes assembly

Almost always carried out as a sequence of operations

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Manufacturing - Economically

Transformation of materials into items of greater


value by means of one or more processing and/or assembly operations

Manufacturing adds value to the material by changing its shape or properties, or by combining it with other materials
Manufacturing as an economic process

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Manufacturing Industries
Industry consists of enterprises and organizations that produce or supply goods and services

Industries can be classified as:


1. Primary industries - those that cultivate and
exploit natural resources, e.g., farming, mining

2. Secondary industries - take the outputs of


primary industries and convert them into consumer and capital goods manufacturing is the principal activity

3. Tertiary industries - service sector 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover,

Secondary industries include

Manufacturing Industries - continued


manufacturing, construction, and electric power generation

Manufacturing includes several industries


whose products are not covered in this book; e.g., apparel, beverages, chemicals, and food processing

For our purposes, manufacturing means


production of hardware

Nuts and bolts, forgings, cars, airplanes, digital computers, plastic parts, and ceramic products

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Methods of Manufacture

FIGURE 1.6 Various methods of making a simple part: (a) casting or powder metallurgy, (b) forging or upsetting, (c) extrusion, (d) machining, (e) joining two pieces.

Manufacturing Processes

Two basic types: 1. Processing operations - transform a work


material from one state of completion to a more advanced state

Operations that change the geometry, properties, or appearance of the starting material

2. Assembly operations - join two or more


components to create a new entity

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Figure 1.4 Classification of manufacturing processes

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Processing Operations
Alters a materials shape, physical properties, or appearance in order to add value Three categories of processing operations:

1. Shaping operations - alter the geometry of the


starting work material

2. Property-enhancing operations - improve physical


properties without changing shape

3. Surface processing operations - to clean, treat,


coat, or deposit material on exterior surface of the work

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Shaping Processes Four Categories

1. Solidification processes - starting material is


a heated liquid or semifluid

2. Deformation processes - starting material is


a ductile solid (commonly metal)

3. Particulate processing - starting material


consists of powders

4. Material removal processes - starting


material is a ductile or brittle solid

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Solidification Processes - Casting

Starting material is heated sufficiently to


transform it into a liquid or highly plastic state

Examples: metal casting, plastic molding

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Open Molds and Closed Molds

Figure 10.2 Two forms of mold: (a) open mold, simply a container in the shape of the desired part; and (b) closed mold, in which the mold geometry is more complex and requires a gating system (passageway) leading into the cavity.

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Figure 11.1 A large sand casting weighing over 680 kg (1500 lb) for an air compressor frame (photo courtesy of Elkhart Foundry).

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Shell Molding
Casting process in which the mold is a thin shell of sand held together by thermosetting resin binder

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Expanded Polystyrene Process

Investment Casting

Permanent Mold Casting

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Die Casting

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Centrifugal Casting

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Forming Processes: Deformation

Starting workpart is shaped by application of


forces that exceed the yield strength of the material

Examples: (a) forging, (b) extrusion

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Forming Processes: Deformation

Bulk Deformation Sheet Metal Forming

Bulk Deformation Processes


Rolling Forging

Extrusion

Drawing

Rolled Products Made of Steel

Figure 19.2 Some of the steel products made in a rolling mill.

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Sheet Metal Forming Processes


Cutting

Deep Drawing V-Bending

Presses

Figure Schematic representation of the various types of press drive mechanisms.

Types of Press Frame

Figure 17-60 (Left) Inclinable gap-frame press with sliding bolster to accommodate two die sets for rapid change of tooling. (Courtesy of Niagara Machine & Tool Works, Buffalo, NY.) Figure 17-61 (Right) A 200-ton (1800-kN) straight-sided press. (Courtesy of Rousselle Corporation, West Chicago, IL.)

Drop Hammer Details

Figure 19.20 Diagram showing details of a drop hammer for impression-die forging.

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Stamping Press

Figure 20.32 Components of a typical mechanical drive stamping press

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Forming: Particulate Processing

Starting materials are powders of metals or


ceramics

Usually involves pressing and sintering, in


which powders are first compressed and then heated to bond the individual particles

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Forming: Material Removal Processes -Machining

Excess material removed from the


starting piece so what remains is the desired geometry

Examples: machining such as


turning, drilling, and milling; also grinding and nontraditional processes

Turning: Machining of cylindrical parts

Drilling

Milling

Forming: Material Removal Processes -Machining

Turning examples

Standard Turning

Facing

Threading:

Two Forms of Milling

Figure 21.3 Two forms of milling: (a) peripheral milling, and (b) face milling.

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Turning Machine: Lathe

Milling Machine:

Joining Processes: Welding, a Permanent Joining Process

Figure 31.1 Basic configuration of an arc welding process.

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Arc Welding
A pool of molten metal is formed near electrode tip, and as electrode is moved along joint, molten weld pool solidifies in its wake

Figure 31.1 Basic configuration of an arc welding process.

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Gas Metal Arc Welding

31.4 Gas metal arc welding (GMAW).

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Resistance Spot Welding


Resistance welding, showing the components in spot welding, the main process in the RW group.

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Oxyacetylene Welding

Figure 31.21 A typical oxyacetylene welding operation (OAW).

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Brazing - Soldering: Permanent Joining Processes Weak Bonding, Lower Temperatures

Figure 32.4 Several techniques for applying filler metal in brazing: (a) torch and filler rod. Sequence: (1) before, and (2) after.

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Joining Process: Adhesive Bonding


Figure 32.10 Types of stresses that must be considered in adhesive bonded joints: (a) tension, (b) shear, (c) cleavage, and (d) peeling.

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