You are on page 1of 29

Presented by:

Reeti Gaur M-Com (Ecommerce)

1. 2. 3. 4.

Data & Information: meaning Processing of Data: meaning Steps for Processing of Data Editing: meaning Three Aspects of Editing Two Ways of Editing Decision by Editor Points to be viewed by editors 5. Coding: meaning Code Construction Code Book & Production Coding Data Matrix 6. Data entry 7. Bibliography

Recorded measures of certain phenomenon.

A body of facts that are in a format suitable for decision making.

Processing of Data

Process of converting data into a form that will facilitate statistical analysis.

Data processing refers to the process of taking the raw data and process it accordingly to produce sensible information.

Steps for Processing of Data

Editing Coding Data Entry Data Analysis

Editing consists of scrutinizing the completed research instruments to identify and minimize, as far as possible,

Errors Incompleteness misclassification gaps

in the data obtained from the respondents.

Three Aspects of Editing

(Quantitative & Qualitative studies)

Respondent may: forget to answer a question; refuse to answer may be out of fear. Interviewer may: forget to ask a question; forget to record a response; write only half response; write illegible.

EXAMPLE: 1. Does you teach more than one subject? Yes _____ No _____ If yes, how many? Ans. 3 2. Whom do you like to win the election this time? A. Congress B. BJP C. others

Three Aspects of Editing

(Quantitative & Qualitative studies)

INCONSISTENCY Interview an ineligible

minor or an illiterate).

respondent (may be a

EXAMPLE: An interviewer has been instructed to interview only individual between the age of 18-35 to see the popularity of reality TV shows among adults. The editors review of questionnaire indicates that a respondent was only 16 years of age.

Three Aspects of Editing

(Quantitative & Qualitative studies)

Methods of asking questions; Methods of recording answers; Order of recording answers (in case of openended questions).
EXAMPLE: People have different opinions about smoking. Some think it is good and some think it is bad. May I know what is your opinion? Dont you think that smoking is bad?

Two Ways of Editing

Field Editing
Field supervisors are often responsible for conducting field edits. The supervisors obligation is to find errors on the same day when research is conducted.

In-House Editing

A centralized office staff

is appointed for conducting in-house editing. The staffs obligation is to review the data of the questionnaires (especially mail questionnaires). It takes place, when all forms or questionnaires have been completed and returned to office.

Field editing does not occur with mail surveys.

Item nonresponse: The editor merely indicates the item nonresponse by writing a small message instructing the coder a missing value or a blank as the response. Plug value: In case of related question, the editor may plug in an average or neutral value in place of missing value or blank. Recalling by interviewer Going back to the respondent

Points to be viewed by editors:

Editors should be familiar with instructions given to the interviewers and coders and also with the editing instructions supplied to them for the purpose.

While crossing out an original entry for one or the other reason, they should just draw a single line on it so that same may remain legible.
They must make entries (if any) on the form in some distinctive colour and that too in a standardized form. The date of editing should be placed on each completed form or schedule.

The process of identifying and classifying each answer with a numerical score or other character symbol and presenting it on the data matrix. The numerical score or character symbol is known as code. Example: Gender: Instead of Male, Female it could be shortened to M, F

Code Construction
Three basic rules for code construction: 1.The coding categories should be exhaustive, i.e., the coding categories should provided for all subjects or responses.

2. Coding categories should be mutually exclusive and independent, i.e., there should be no overlap between the categories, to ensure that the response can be placed in only one categories.

Pre-coding of Fixed-Alternative Question


3.The codes 8 and 9 are conventionally given to the dont know(DK) and no answer (NA) responses, respectively (while pre-coding).

EXAMPLE: In general, self regulation by business itself is preferable to stricter control of business by the government. 1. Strongly agree 4.Strongly disagree 2. Mildly agree 8. Dont know 3. Mildly disagree 9. No answer

In open-ended questions, determination of categories is done after the editing process has been completed. This is called post coding, or simply coding. Test tabulation The test tabulation means tallying of a small sample of the total number of replies to a particular question during the coding process in order to construct coding categories.

Steps in test tabulation:

1. Identify verbatim responses from approx. 20% of respondents questionnaires.
2. Write the each respondents response to a question on a separate sheet. 3. Construct coding categories on the basis of these responses and devise a coding scheme. 4. Determine how many answer categories will be acceptable. This can be done for each open-ended question in a questionnaire.

EXAMPLE: In general, self regulation by business itself is preferable to stricter control of business by the government. 1.Private companies are running more efficiently without government control. 2.In my view, private companies require little regulation by government. 3.According to me, government should have little control. 4. Cant say. 1. Strongly agree 2. Mildly agree 3. Mildly disagree 4.Strongly disagree 8. Dont know 9. No answer

Code book: A codebook describes and documents the questions asked or items collected in a survey. The codebook will describe the subject of the survey or data collection, the sample and how it was constructed, and how the data were coded, entered, and processed. Production Coding: It is the physical activity of transferring the data from the questionnaire or data collection form after the data have been collected.

Coding Sheet: A ruled sheet of paper used to transfer data from the questionnaires or data collection forms after data have been collected.

Recoding: It means changing the coded to facilitate coding

Error Checking: The final stage of coding process, during which codes are verified and corrected as necessary.

Data Matrix: A rectangular arrangement of data into rows and columns.

File: A collection of related records. Record: A collection of related fields.

Field: A collection of characteristics that represent a single type of data.

SURVEY ON PARK VISITORS IN A PARK OF NEW DELHI 1.For how much time (minutes) do you usually spent in this park? _____________________ 2.What mode do you prefer to use to go to park?
1.walk,, 3.cycling, 4. bus.

3. Which type of activity you do in the park?, 4.walk (including with the dog),



4.Are you satisfied with the services provided in the park? -2 = Very dissatisfied, -1 = dissatisfied, 0 = indifference, 1 = satisfied, 2 = Very satisfied.

5. Do the playground need any modifications?

Suppose the questionnaire was distributed to 12 respondents. Each respondent is a family who visited the park. The data is show in this table:




Data Entry
Data entry refers to the process of transferring data from a research project to computers. In a research study using computer-assisted telephone interviewing or self administered Internet Questionnaire, responses can be automatically stored or tabulated as they are collected. The data entry process transfers coded data from the questionnaire or coding sheets onto a hard drive or floppy disk.

1. Cooper, D.R. & Schindler, P.S. (2006). Business Research Methods(9e). McGraw Hill. New Delhi. 2. Elangovan, R. & Mohan, S. (2007). Research Methodology in Commerce. Deep & Deep. New Delhi. 3. Kothari, C.R.(1999). Research Methodology Methods and Techniques. Wishwa Prakashan. New Delhi. 4. Zikmund, W.G.(2009). Business Research Methods. Cenange Learning. New Delhi.