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INTRODUCTION

HARDWARE
Physical Components. Ex. HDD, Motherboard, FDD, RAM, Processor

SOFTWARE Set of Programs Types: System software and Application software

SYSTEM SOFTWARE:
System software is also called as OS which makes the interface between computer hardware and user.

Example: DOS, Windows, Unix and Linux.

APPLICATION SOFTWARE: It is a software which is designed by the User for specific applications. Example: Accountancy Database : : Tally, TurboC Dbase,Foxpro,MS-Access etc.,

BASIC CONCEPTS
POST: (Power On Self Test)

POST is the process done by the BIOS, which detect the hardware devices plugged in the mother board.
Example: During PC Switching on the Keyboard lights are once go to ON then OFF, which indicates the BIOS sense the Keyboard... IIIly each and every devices are detected by the BIOS. This process is Known as POST.

BOOTING
Loading Operating system from any Secondary Storage device to Main Memory (RAM)
DOS BOOTING FILES
IO.SYS, MSDOS.SYS, COMMAND.COM

IO.SYS
When its loaded, it Collects the information about Motherboard, FDD, HDD,Processor, RAM and PORTS. MSDOS.SYS It introduces a prompt. Like C>, A>. COMMAND.COM It contains all internal dos commands Coding and it completes the booting process like C:\>, A:\>..

FEATURES OF DOS
Released Dos versions: Dos 1.0, 2.0, ..4.0,6.228.0 Now we are in DOS 6.22 Dos is a CUI OS. Its a 16 bit Operating system. Its a Non Plug play Operating system.

DOS COMMANDS
INTERNAL DOS COMMANDS EXTERNAL DOS COMMANDS

INTERNAL DOS COMMANDS: Internal dos commands run from the command.com file.

Ex:

date, time, ver, cls, vol, dir

EXTERNAL DOS COMMANDS: Each and every external Dos commands requires separate file. Ex: xcopy ( which require xcopy.exe), fdisk ( which require fdisk.exe)

AFTER BOOTING PROCESS

Microsoft DOS 6.22 (C) Copyright 1985-2000 Microsoft Corp. C:\>

C:\>DATE

The current date is: Sun 05/23/2004


Enter the new date: (mm-dd-yy) 06/25/2004

C:\>DATE
The current date is: Fri 06/25/2004 Enter the new date: (mm-dd-yy) C:\>

CIICP Hardware and Networking Team

C:\>TIME
The current time is: 13:03:43.91 Enter the new time: 14:04:11 C:\>TIME The current time is: 14:04:14.36 Enter the new time:

C:\>

CIICP Hardware and Networking Team

C:\>TIME The current time is: 14:07:25.83 Enter the new time: C:\>CLS

C:\>

C:\> VER

MSDOS VERSION 6.22.


C:\>

C:\> VOL

Volume drive in C is HARDNET


Volume Serial no is 775F-3331F C:\>

FILES
File Creation Syntax:

C:\>copy con <filename>


Note:File name should be less than or equal to 8 characters and 3 Extensions are allowed which indicates the file format. Ex: C:\> copy con example1.txt Welcome MS dos 6.22 in hardware course ^z

To Display the Content of File


Syntax: C:\>TYPE < FILENAME>

Ex:

C:\>TYPE EXAMPLE.TXT
Welcome MS dos 6.22 in hardware course C:\>_

FILE COPY
SYNTAX: C:\>COPY < SOURCE> <DESTINATION> It may be File/Directory/ Drive TEST.TXT

It may be File or Files


EX: C:\>COPY EXAMPLE.TXT C:\>

DELETE FILES
Syntax: C:\>DEL < FILENAME>

Ex:
To Delete All Text Files in C:

C:\>DEL EXAMPLE.TXT C:\>Note: To Delete All Files in C:

C:\>DEL *.TXT C:\>-

C:\> DEL *.*

DIRECTORY Directory is head for group of files and subdirectories. CREATING DIRECTORY: Syntax: C:\> MD <Directory name> Ex:

C:\>MD TEST1
C:\>

Entering And Exit directory To The Prompt


Syntax: C:\>CD <Directory Name>

EX:
C:\>CD TEST1

C:\TEST1>MD TEST
C:\TEST1>CD.. C:\>CD TEST1\TEST C:\TEST1\TEST>CD\ C:\>

REMOVING DIRECTORY
Syntax: C:\> RD <directory name> Note: Before removing the directory, the directory should be empty.. Ex:

C:\> RD TPT
C:\>

DIRECTORY AND FILE LIST


Used to List Files and Syntax:

Directories in any path


Ex:
C:\>DIR

C:\> DIR [switches]

DATE

TIME

SIZE
<DIR> <DIR>

FILENAME
scrncam2000 search

04/26/2004 10:32p 04/29/2004 11:13p

01/22/2004 12:58p
12/06/2003 09:24p 12/06/2003 09:24p

<DIR>
707,163 706,576

SEN
SIC1.jpg SIC2.jpg

C:\> DIR /P

DATE

TIME

SIZE
<DIR> <DIR> <DIR>

FILENAME
scrncam2000 search SEN

04/26/2004 10:32p 04/29/2004 11:13p 01/22/2004 12:58p

Press any key to continue . . . C:\>DIR/W RAJU [YYYS] C:\>DIR/AH TEST [W3W] RRRR YYYY

DATE

TIME

SIZE
21,111B 12,111B

FILENAME
IO.SYS MSDOS.SYS

04/25/2004 10.32P 04/25/2004 10.32P

C:\> DIR A*.* /W


A111 A23X ABFFF [ARRR] [AMC]

TRY OUT FOLLOWING


Dir/ah/w

Dir/s
Dir i*.* Dir /?

Microsoft Editor
Developed by Microsoft Mainly used to overcome the problems related with Copy con. Using EDIT:
We can Create a new file and can save it as any Extension
We can Modify the contents and add any lines/delete any lines We can Copy a part of contents and paste it \anywhere with the help of Shortcut Keys

C:\> EDIT