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Automobile

Engineering

By
A.Prasanna
Introduction
 Mobile or motive is the one which
can move. Automobile is the one
which can move by itself.
 An automobile is a self-propelled
vehicle.
 It is driven by an internal combustion
engine (also called as prime mover)

Cont
 The modern automobile is used for
transporting equipment unit.
 The power from the engine is
supplied to the wheels by the
transmission system through the
clutch of fluid coupling.
 It is used for transport of goods and
passengers on ground.
The different names of Automobile are;

 Auto  Motor car


 Automobile  Motor vehicle
 Autocar  Motor coach
 Autobuggy  Motor Wagon
 Car  Horseless coach
 Motor
Auto buggy
Motor Car
Motor Coach
Motor wagon
Horseless cars
Brief History Of Automobile
1769 - French Engineer Captain Nicholas
Cugnot
1801 - First steam carriage built by Richard
Trevithick in England
1804 – US Inventor Oliver Evans built the
finest American Self propelled steam
vehicle.
1827 – Onesiphere Pacqueur of France
Invented First Differential
1854 – First Three Speed Patented by W.H.
James in England
1885 – Karl Friedrich Benz in Germany
developed tricycle propelled by an internal
combustion engine
1886 – First Gasoline Engine Powered
Automobiles by Gottlieb Wilhelm Daimler of
Germany
1887 – Tatra Prasident, The first car of the
Austro-Hungarian monarchy
1895 – First Motor Car Race Held
1902 – Fiat 12hp with varnished
wooden bodywork could manage
45mph with 3.4 liter 4 cylinder engine
An early African motorcar
driven by proud Zulu warriors
1906 – 22hp speedster formed by
Giovanni Ceirano at Turin
1908 – Ford ‘T’ model Car was
produced in America by Ford
Motor
1911 – First Electric Self Starter
installed in the Automobile
1920 –Automobile design by David
Buick
1930 –Automobile design by
Hibbard and Darrin
1940 – Chevrolet model
1950 – Chevrolet model
1960 – Mercedes model
1970 – Volvo model
1980 – Mercedes model
1990 – Mercedes model
2000 – Mercedes model
2008 – Mercedes model
 Germany is the birth place of the
automobiles.
 The list of German Pioneers is a long one
as follows:
 Nicholas Cugnot
 August Otto
 Carl Benz
 Gottlieb Daimler
 Wilhelm Maybach
 Rudolf Diesel

…..
 Ferdinand Posche
 Felin Wankel
 The design and development in cars of
recent years has provided the owners
with;
 Safer
 Easier to drive
 Comfortable
 More reliable.
Automobile in India
 The first car appeared in 1897.
 For 50 Years from 1897, India was an Importer
of automobiles.
 The late Bharat Ratna Sir M. Visvesvaraya
made an automobile in India, but the
government did not approve the plan.
 In 1943 and 1944 two automobile factories were
set up in India namely;
 Hindustan Motors Limited, Calcutta,
 Premier Automobiles Limited, Bombay.
 The sacrifice of German Engineer
Rudolf Diesel is memorable in
Automobile and I.C. engine history.

 He got very seriously injured when he


successfully exploded coal dust as fuel.

 In 1913 although he invented Diesel


engine using liquid fuel ‘Diesel’ but he
committed suicide as he could not get
financial co-operation from his friend
for his research and development.
Classification
Of
Automobiles
Classification of Automobiles
1. Based on Purpose
 Passenger Carriers
- Car, Jeep, Bus, Station
wagon, etc
 Goods Carriers
- Truck, Pick up,.
 Special purpose
- Ambulance, Fire engine,
Army vehicles, Concrete mixer, etc,.
2. Based on Fuel Used
 Petrol Vehicle
- Motor cycles, Scooters, Cars, Station
wagons.
 Diesel Vehicle

- Trucks, Buses, etc..


 Gas Vehicle

- Coal gas turbine


 Electric

- Using storage batteries


 Steam

- Using steam engine


3. Based on Capacity

 HTV (Heavy Transport Vehicles) or HMV


(Heavy Motor Vehicles)
- Trucks, Buses, Dumpers…
 LTV (Light Transport Vehicles)

- Pick up, Station Wagon


 LMV (Light Motor Vehicles)

- Jeep, Cars,…
 Medium Vehicle

- Tempo, Minibus, Small trucks,….


4. Based on Construction

 Single Unit Vehicle


 Articulated Vehicles and Tractors.
5. Based on Drive
 Left hand drive
-Steering wheel fitted on left hand
side
 Right hand drive

-Steering wheel fitted on right hand


side
Fluid drive
- Vehicle employing torque converter,
fluid flywheel or hydramatic
transmission.
6. Based on wheel and axle
 Two Wheeler
- Auto cycle, Mopped, Scooter, Motor
cycle
 Three Wheeler

- Three Wheel scooter, Auto rickshaw,


Tempo.
 Four wheeler (4x2) and (4x4)

- Cars, Jeep, Station wagon, Pick up,


Trucks, Buses.
 Six Wheeler (6x2) and (6x4)

(Note: The first figure indicates number of


wheels and second figure indicates number
of drives)
7. Based on suspension system

 Conventional

- Leaf spring
 Independent

- Coil spring, Torsion bar,


Pneumatic.
8. Based on body and number of doors
 Sedan
- Two and four door types
 Convertible
- Jeep, some imported cars
 Station wagon
 Delivery van/pick ups
 Special purpose vehicles
- Ambulance, milk van, mobile
workshop, mobile hospital, etc..
9. Based on Transmission

 Conventional

- All Indian vehicle


 Semi-automatic

- Most of British and Japanese vehicles


 Automatic

- Most of the American vehicles


Classification
Of
Automobile
Engines
A) Type of fuel used
 Petrol or Gasoline engine
 Diesel Engine
 Gas Engine

B) Cycle Of Operation
 Otto cycle engine
 Diesel cycle engine
 Dual combination cycle or semi-diesel
engine
C) Type of Ignition used
 Spark ignition engine
 Hot-spot ignition engine
 Compression ignition engine

D) Method of fuel admission


 Carburetor engine (Petrol)
 Air injection engine (Diesel)
 Airless or solid injection engine (Diesel)
E) Number Of Strokes per cycle
 Four stroke engine
 Two stroke engine

F) Arrangement of cylinders
 Vertical engine
 Horizontal engine
 Radial engine
 V – engine
 Opposed cylinder engine
G) Valve location
 Overhead valve engine
 Side valve engine

H) Type of cooling engine


 Air cooled engine
 Water cooled engine
I) Lubrication Systems
 Wet sump
 Dry sump
 Pressurized

J) Speed
 Slow Speed engine
 Medium Speed engine
 High Speed engine
K) Method of Governing
 Hit and miss governed engine
 Qualitatively governed engine
 Quantitatively governed engine

L) Application
 Stationary engine
 Automotive engine
 Marine engine
 Locomotive engine
Vehicle
Construction
Components of Four Wheeler
Automobile
 Chassis
 Body

 Frame

 Power unit

Transmission system
Chassis
 An automobile is made of two main
units namely;
 Body
 Chassis
 A vehicle arrangement without body
is called Chassis.
 The chassis supports the body,
engine and transmission system.
The Chassis includes the following
components;
 Frame  Differential, Half Shaft,
 Front Suspension Universal Joint
 Steering Mechanism
 Brakes and Braking
System
 Radiator  Storage battery
 Engine, Clutch,
Gear box
 Silencer
 Propeller Shaft
 Shock absorbers, fuel
tank, petrol, hydraulic
 Rear Springs pipe cables and some
 Road Wheels means of mounting
these components
Classification
Of
Chassis
I. According to the fitting of engine

(c) Full Forward


(d) Semi Forward
(e) Bus Chassis
(f) Engine at back
(g) Engine at centre
Type of Location of Engine Examples
Chassis
Full Forward Outside the driver Cars, Mahindra
cabin or seat jeeps
Semi One half is exactly in Tata SE series
Forward the drivers cabin and of vehicles
the other half in the
front but outside the
drivers cabin
Bus Chassis Totally in the driver Buses, Trucks
cabin which provides
increase in floor area
Cont
Type of Location of Engine Examples
Chassis
Engine at Back portion of the Volkswagen
back chassis cars, Leyland
bus of England
Engine at Centre of the Royal tiger
centre chassis world master
buses of Delhi
transport
II. According to Number of Wheels fitted in the
vehicles and the Number of driving wheels.

Type of Chassis No. of No. of Driving


Wheels Wheels
4X2 drive chassis 4 2

4X4 drive chassis 4 4

6X2 drive chassis 6 2

6X4 drive chassis 6 4


Characteristics of good Chassis

 Fast pickup
 Strength
 Safety
 Durability
 Dependability
 Ease of control
 Quietness
 Speed
 Power accessibility
 Economy of
operation
 Low centre of
gravity
 Stability
 Load clearance
 Braking ability
 Good springing
 Simplicity of
lubrication