Detour Lesson-Review 9/23

Aim: What factors led to the Age of Absolutism in Spain and France? Do Now: Complete Graphic Organizer. What are the characteristics of an Absolute Ruler?

DO NOW: What are the characteristics of an Absolute Ruler?

System of government •King or Queen has complete control over government & its people Autocracy Centralized Government Nation states

•Monarchs based their claim on Divine Right Authority comes from God Similar to “Mandate of Heaven” •Monarchs are “Above the Law” •Common features- Strong armies,limited representative bodies, high taxes

The Hapsburg Monarchy 1556 Holy Roman Emperor Charles V divides empire Son Phillip II rules Spain, Netherlands & Italy

Promoted “Golden age of Spain” •Wealth from colonies helped buildup military •Defender of Catholicism 1588-Spanish Armada defeated by England (Elizabeth I)  1600’s Spain power declines Financial problems

The Bourbon Monarchy •Henry IV increases power of Govt. & decreases power of nobility •Louis the XIII strengthens & builds up military Cardinal Richelieu subdues nobles & Huguenots

Known as “The Sun King” Ruled for 72 years •Mercantilist policies •Built the strongest army in Europe •Expanded bureaucracy •Never called the Estates General •Persecuted the Huguenots French Protestants

•Built Lavish palace @ Versailles “Gilded Cage” for nobility His successors inherited enormous debts (costly Wars & extravagance)

Medial Summary
Answer the Following Questions in your Notebook: 1. Define: Divine Right 2. Why did some think it was necessary to have an absolute ruler?


Reading and Questions
• Summary

1480 Russian rulers drive Mongols out •Early Czars Ivan III & Ivan IV (Terrible) used harsh methods to unify Russia & strengthen Monarchy •1613 Michael Romanov begins Romanov Dynasty

•Grand Embassy tour
Toured Europe learning new technologies •Westernization/Modernization •Introduced western ideas

•Laws, technology, culture

•Built largest army in Europe Won territory along the Baltic Sea St. Petersburg becomes “Window to the West” Major trading port & new capital

Centralized power Reduced power of the nobility

Brought Orthodox Church under his control

1215 King John forced to sign Magna Carta Limited King’s powers 1295 Edward I establishes Model Parliament Lawmaking body House of Lords & House of Commons

Parliament successfully blocked attempted shifts to absolute rule The Tudor Monarchs(1485-1603) generally worked well w/ Parliament Ex. Henry VIII & Elizabeth I

Had absolutist tendencies (Strong belief in Divine Right) James I & son Charles I Consistently clashed with Parliament over finance & foreign policy Angered Puritans

Known as the Puritan Revolution (1643) Charles’s Cavaliers vs. Roundheads led by Oliver Cromwell Charles I is overthrown by forces loyal to Parliament beheaded in 1649

England became a Republic called the Commonwealth At first Cromwell & Parliament share power •1653 Cromwell assumes Title of Lord Protector & rules as a dictator Cromwell brutally put down revolts in Ireland & Scotland (Genocide)

•Upon Cromwell’s death, Parliament restores Stuart Monarchy to throne •Charles II & James II became unpopular due to absolutist policies •Parliament fears return of Catholicism(James II) •Parliament overthrows James II & asks William & Mary to assume throne (Glorious Revolution)

1688-William & Mary forced to sign English Bill of Rights is signed

Guarantees Parliament’s superiority over the Monarchy
 England becomes a Limited Monarchy (Remains today)

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