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Training Methods and Techniques

Introduction
Training method refers to the specific means

by which training is imparted to the individuals. There are various methods of training which can be broadly classified into on-the-job training methods and off-the-job training methods. The choice of a method would depend on a wide variety of factors, such as competence of instructors, relevance to the participants, the program design, the content and finally its cost implications.

Objectives of Training Methods


1.

To impart the basic knowledge and skill to the new entrants and enable them to perform their jobs well. To equip the employees to meet the changing requirements of the job and the organization. To teach the employees the new techniques and ways of performing the job or operations. To prepare employees for higher level tasks and build up a second line of competent managers.

2.

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Factors in the Selection of Training Methods

Training methods

On the site methods: a)Apprentice b)Job rotation c)Vestibule d)On the job training

Off the site Methods: a)Lecture b)Small group activity c)Case studies d)Role plays e)In basket exercise f)Experiential learning g)Sensitivity

On the site methods


Apprentice:

A formal arrangement between an individual who wants to learn and employer who needs a skilled worker. It is an earning while learning arrangement where the apprentice receives knowledge and develops skills associated with the designated trade. Job rotation-A job design technique in which employees are moved between two or more jobs in a planned manner. The objective is to expose the employees to different experiences and wider variety of skills to enhance job satisfaction and to cross-train them. Vestibule training: combines the benefits of the classroom with the benefits of on job training takes place in simulated environment. classroom is a model of the working environment. duplication makes it an expensive arrangement.

On-the-Job Training
This is considered to be the most effective method

of training to train the employees at the operational level Under this method, the worker is trained on-the-job and at his work place. This enables him to get training under the same working conditions and with the same processes, materials and equipments that he will be using ultimately. The responsibility of the training is given to his immediate supervisor, who knows exactly what the trainee should learn to do or to some outside instructor, who is the training specialist in the field

Off-the-Job Training
The off-the-job training methods includes:

Lecture A talk given without much, if any, participation in the form of questions or discussion on the part of the trainees. It is suitable for large audiences where participation of the trainee is not possible because of numbers. The information to be put over can be exactly worked out beforehand even to the precise word. The timing can be accurately worked out. The lack of participation on the part of the audience means that unless the whole of it, from beginning to end, is fully understood and assimilated the sense will

Talk
A talk incorporating a variety of techniques,

and allowing for participation by the trainees. The participation may be in the form of questions asked of trainees, their questions to the speaker, or brief periods of discussion during the currency of the session. It is suitable for putting across information to groups of not more than twenty trainees.

Case Study
A history of some event or set of circumstances,

with the relevant details, examined by the trainees. i. Those in which the trainees diagnose the causes of a particular problem. ii. Those in which the trainees set out to solve a particular problem. It provides opportunities for exchange of ideas and consideration of possible solutions to problems the trainees will face in the work situations.

Role Play
Trainees are asked to enact, in the training

situation, the role they will be called upon to play in their job of work. Used mainly for the practice of dealing with face-to-face situations (i.e. where people come together in the work situation). It is suitable where the subject is one where a near-to-life practice in the training situation is helpful to the trainees.

Application Project
Similar to an exercise but giving the trainee much

greater opportunity for the display of initiative and creative ideas. The particular task is laid down by the trainer but the lines to be followed to achieve the objectives are left to the trainee to decide. Like exercises, projects, may be set for either individuals or groups. It is suitable where initiative and creativity need stimulating or testing. Projects provide feedback on a range of personal qualities of trainees as well as their range of knowledge and attitude to the job.

In-basket (In-tray)
Trainees are given a series of files, papers and letters

similar to those they will be required to deal with at their place of work (i.e. the typical content of a desk-workers in-tray). Trainees take action on each piece of work. The results are marked or compared one with another. It is suitable for giving trainee desk-workers a clear understanding of the real-life problems and their solutions. The simulation of the real situation aids the transfer of learning from the training to the work situation. It is also useful for developing attitudes towards the work, for example priorities, customers complaints, superiors, etc.

Business Games
Trainees are presented with information about a

company financial position, products, markets, etc. They are given different management roles to perform. One group may be concerned with sales, another with production and so on. These groups then run the company. Decisions are made and actions are taken. The probable result of these decisions in terms of profitability is then calculated. It is suitable for giving trainee managers practice in dealing with management problems.

Sensitivity Training (Group Dynamics)


Trainees are put into situations in which the

behavior of each individual in the group is subject to examination and comment by the other trainees; the behavior of the group (or groups) as a whole is examined. It is a vivid way for the trainee to learn the effect of his/her own behavior on other people and the effect of their behavior upon him.

Experiential Learning Method


Experiential learning is an action-oriented

behavioral situation. The purpose of the action situation is to have participants generate their own data about each of the key concepts to be studied or understood.
I hear and I forget, I see and I remember, I do and I understand.

Experiential Learning Method contd


The primary tasks of the trainer are 1. Drawing out data from participants in terms

of what has actually happened together with their feelings about it. 2. Helping participants to see the cause and effect of the actions of people; that is, the initiating behavior of a person and the type of response he received to it; and finally. 3. Relating the classroom experience to what happens in on-the-job training program in the organization situations.

Outward Bound Learning (OBL) Method


Outward Bound Training OBT programs take

participants out of their familiar settings and offer unusual, original challenges. In safe but hard and demanding tasks based on a well-balanced combination of outdoor and indoor activities the participants verify and develop their responsibility, self-confidence, cooperation, respect, tolerance, and learn social skills.

Outward Bound Learning (OBL) Method contd


Basically this method helps a person

internalize the whole training program as he experiences most of learning, he learns from observing other people and also the feedback and since he has a chance to apply that learning there itself he internalizes it. A facilitator watches them play and observes a trainees behavior individually, in-group, learning skill etc. The facilitator gives each of the trainee feedback and then observes again how he applies this learning and also helps him connect this learning to the corporate world.

Benefits of Outward Bound Management Training contd


Most of the exercises designs as part of OBL

help the participants specifically in the following areas. Discover their potential. Increase their self-awareness and confidence. Confront their self-imposed limits and overcome them. Develop leadership qualities.