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Cardiovascular System

by M. Rasjad Indra

Main function
Serve a transportation for:
Supplying nutrition and oxygen to tissues Elimination of metabolic end products from tissues Hormones & other chemical substances as a intercellular communication mediator

Maintain a stable internal environment for a life & optimal function of cells.
How does this system regulate its activities to achieve the function???

Tissue perfussion (Supply nutrition & oxygen and eliminate metabolic waste products)

Local blood vessel resisstance Total blood vessel resisstance Blood volume

Blood flow

Blood pressure

Cardic pumping

Vasoconstriction / dilatation

Heart Space & Valves

Cardiac cycle

Cardiac muscle contraction Cardiac muscle & cunductive system

Vascular smooth muscle Action potential

Theoritical Framework of Cardiavascular System

For better understanding the mechanism of regulation you have to recognize many parameters of the system: 1. Cardiac output [CO] 2. Blood pressure [P] 3. Blood flow [Q] 4. Vascular resistant [R] Stroke volume = End Diastolic Vol. - End Systolic Vol. Cardiac output= Stroke Volume x Frequency

Cardiac index = Cardiac output / Body Surface Area

Ejection Fraction=(SV/EDV) x 100 %
Ohm law:


4 Pr Poiseuille law: Q 8l

r = radius d= blood viscosity l = blood vessel length

Role of each CVS compartment

Blood pumping

Blood transport under high pressure to tissues.

Regulate blood flow to capillaries

Fluid exchange, nutrition, electrolites hormone between plasma & interstitial

Blood flow from capillaries to middle veins

Blood flow from tissues to heart Regulated blood reservoir.

Blood Volume in Cardiovascular System

84 % in systemic circulation:
64 % in vein 13 % in artery 7 % in arteriole and capillaries

16 % pulmonary & cardiac circulation:

7 % in the heart 9 % in the lungs

Parameter Number Radius Diameter Total diameter Total blood flow 1


Small artery 8000 0,5 mm 7,9 x 10-3 cm2 63 cm2 83 ml/second

Arteriole 2 x 107 15 m 7,1 x 10-7 cm2 141 cm2 83 ml/second

Capillary 1 x 1010 3 m 2,8 x 10-7 cm2 2827 cm2 83 ml/second 0,003 cm/sc 8 x 10-9 ml/sc 1

V. Cava

1,13,cm 4 cm2 4 cm2 83 ml/second

1,38 cm 6 cm2 6 cm2 83 ml/scnd 14 cm/scnd 83 ml/scnd

Mean of Linier velocity 21 cm/secnd Blood flow per unit 83 ml/second

1,3 cm/second 0,6 cm/second 0,01 ml/secnd 4 x 10-6 ml/scnd

Diameter of Blood Vessels

Blood vessel Aorta Small Arteries Arteriole Capillaries Venule Small Vein Vena cava Diameter (cm2) 2,5 20 40 2500 250 80 8

Blood Flow
The blood flow going slower because of decreasing blood pressure and increasing total diameter of blood vessels

In aorta: 33 cm / second In capillary: 0,3 mm / second

Capillaries length: 0,3 1 mm blood stay in capillary 1 3 seconds Very short time for fluid exchange between plasma and interstitial !!!!

Blood pressure

3 Basic Principles of Cardiovascular Function

1. Tissue blood flow is regulated in

accordance with tissue metabolic need. 2. Cardiac output is controlled mainly by total tissue blood flow / metabolic need. 3. Blood pressure is determined by a balance between regulation of tissue blood flow and cardiac output regulation mechanism.