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PRESENTED BY: Arun Kumar Yadav BRANCH: ECE(B) ROLLNO-100103064
Microwave Communication .CONTENT: 5.
1853 First railway train journeyed distance of 22 miles between Bombay and Thana. It runs 14300 trains every day It carry 1.4 crore passengers & 16 lakh tonnes of goods every day Daily earnings Rs120 cr .
000 coaches about 2. .5 lakh of wagons 7000 stations 1 lakh km of track 17 lakh employee worked under one organization and there is no strike since last 30 years. 8000 engines 40.
06-07 .Turn over Time 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Now SOURCE: Explanatory Memorandum on Railway Budget.
. Mainly there are two types of signals:Mechanical signals:.RAILWAY SIGNALLING:Railway signalling is a system used to control railway traffic safely. Colour light signals:-On most modern railways. essentially to prevent trains from colliding.Older forms of signal displayed their different aspects by their physical position. colour light signals have largely replaced mechanical ones.
Controlling of signals:These signals are controlled by panel which is situated in ASM office .
Some keys of panel:Description Main Signal Button Track /Route Button Level Crossing Button Group Slot Button Code S-5 S-6 S-7 S-8 Colour RED GREY BLUE GREEN Remarks Entrance Button Exit Button Operated with S-6 For giving group slot Point Group Button Emergency Button S-9 S-10 WHITE R+G To point out location In emergency .
Hence least friction occurs at the point of contact between the track & wheels. All over the world Railway transportation is increasingly used. their path is to be fully guided and there is no arrangement of steering. . Therefore trains carry more loads resulting in higher traffic capacity since trains move on specific tracks called rails. Trains move on steel rail tracks and wheels of the railway vehicle are also flanged Steel wheels. as this mode of transport is more energy efficient and environmentally friendly than road transportation.
they need more braking distance before coming to the stop from full speed. Clear of obstruction as available with road transportation. Without signal to be available on the route to constantly guide the driver accidents will take place due to collisions . so there is a need to provide control on the movement of trains in the form of Railway signals which indicate to the drivers to stop or move and also the speed at which they can pass a signal Since the load carried by the trains and the speed which the trains can attain are high.
."An arrangement of signals and signal appliances in the manner that they switch the tracks to send the train in particular direction.
. and three central interlocking processors which operate in repairable triple modular redundancy. a diagnostic processor. Solid State Interlocking is a data-driven signal control system designed for use throughout the British railway system. SSI is a multicomputer system with two panel processors. SSI is a replacement for electromechanical interlocking's which are based on highly reliable relay technology.
MICROWAVE COMMUNICATION .
in all cases. with RF engineering often putting the lower boundary at 1 ghz (30 cm). this broad definition includes both uhf and ehf . or equivalently. Microwaves are radio waves with wavelengths ranging from as long as one meter to as short as one millimeter. with frequencies between 300 MHz (0. Various sources use different boundaries.3 Ghz) and 300 Ghz. . and the upper around 100 ghz (3 mm). or 10 to 1 cm) at minimum. microwave includes the entire shf band (3 to 30 ghz.
one generated. propagate in a straight line in all directions there are mainly 3 modes of propagation possible. LOS. and the mode is decided based on distance and terrain. Sky wave Propagation. microwaves. Ground Reflection Path .
. Line-of-sight propagation refers to electromagnetic radiation or acoustic wave propagation. LOS (Line of Sight) – is a visible straight line between the sender and the receiver. LOS propagation – propagation of microwaves in a straight line free from any obstructions. Electromagnetic transmission includes light emissions traveling in a straight line.
Tower A Tower B .
Microwaves spread into this area once are generated by an antenna. Fresnel zone – elliptical area around the LOS between a sender and receiver. This area should be free of any obstacles: .
Because of high frequency. . Can make MESH connections with the help of this. more data can be sent through microwaves -> increased bandwidth. higher speeds Keep it as hop to hop connections.
carrier waves in satellite communications cellular communication Bluetooth wireless local area network GPS (Global Positioning System) .
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