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General Objectives : Understand the maintenance system Specific Objectives : After learned this unit, you should be able to :a. Describe the definition & objective of maintenance b.Describe the preventive & reduce failure c. Explain the minimum cost of maintenance d.Explain the life period of a machine


1. Maintaining existing equipment The timely & appropriate response to equipment failure, reduction of equipment downtime & increase in equipment availability. 2. Equipment inspection, cleaning & lubrication comprehensive progamme for for operators to perform routine task. 3. Equipment modification, alteration & installation. Can be schedule during non peak period. Secondary Goals 1. Plant protection & safety. 2. Salvage of obsolete equipment and waste disposal. 3. Pollution & noise control.

OBJECTIVES 1. 2. 3. 4. Update equipment system or machine. Reduce the risk of failure for equipment. Enhance the quality and maximize the equipment value. Increase the level of strength and toughness of the equipment. 5. Easier to identify the damage & the reason contribute to the problem. 6. Can produce and estimate the minimum cost of the equipment. 7. Can expect the machines life period.

PREVENT AND REDUCE DAMAGE PREVENT AND REDUCE DAMAGE 1. Electric & electronic system unpredictable lifetime. Sometimes the equipment might having a failure before its time. 2. Periodical Maintenance is required to make sure the instruments are not easy damaged, working safely & outlast. 3. Periodical maintenance usually implement by doing examination in daily, weekly, monthly or annually by using suitable criteria. 4. This can help to detect possibility that will happen to equipment or system by doing analysis to the examination result


1. Maintenance should be planned properly.

2. Made before a system or equipment is produce or






Maintenance Planning Is the place where all the maintenance process arrangement were made. And also, in this period all information is produce & future plan is prepared. Without Maintenance Planning No maintenance plan determination to an equipment maintenance. Preventive Maintenance The purpose of this maintenance is to determine the condition of an equipment by referring the observation data @ by using a criteria that has been prepared in order to reduce failure in the system that is plan to be made.
Repair Maintenance Maintenance that is made after a failure happened to the equipment that is maintain & also to keep the item where the maintenance can made the equipment operate according to the function that is needed


Cost (RM) Without Plan Maintenance

Planned maintenance

Time (year)

Diagram 1.1 : Relationship between the minimum cost of plan maintenance & without plan maintenance

To Ensure the Life Period of a Machine 1. The life period of a machine is unpredictable, depend to the environmental factors. 2. Periodic maintenance (schedule) is required to make sure the machine life time.

3. Its also depend to the machine utilization.

4. Improper maintenance would create impurity stick on the machine / equipment that will shorten the machine life time. 5. Determine temperature changes, humidity level, chemical environmental factors.

Function of Maintenance
Function of maintenance is :1. To make sure the product follow the specification. 2. To make sure reasonable cost of product. 3. To make sure the machine and equipment can be used optimally.

1. To make sure the product follow the specification. Most of the time we are facing a product that has been bought but fail to operate follow its specification. Many factors contribute to the failure such as :a. Component in the circuit. b. Wrongly programmed the process. c. The ability of product are below the specification. d. Mistaken in operation installation process. e. Environment effect (Pressure) To make sure product @ equipment follow the specification, full maintenance should be implement.

Full Maintenance
It is include in below processes :a. Knowledge b. Protection c. Corrective d. Examine

a. Knowledge

Its mean, to know what are the ability & the disability of the product @ equipment.
Its include the ability of product to temperature, vibration & absolute max range of product. In additional, it is important to understand below terms if we want to know whether the product follow the specification or not. Strength Sensitivity Accuracy Linearity Hysteresis

b. Protection Base on the knowledge, for sure maximum protection can be given to the equipment @ product. As example, if the equipment cannot operate in high temperature, the equipment should be placed at room temperature). c. Corrective To make sure the product constantly operate in the specification limit, corrective maintenance should be routinely implemented. No matter major @ minor failure occur, the corrective maintenance should be urgently implement.

d. Inspection The most important procedure in the process of full maintenance. Log book / form need to be prepared to make sure the checking / examination follow the procedure.

The best examination/ checking that is include with the daily , weekly, monthly and also yearly checking maintenance.

To makesure reasonable cost of product

To make sure the cost is reasonable, the first thing to do is to make an analysis.

Analysis is made to the cost of time, labour and financial (profit/loss) As an example , in a firm (industrial), the analysis is include with :1. Operation time loss ~ Maintenance period ~ Time of corrective / repair job ~ Report time period 2. Maintenance Cost 3. Labour Cost 4. Machine breakdown period cost

For individual responsibility to make sure the product is reasonable compare to the price, check the ability & disability of the product.

To make sure the machine and equipment can be used optimally. Below maintenance should be implement :Breakdown Maintenance (penyelenggaraan kerosakan)

Preventive Maintenance (penyelenggaraan pencegahan)

Predictive Maintenance (Penyelenggaraan Jangkaan) Condition-Based Maintenance (penyelenggaraan berdasarkan keadaan)

Breakdown Maintenance - implement machine @ equipment breakdown.

after the

Preventive Maintenance - implement before the machine @ equipment breakdown to avoid a major failure.

Predictive Maintenance The maintenance method also known as Preventive maintenance. Implement by doing an analysis to detact problem at the equipment @ machine without disturbing the production schedule.


Dilakukan apabila perlu sahaja bagi mesin-mesin yang mempunyai sistem pengurusan berterusan.
Ia dilakukan menggunakan sistem PLC dimana sistem mesin akan disambungkan kepada komputer pengawasan keadaan operasi. Jika terdapat masalah komputer akan melakukan penjajaran secara automatik atau komputer akan mengeluarkan tanda amaran dan memberi tahu samada perlu diservice secara manual atau tidak. Amat efektif tetapi kos permulaan sangat tinggi tetapi memberi pulangan jangka panjang yang amat tinggi.

General Objectives : Understand the maintenance system Specific Objectives : After learned this unit, you should be able to :a. Explain about the Breakdown Maintenance b. Explain about the Protective Maintenance c. Explain about the Corrective Maintenance d. Explain about the Modification Maintenance

Fault (Breakdown) Maintenance

It is implement when a machine or equipment breakdown in operation period. Usually the technician will do service activity to the machine. This method can save time but not effective in reduce cost for some machine. Normally an electric equipment failure are cause by the parts or components in the equipment because of too long operation period. Without a good maintenance planning, the component in the circuit will easily broken. As an example, this is a type of failure that usually occur in a radio :-

1. Failure in Power supply Circuit. Power Transformer Failure

Cause by the open circuit at the transformer coil.

This will cause the radio power supply interrupted, where the primary coil will not induce the 2ndry coil which contribute to the power supply failure.

2. Input Filter Capacitor Failure a. Short Circuit

Filter capacitor is in a parallel condition with the high voltage of positive & negative point. This capacitor act as charger & discharger to get a constant & linear direct current (dc). If the cap is not in good condition, it will easily broken. I.E. when C1 short circuit, the current load that crossing the rectifier diode will become higher & will affect the diode to be in a high temp. & broken.

Input Filter Capacitor Failure b. Open Circuit Electrolytic capacitor is made from an electrolytic substances. This substances are easily dry that will made the capacitor to loss its capability & the cap value is decreased. This will effect the radio to produce a buzz sound. The DC voltage also will become lower because of the ripple & sometimes its cause by a capacitor that is not properly assemble where sometimes the inner part of the capacitor will detach.

Input Filter Capacitor Failure c. Leakage Electrolytic capacitor have an acceptable range of leakage. For every Micro Farad that is assemble to a 300 dc voltage, the leakage current is approximately 0.1 0.25 mA. And for a good capacitor, the leakage is below 10 mA. If the leakage is greater, the chemical substances will flow out. To check the cap condition, adjust the meter to the ohm scale. If the meter pointer swiftly increase to the higher range then turn slowly downward, this show that the cap is in good condition and if there is no response to the meter pointer, this show that the cap is broken.

Protective Maintenance Its cover the process of supervise the equipment in the aspect of checking & re-calibrate the equipment.

This is a practical method because every equipment will be corrected in time to time base on the checking processes.
This will increase the life period of the equipment & avoid it from breakdown in operation period. With this knowledge, maximum protection can be given. I.e., strength of temperature. If the component cannot stand to high temperature & strong vibration, so we need to locate it at low temperature & weak vibration area. So well protect the equipment effectively.

How to protect an electric equipment.

1. We need to do the maintenance routinely to guarantee the life period of an equipment. 2. To make sure the component that is used in the equipment in a good condition & long lasting, take off the casing & clean up all the equipment in the circuit with a dry & clean cloth. 3. This is to make sure there is no dust that can generate electrostatic that can damage the component. To clean the area that are out of sight, dont use high pressure air nozzle instead of use a gentle brush. This is to avoid the dust from going to other area.

How to protect an electric equipment. 4. To avoid failure from occur, make sure all the wire connection arrangement in the equipment is orderly tied. Make sure the wire is not touching the component that emit heat because it can damage the wire. If e there is a minor failure occur to the wire, the wire should be replace as soon as possible. 5. To make sure all the adjustable button operate effectively, use cleaner degreaser. Spray it to the moving are. 6. For an equipment that are using battery, make sure replace the weak battery to avoid acid that is produce by the battery not damage other equipment.

Modification Maintenance

It is implement to a machine @ equipment based on conditioned @ its cannot be repaired to be functioned as before. This might be happened to an old machine @ equipment where the spare part were difficult to find.

General Objectives : Understand the maintenance system

Specific Objectives : After learned this unit, you should be able to :a. How to produce maintenance record b. Cost of Maintenance

Cost of Maintenance

Why it is important? 1. To reduce/ save cost. 2. To avoid waste of time. 3. To avoid waste of spare part

Cost of Maintenance

Preventive Maintenance

Corrective Maintenance

Cost of Maintenance (Preventive)

Budget for equipment or devices that is used or to change before the electronic equipment breakdown Usually the preventive maintenance budget will be used for preparation of equipment and parts that need to be changed when the work of maintenance implemented. For example :VCR player cost of budget ; Clean the Playback Head every month to avoid the non effective operation If the cost of preventive maintenance had been planned effectively, the serious failure that might cause a higher expenses can be avoided.

Cost of Maintenance (Corrective) Budget for equipment or devices that is used to repair the breakdown electronic equipment whether it is relate to a component or others. The cost is used in emergencency condition because the failure is unpredictable. It is also known as a cost that is used for a breakdown machine that cannot operate. The corrective cost of maintenance is important to makesure daily planned task can be implement. The example of budget is as below :For biomedical equipment like a x-ray machine that are facing a failure at one of its cable. So budget will be made to buy a new cable to operate the machine.

Maintenance Schedule Every maintenance need a schedules. It is important to make sure analysis to every data taken in the maintenance activity can be made. For example; the date, how often the failure happened, what type of failure, when and what are the action taken.

Level of Maintenance Schedule It can be divided to a certain level such as :1. Maintenance schedule for 25 to 50 hours or per months. 2. Maintenance schedule for 300 to 500 hours or 6 months. 3. Maintenance schedule for 1000 hours or per year. Other maintenance schedule (if needed).

a) Maintenance schedule for 25 to 50 hours or per months. Clean the VCR play-back head. Check VCR play-back head. Check the connector socket.
Subject Clean the playback head Clean mechanical tape area De magnetize the head Others Date Type of failure Action taken

b) Maintenance schedule for 300 to 500 hours or 6 months.

Check the belts Clean the bottom area. Adjust the belts and others. Subject Date Type of failure Action taken

Clean the playback head Clean mechanical tape area De magnetize the head Others

Exercises State FOUR (4) purposes of maintenance record for a machine in the plant.

a) Rekod bertulis yang mencatat data berkaitan pemilikan mesin.

b) Rekod bertulis yang mencatat segala bentuk kerosakan & kerja pembaikan yg telah dijalankan.
c) Rekod bertulis yang boleh dianalisa untuk asas pembelian baru. d) Rekod bertulis yang mencatat kos @ perbelanjaan yang telah dikeluarkan.

General Objectives : Understand the maintenance system Specific Objectives : After learned this unit, you should be able to :a. Worker in the Maintenance Department b. An Example of Maintenance Organization c. Internal & External Maintenance Team

Organization of Maintenance A hierarchy of order in company with one or more management institution to achieve the same work objective. Combination among a task that are needed to maintain, service & repair a product to get a higher level of performance. One of the task that related to the maintenance is teaching the way to operate or maintain a product or an equipment.

2 type of maintenance task



Preventive maintenance task Task that are responsible to prevent @ to avoid breakdown of a product. Corrective maintenance task Task that are responsible to a corrective/ repair activity if any failure occur to a product. An effective maintenance system is needed to avoid the waste of time, cost and labour. So, the schedule of maintenance can be implement.

Staff in the maintenance department Full time worker where the salary payment is under the company responsibility. Combination between the permanent worker & the supplier. The company staff like a technician will do a routine service task where as the supplier will do a particular service task. Normally this task need an expert person to repair @ to service the equipment. The supplier will come only when their expertise is needed. This kind of combination can contribute to cost down activity & to reduce staff in maintenance department.

Contract Maintenance As example ; a company supervisor & the contract staff. Contractor will supply a worker that have a special skill where they will work under the supervisor supervision. This method will reduce the training cost & also the work load of the administration department


Maintenance Manager

Technical Manager

Supervisor (Stock)

Supervisor (Service)


Site Support (Supplier/Cont ract)






Function for each unit a) Maintenance Manager Observe the progress and the productivity of each unit under their supervision. The observation are base on the technical manager report. b) Technical Manager Give instruction to each unit base on the Maintenance Manager plan. The Technical Manager will solve any problem happened in the department before refer it to the Maintenance Manager.

Function for each unit c) Supervisor & Technician (stock) Control the flow of spare part stock for Maintenance activity. This is important to make sure the maintenance activity can be implement effectively. d) Supervisor & Technician (services) Do the maintenance, service and repair task to the machine or equipment. Each of them will responsible to their in charge machine. If breakdown condition occur, they will request spare part form stock unit.

Function for each unit e) Finance Control the financial expenses of the maintenance department. They will prepare the budget report to the maintenance department. f) Site Support (Supplier/Contractor) Contact the supplier @ the contractor if they need a particular expertise. This unit will act to solve the problem after refer the problem to the Technical Manager and Maintenance Manager. They will make sure the supplier will follow their agreement.




Internal Maintenance Team

As below :-

a. b. c. d. e. f.

Maintenance manager Technical manager Supervisor and technician (stock) Supervisor and technician (service) Financial Site support (supplier and contractor)

Internal Maintenance Team

Permanent employee. Do the routine maintenance, scheduled service job and also the preventive maintenance activity. Normally, for a bigger company, they will be located at the headquarters.

External Maintenance Team Divided to 2 groups :a. Out station maintenance team For a huge organization that have many branches. They will locate their maintenance team to their operation branches.

They will do the work of maintenance, service and corrective activity at their in charge zone. This area will be determine by the headquarters.

b. Supplier @ contractor maintenance team. Staff supplied by the supplier and the contractor. They will be inform when some particular expertise need to be done. This team are a very skillful and expert on their work area. They are paid by the supplier or contractor.

This combination will contribute to an effective and optimal work level if the management of both maintenance team conducted correctly and effectively.