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Traffic Engineering

Precious Anne B. Palma BSCE 4A

10-17 FREEWAY AND EXPRESSWAY OPERATIONS


10-18 STREET LIGHTING 10-19 STREET PARKING

10-20 HIGHWAY CAPACITY AND LEVEL OF SERVICE

10-17 FREEWAY AND EXPRESSWAY OPERATIONS

10-17 FREEWAY AND EXPRESSWAY OPERATIONS

FREEWAYS
are designed for high speed, free flowing, low accident facilities and operate without hindrances from traffic control. Type of roadway that operates well because of their isolation from the surroundings.

10-17 FREEWAY AND EXPRESSWAY OPERATIONS

EXPRESSWAY
A highway especially planned for high speed traffic, usually having few if any intersections, limited points of access or exits, and a divider between lanes for traffic moving in opposite directions.

10-17 FREEWAY AND EXPRESSWAY OPERATIONS


RECOMMENDED RELIEF TO ALLEVIATE CONGESTIONS:

1. Ramp control is necessary to prevent the flow disruption.


2. Entry of vehicles on the ramp should be restricted or stopped when breakdown on the flow of the freeway is noticed.

10-17 FREEWAY AND EXPRESSWAY OPERATIONS


3. Delay few motorists who wish to enter the ramp than those motorists traveling on the freeway.

4. Close the ramp completely before the flow on the freeway reaches critical level. 5. The use of service roads or arterial streets parallel to freeways during peak hours should be prevented.

10-17 FREEWAY AND EXPRESSWAY OPERATIONS

MOTORIST PROBLEMS ON FREEWAYS AND EXPRESSWAYS:


1. The motorists are completely isolated from the surrounding community. 2. Walking on freeway shoulders is very dangerous.

3. It is almost impossible to walk on elevated structures that have neither shoulders nor walkways.

10-17 FREEWAY AND EXPRESSWAY OPERATIONS

4. Motorist would not like to leave their vehicles for fear of robbery and attack.
5. Repair of modern vehicles is difficult by the driver or passing motorists.

10-17 FREEWAY AND EXPRESSWAY OPERATIONS

SOLUTIONS:

Provision of systematic surveillance.

10-17 FREEWAY AND EXPRESSWAY OPERATIONS

Installment of emergency radio or telephone at roadside.

10-17 FREEWAY AND EXPRESSWAY OPERATIONS

Emergency vehicles and crews should standby on call to remove obstructing vehicles as quickly as possible. Patrol cars should be along the freeways for immediate assistance to motorists.

10-18 STREET LIGHTING

10-17 STREET LIGHTING

Highway and street lighting are generally incorporated in the design to illuminate the roadway to provide seeing by silhouette.

10-17 STREET LIGHTING


When the object is seen darker than the background, discernment is by silhouette. If the object is lighter than the background, seeing is a reverse silhouette.

10-17 STREET LIGHTING


RECOMMENDED LEVEL OF ILLUMINATION FOR STREETS AND HIGHWAYS:
For expressways, the standard proposed foot-candle is 10. For sidewalks on commercial areas, the recommended level of illumination is 1.0 foot-candle. For residential streets, the value is 1.0 foot-candle. For collector road facilities: between arterials and minor streets.

For freeways, the uniformity ratio is set at 3:1 OR 4:1.

10-17 STREET LIGHTING


LIGHTING SOURCE AND INSTALLATION Highway lighting adopt the new and more economical types high and low pressure sodium and metallic halide but the trend is toward the use of high pressure sodium with common wattage for all types from 175 to 1000 watts.

10-17 STREET LIGHTING


CRITERIA OF LUMINAIRES AS STREET LIGHTS
1. Recommended practice: Install luminaires at 12 meters or more above the roadway, although at present, the predominant mounting height is between 7.50 and 10.50 meters. 2. When mounting is high, a more uniform illumination can be maintained even though units are widely spaced. 3. High mounting of lights reduces the blinding effects or glare. 4. Luminaires distribute light to a definite pattern that suits particular condition. 5. For higher mounting, the spacing could be in the range of 60 meters apart with fixtures mounted on both sides of the road. 6. Uniform distribution could be adopted at intersections. 7. Suspend the luminaires over the roadway, sometimes on cables or mast arms extending outward from the roadside. 8. For roadway interchanges, the trend is to mount the luminaires on high poles, as high as 45 meters.

10-19 STREET PARKING

10-17 STREET PARKING


EFFECTS OF STREET PARKING
Reduces the capacity of the road

Creates congestions and confusions

Increases travel time and accidents of vehicles

10-17 STREET PARKING


Lord Ellenborough a famous jurist of England who asserted that: The Kings Highway should not be used as stable yard. He established the principle that: Streets are primarily for the free passage of the public and anything that impedes that passage, except in an emergency is a nuisance that may be abated. Parking of vehicles even in front of ones owned property is classified as a privilege subject to control and not as a right.

10-20 HIGHWAY CAPACITY AND LEVEL OF SERVICE

10-20 HIGHWAY CAPACITY AND LEVEL OF SERVICE

CAPACITY The capacity of any element of the highway system is the maximum number of vehicles with reasonable expectation of passing over the section (either one or both directions) during a given period time under prevailing roadway and traffic conditions.

10-20 HIGHWAY CAPACITY AND LEVEL OF SERVICE


HIGHWAY CAPACITY
Facility Freeway and Expressway away from rams and weaving sections, per lane per hour Two lane highways, total in both directions per hour Three lane highways, total in each direction per hour A 3.60 m lane at signalized intersections per hour of green signal time (no interference and ideal progression) Capacity in Passenger Car 2,000

2,000 2,000 1,800

10-20 HIGHWAY CAPACITY AND LEVEL OF SERVICE


DEFINING TERMS ASSOCIATED WITH CAPACITY
Maximum Volume The traffic flow is likely to continue without breakdown and serious compositions. Number of Vehicles Capacity is stated in passenger cars per hour. Trucks and buses in the traffic stream can decrease the road capacity substantially.

10-20 HIGHWAY CAPACITY AND LEVEL OF SERVICE


Reasonable Expectations Values for capacity cannot be determined exactly due to the many variable that affect traffic flows, particularly at high volumes. One Direction Against Two Directions Traffic is one direction flows independently from that of the other. On the other hand, on two and three lane roads there are interactions between traffic in the two directions and these affect traffic flow and capacity.

10-20 HIGHWAY CAPACITY AND LEVEL OF SERVICE


A Given Time Period Traffic volume and capacity are stated in vehicles per hour but traffic flow does not vary uniformly with time, volume and capacities. This variation within an hour is expressed by a peak hour factor (PHF).

10-20 HIGHWAY CAPACITY AND LEVEL OF SERVICE


Prevailing Roadway and Traffic Conditions This includes physical features that affect capacity like lane and shoulder width, sight distance and grades. Ambient Condition Is weather related conditions that affect capacity such as rain, fog, smog or wind.

10-20 HIGHWAY CAPACITY AND LEVEL OF SERVICE

LEVEL OF SERVICE
The level of service is commonly accepted as measure of the restrictive effects of increased volume.
Each segment of the roadway can be rated at an appropriate level from A to F inclusive to reflect its condition at given demand of service volume.

10-20 HIGHWAY CAPACITY AND LEVEL OF SERVICE


LEVEL OF SERVICE Level A B C D Free Flow; speed control by drivers desire. Stable Flow; operating speeds beginning to be restricted: little or no restrictions on maneuver ability from other vehicles. Stable Flow; speeds and maneuverability more closely restricted. Approaches unstable flow; tolerable speeds can be maintained but temporary restrictions to flow cause substantial drop in speed. Volume near capacity; speeds in neighborhood of 45 km/hr. Flow stable: stoppage of momentary duration. Ability to maneuver is limited. Forced Flow; low operating speeds, volume below capacity.

10-20 HIGHWAY CAPACITY AND LEVEL OF SERVICE


Ideal Conditions for the roadway to have an uninterrupted flow:

3.60 meters lane and 1.80 meters wide shoulder

Road with flat grades

Sight disturbance unrestricted

No trucks or buses plying the route

10-20 HIGHWAY CAPACITY AND LEVEL OF SERVICE


FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE REDUCTION OF ROAD CAPACITY AND LEVEL OF SERVICE: 1. Narrow lanes and shoulders, and restriction on edge clearance. 2. Sharp horizontal curves create dynamic forces to which drivers react. 3. Commercial vehicles like truck require more highway space per vehicle than the passenger cars.

4. Effects of grade on uphill road, makes desirable vehicle spacing for higher road capacity.

10-20 HIGHWAY CAPACITY AND LEVEL OF SERVICE


WEAVING SECTION Weaving section is defined as the crossing of two or more traffic streams traveling in the same general directions along a significant path of highway with the aid of traffic signal. Vehicle entering the freeway must weave with those leaving the freeway.

10-20 HIGHWAY CAPACITY AND LEVEL OF SERVICE


In establishing level of service for design purposes, each highway agency establishes its own guidelines composed of two elements:

The traffic volume served

To proportion the basic freeway, weaving sections, ramps and ramp junctions

10-20 HIGHWAY CAPACITY AND LEVEL OF SERVICE


Grade % Length meter Four Lanes Percentage Trucks 2 10 20 Six or More Lanes Percentage Trucks 2 10 20

2 2
4 4 6 6

400 2400
400 1600 400 800

2 7
7 17 9 28

2 4
4 9 6 18

2 3
4 9 6 18

2 7
7 13 10 20

2 4
4 8 5 14

2 3
3 8 5 14

PASSENGER CAR EQUIVALENT OF TRUCKS ON FREEWAY UPGRADES

10-20 HIGHWAY CAPACITY AND LEVEL OF SERVICE


Freeway Volume in One

Level of Service
A B C D E (capacity) F

Direction Checkpoint Four Lane Eight Lane


1600 2500 3400 3850 4000 ** 3280 5400 6800 7700 8000 Highly variable

Volumes Merge
750 1200 1500 1800 2000

Diverges
800 1300 1650 1900 2000

Weave Volume
500 700 1300 1550 2000

LIMITING VOLUMES IN PASSENGER CARS PER HOUR FQR FREEWAYS AND ON AND OFF RAMPS FOR VARIOUS LEVELS PF SERVICE AND PHF OF 1.00

10-20 HIGHWAY CAPACITY AND LEVEL OF SERVICE


FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE CAPACITY AND LEVEL OF SERVICE:

1. The Physical and operating width approaches. 2. The Physical and operating parking conditions. 3. Physical and operating one way versus two way streets.

4. Environmental conditions load factor

10-20 HIGHWAY CAPACITY AND LEVEL OF SERVICE

5. Environmental conditions peak hour 6. Traffic characteristics movements turning

7. Traffic characteristics trucks and through buses 8. Traffic characteristics local transit buses.

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