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CARBOHYDRATES

By : Rahmayuni Fitrianti 30101206722 SGD 12

CONTENTS
Definition of carbohydrate Classification : Monosaccarides, Disaccarides, Polysaccarides The role of carbohydrates in body Carbohydrate digestion Carbohydrate absorption Glucose homeostasis Disease conditions related to carbohydrate consumption

DEFINITION
A carbohydrate is an organic compound that is composed of atoms of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a ratio of 1 carbon atom, 2 hydrogen atoms, and 1 oxygen atom.

CLASSIFICATION

Monosaccharides : single sugars Disaccharides : 2 monosaccharides Polysaccharides : chains of monosaccharides

MONOSACCHARIDES
Monosaccharrides

are single

sugars

All isomers of C6H12O6

Glucose serves as the essential energy source, and is commonly known as blood sugar or dextrose. Fructose is the sweetest, occurs naturally in honey and fruits, and is added to many foods in the form of high-fructose corn syrup. Galactose rarely occurs naturally as a single sugar.

DISACCHARIDES
Disaccharides

are pairs of monosaccharides, one of which is always glucose


Condensation reactions link monosaccharides together. Hydrolysis reactions split molecules and commonly occur during digestion. Maltose consists of two glucose units. It is produced during the germination of seeds and fermentation. Sucrose is fructose and glucose combined. It is made from sugarcane and sugar beets, and tastes sweet. Lactose is galactose and glucose combined. It is found in milk and milk products.

POLYSACCHARIDES

Polysaccharides : chains of monosaccharides

Starch is a long (100's) polymer of Glucose molecules, where all the sugars are oriented in the same direction. Starch is one of the primary sources of calories for humans. Cellulose is a long (100's) polymer of Glucose molecules. In Cellulose, every other sugar molecule is "upside-down". This small difference in structure makes a big difference in the way we use this molecule. Glycogen : Glycogen is a stored energy source, found in the Liver and muscles of Humans. Glycogen is different from both Starch and Cellulose in that the Glucose chain is branched or "forked".

THE ROLE OF CARBOHYDRATES IN THE BODY


As

a source of energy Protein-sparing action Essential for Fat Oxidation Role in gastro-intestinal function

CARBOHYDRATE DIGESTION

Begins in mouth
chewing releases saliva enzyme amylase hydrolyzes starch to polysaccharides and maltose

Stomach
no enzymes available to break down starch acid does some breakdown fibers in starch provide feeling of fullness

Small intestine
majority of carbohydrate digestion takes place here pancreatic amylase reduces carbs to glucose chains or disaccharides specific enzymes finish the job

maltase maltose into 2 glucose sucrase sucrose into glucose and fructose lactase lactose into glucose and galactose

Large intestine
1-4 hours for sugars and starches to be digested only fibers remain

attract water, which softens stool water, gas, short-chain fatty acids (used for energy)

bacteria ferment some fibers

CARBOHYDRATE DIGESTION IN THE GI TRACT

Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

CARBOHYDRATE ABSORPTION
glucose can be absorbed in the mouth majority absorbed in small intestine

active transport

glucose and galactic

facilitated diffusion
fructose smaller rise in blood glucose

GLUCOSE HOMEOSTASIS
Maintaining

an even balance of glucose is controlled by insulin and glucagon Insulin : moves glucose into the cell Glucagon : brings glucose out of storage

Intestine

1
When a person eats, blood glucose rises.

MAINTAINING BLOOD GLUCOSE HOMEOSTASIS

Pancreas Insulin

2
High blood glucose stimulates the pancreas to release insulin.

3
Liver

Insulin stimulates the uptake of glucose into cells and storage as glycogen in the liver and muscles. Insulin also stimulates the conversion of excess glucose into fat for storage.

Fat cell

Muscle

4
As the body's cells use glucose, blood levels decline.

Pancreas Glucagon

Low blood glucose stimulates the pancreas to release glucagon into the bloodstream. Glucagon stimulates liver cells to break down glycogen and release glucose into the blood.a

6
Glucose Insulin Glucagon Glycogen
a

Liver

The stress hormone epinephrine and other hormones also bring glucose out of storage.

Blood glucose begins to rise.

DISEASE CONDITIONS RELATED TO


CARBOHYDRATE CONSUMPTION Diabetes Mellitus Hypoglycemia Lactose Intolerance Galactosemia Dental Caries

SOURCE
http://www.bupa.co.uk/individuals/healthinformation/directory/c/carbohydrates http://www.rawfoodexplained.com/carbohydrates/ http://bioweb.wku.edu/courses/biol115/wyatt/bioche m/carbos.htm

Thank you for your attention!