You are on page 1of 15

Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)

Presented By Prashant Kumar M.Tech. 1st Year

TEM was first built by Max Knoll and Ernst Ruska in 1931.
1000X more magnification than light microscope. Used to reveal ultra structure of plant and animal cells as

well as viruses and macromolecules.

Electrons pass through a (very thin) sample (i.e. are

transmitted) to form an image.

Simplistically, In its operation a TEM can be thought of

as analogous to a slide projector.

1. Electron Gun
2. The condenser system 3. The sample 4. Image formation

5. Projection

Electron Guns
There are 2 types :1. 2.

Thermionic Electron Gun Field Emission Gun (FEG)

Thermionic sources produce electrons when heated. Field emission sources produce electrons when exposed to

an intense electric field.

FEGs give much more brightness than thermionic systems.

FEGs give a more monochromatic

electron source and

finer probe (i.e. better resolution).

The Condenser System

The Wehnelt (or 2nd anode in a

FEG) focuses the beam to a crossover which is accelerated down the column.
The first condenser de-magnifies

the crossover to give a smaller point source this is referred to as C1 or spot size.
The second condenser lens C2 is

used to either converge or spread the beam of illumination on the sample (intensity or brightness ).

The Condenser System

A condenser aperture is placed in the beam path to remove

electrons far from the optic axis which would reduce

The smaller the aperture the better the resolution, but

there is an associated decrease in brightness need to compromise.

Sample preparation
For a metallic sample:

For a non metallic sample:

Cut or slice a section of material less than 1mm thick. 2. Mount on glass slide and Grind to less than 80m thick with a 0.25m or better finish. 3. Mount on support grids if necessary. 4. Dimple to leave ~10 m of material remaining. 5. Ion beam mill to perforation. 6. Some samples require coating to prevent charging effects.

Cut or slice a section of

material less than 1 mm thick.

Produce 3mm diameter blanks

by either Punching, or spark

Grind and polish blanks to

less than 80m thick and

0.25m or better finish.

For biological samples

Biological samples require fixing and embedding before being stained with heavy metals (e.g. OsO4) for contrast prior to ultra microtome sectioning. Very time consuming.

Image Formation
All rays from a point in the

object are gathered by the lens and converge to a point in the image.
All parallel rays are focused in
Objective lens

the focal plane.

The back focal plane of the




groupings of rays that have left the object at the same angle.

The back focal plane contains the diffraction

pattern of the sample.

Diffraction pattern and image are both formed in

the imaging process

The intermediate lens is then focused on either the

image plane (for the image), or the back focal plane (for the diffraction pattern).

Projection - Magnification
A series of projector lenses are

used to magnify the image formed by the intermediate lens onto a viewing screen.
Electron micro lenses are

electromagnetic in nature.
They consists of cylindrical soft

metal core (pole piece) with a hole drilled through it (bore) wound with copper wire.

When a current is passed through the coil a

magnetic field is created in the bore.

Changing current in the windings changes the

magnetic field and effectively changes the focal length of the lens.
Increase the current and focal length f of the lens

decreases so weaker lens f1 gives a higher magnification than stronger lens f2 as image distance v increases but the, object distance is unchanged.

Applications of TEM

Medical Sciences Metallurgy

Material Sciences
Life Sciences

1. 2. Introduction to nanotechnology By Charles Poole 3.