Basic Hand Tools

ELT COLLISION REPAIR

Goals
• identify and describe use of common hand tools • identify and describe use of vices and clamps • identify and describe use of selected specialty tools • describe safe use of tools • describe maintenance and storage of tools
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semi-deep and deep sockets available • Maximum torque range is approx.¼ Inch Drive • Available in 6 or 12 point sockets • Shallow. 4 . 20 ft lbs.

5 . 60 ft lbs. and deep sockets • Maximum torque range is approx.3/8 Drive • Sockets come in 6 and 12 point varieties • Shallow. semi deep.

3/8. and ½” • Impact or chrome finish • Allow access to difficult to reach fasteners 6 .Universals • Come in all sizes. ¼.

Sockets • • • • • • • Shallow Semi-deep Deep 6 point 12 point Impact Chrome 7 .

or 12 point types 8 . semi-deep and deep configurations • Impact or chrome finish • 6.Sockets • Available in shallow. 8.

Identify Basic Hand Tools 9 .

hardened and tempered for long service life.end. • Types include open-end. combination box/open end. 10 .Wrenches • Top quality wrenches are forged from fine-grade tool steel. socket and locking grip styles. machined to close tolerances. adjustable. box.

Box open Double open ended Double box end 11 .

Offset wrench 40° 12 .

6 and 12 point ends • See how much greater flexibility a 12 point box end gives the operator • 12 point gives the advantage of moving the fastener in 30° degree increments as opposed to 60° for the 6 point 13 .

Box-end Wrenches • Made to grip all sides of nut or bolt head • Prevents slippage • Must be slipped over the end of nut or bolthead • Box end wrenches will normally have two different sizes per wrench • Size of wrench refers to nut or bolt head dimensions 14 .

Box-end Wrenches • Available as 6 or12 point design • 6 point gives better grip • 12 point gives more versatility as it is only required to turn 300 to its next available position while 6 point must turn 600 • Available as ratchet design 15 .

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Open-end wrenches • do not provide as strong a grip as a boxended wrench • slip on the nut or bolt head from the side • two flat surfaces parallel to each other hold onto parallel sides of nut or bolt-head • tend to slip or round the corners if too much pressure is required • easier to use most instances 17 .

Double Open End • Wrench angle may vary from 15-80 degrees • Wrench will have two different sizes listed on the handle 18 .

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Combination Wrench • box end on one end and open end on the other • both ends will usually be the same size • gives the advantage of wrench that will not slip as easily to start a nut. but one that is easier to slide on and off the nut once it has been loosened 20 .

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Adjustable Wrench • (crescent wrench) • has provision for adjusting the opening for different size nuts or bolt heads • length of wrench will correspond with jaw capacity • do not use where components are tight and will require sizeable force to break them free 22 .

Adjustable Wrench • unless jaw is tightened to nut. etc. there is potential for slipping on fastener. which will usually damage fastener • do not use on brass or soft material 23 .

Adjustable Wrench • for light loads can be used in either direction • greatest strength is with pressure being applied to side of wrench with fixed jaw • adjustment mechanism should be cleaned periodically and lightly oiled 24 .

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Tubing Wrench • half way between a box-end and combination wrench • designed to grab on five of the six sides of a fitting • especially designed for used on line fittings • always use for brass and copper fittings • less chance of damage to fitting 26 .

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Socket Wrench • come in a great variety • designed to fit around the fastener and give force to all sides • will fit into recesses • have swivel attachments • deep sockets where longer number of threads are showing 28 .

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Socket Wrench • different number of points available • 4 and 8 point sockets are designed for 4 sided fasteners • 6 and 12 point sockets are designed for 6 sided fasteners • 4 and 6 point sockets will be stronger because of the amount of metal 31 .

regular and impact impact sockets are designed for use with impact wrenches thicker walls and heavier construction allow them to absorb the shock of an impact gun impact sockets are not chrome plated as the plating may crack and flake off never use regular sockets with impact tool 32 .• • • • • Socket Wrench two types of construction .

speed • many adapters available • extensions.Socket Wrench • sockets attach to a handle with a square drive • common drive sizes range from 1/4” to 3/4” • drive handle are the same for both metric and imperial • several types of handles available • flex handle. u-joints etc. ratchet. 33 .

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may dull or chip the jaw teeth 38 .Pipe Wrench • used for turning pipe and other round objects • teeth on the jaw will dig into the the material being tightened and may damage it • do not use a pipe wrench to turn a bolt or a nut unless the components is already damaged • do no use on hardened surfaces .

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Hexagon Key Wrench (Allen Wrench) • • • • Six sides .L-shaped fit into a hexagon hole in a Allen screw available as imperial or metric sized according to distance between parallel sides • available as socket style wrenches 40 .

Hexagon Key Wrench (Allen Wrench) • use the short end of the wrench on the screw for breaking loose or final tightening • use the long end of the wrench in the screw to spin the tools quickly for fast removal and install of allen screw • Allen screws usually need to be only released one or two turns to loosen the part they are holding 41 .

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Maintaining Wrenches
• Keep clean - dirty wrenches can slip and cause damage and contamination of the work piece • Always use the correct size and type of wrench for the job • Do not use a hammer on a wrench • Do not use a pipe or other means of extending a wrench for greater leverage
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Maintaining Wrenches (cont’d) • Adjustable wrenches and pipe wrenches should be cleaned and lightly oiled • Do not use a wrench as a hammer • Do not use a socket as a bushing driver • Hexagon or Allen wrenches can be reconditioned when the tip becomes damaged • Grind back to obtain a true hexagon shape 45 .

Maintaining Wrenches (cont’d) • Hexagon or Allen wrenches can be reconditioned when the tip becomes damaged • Grind back to obtain a true hexagon size and shape • Keep cool during grinding to avoid removing temper 46 .

gripping.Pliers • pliers available as many different types and sizes • used for holding. cutting. and crimping • usually forged from hardened steel and then machined 47 .

Slip-joint Pliers • most common general purpose pliers • adjusted to two size of jaw openings • jaws have hardened cross teeth to help in gripping the object • jaws can damage soft materials • never use pliers for turning nuts or bolts • teeth will round off corners and damage bolt or nut 48 .

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Interlocking Slip-joint Pliers • commonly referred to as water pump pliers or channel locks • can be opened to a number of positions while keeping the jaws parallel with each other • longer handles to aid in gripping when opened for larger objects 51 .

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etc. • available as round nose pliers • useful for bending wires into curves 53 .Needle-nose Pliers • available in a variety of sizes • some incorporate a wire cutter • used to hold objects that are in tight confines.

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close to the surface 56 .Side Cutting Pliers • diagonal cut head or face • hardened steel cutting edges • allow to cut wire etc.

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Locking Pliers • commonly called vise-grips • useful for holding panels or sheet metal in place • can hold objects in place when you are working alone and cannot reach both inside and outside at same time • Very common in Collision Repair • straight. curved. flat 59 . needle nose.

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strippers and crimpers) • battery terminal pliers • ignition pliers • snap ring pliers 62 .Specialized Pliers • many different types of pliers available • electrical pliers (cutters.

Electrical Pliers • • • • Cutters. strippers and crimpers available for different types of wire some are multi-function better quality units are individual such as stripper or cutter only 63 .

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external snap rings and external snap rings • internal snap rings require contracting jaws • external snap rings require expanding jaws • some will have serrated jaw surfaces to prevent the snap ring from slipping. while others have tips on the end of the jaws to fit in holes in the snap rings 67 .Snap Ring Pliers • two types .

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green and yellow • red and green typically to cut curves • red and green cutting different directions of curve 70 .Metal Cutting Snips • Available in several different styles • Aviation snips come in red.

except lower jaw will be above the material being cut • this will mean that you do need both red and green depending on the direction that you are cutting through the material 71 .Metal Cutting Snips (cont’d) • Using these snips the jaws are curved so that the metal being cut off will curve up out of the way • the whole snip.

Metal Cutting Tools 72 .

Metal Cutting Tools Aviation Shears Tin Snips 73 .

Maintaining Pliers • Pliers are not made to withstand pressures greater than normal hand pressure • Never attempt to cut large screws or bolts with electrical or side cutter pliers • Never attempt to cut hardened material with pliers • Never put excessive side pressure on needlenose pliers 74 .

Maintaining Pliers (cont’d) • Never use pliers for turning nuts and bolts. as the teeth will round off the corners and damage the nut or bolt • Lubricate the swivel point with a light oil • Keep the pliers clean 75 .

Screwdrivers • great variety of screwdrivers types and sizes available • length of screwdriver is measured form to to where handle joins the blade • shorter screwdrivers known as stubbies • most screwdrivers bits available for screw guns or as socket wrenches 76 .

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Blade Screwdrivers • blade screwdrivers are made to fit screws with a single slot • size of screw head and slot are the deciding factors for the screwdriver selection • screwdriver blade should fit the slot both in width and depth 78 .

Blade Screwdrivers • too thin of a blade is likely to damage the screwdriver • too thick of a blade is likely to damage the screw • too wide of a blade is likely to damage the material around the screw head • too narrow of a blade is likely to damage the screwdriver 79 .

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2. 3. & 4 available • 0 being the smallest and 4 being the largest • using the wrong size screwdriver may damage screw.Phillips Screwdrivers • tip is shaped as an X or cross • the size of the screwdriver blade must correspond to the size of the screw head • sizes 0. screwdriver and surface 81 . 1.

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3.Robertson Screwdrivers • tips in the shape of a square with screw having a recess for tip • size of screwdriver must correspond to the size of screw • sizes 00. & 4 available • handles are color coordinated for ease of selection 83 . 0. 1. 2.

8. no. & 7 screws no. 2 no. no.Robertson Screwdrivers • • • • • • orange yellow green red black black 00 0 1 3 4 no. no. 9. 6. 1 & 2 screws 3 & 4 screws 5. & 10 screws 12 & 14 screws 16 & larger 84 .

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Clutch Screwdrivers • • • • screwdriver head and tip must match not common in the automotive industry some U. built RV coaches use them available in 6 sizes from 3/32” to 5/16” 86 .S.

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Torx Screwdrivers
• screw head and screwdriver tip must match • looks like an allen wrench will fit, but they are not compatible • very strong type of head • available as socket wrenches for a more positive drive even with impact drivers
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Maintaining Screwdrivers
• Always use the right type of screwdriver for the screw • Always use the right size of screwdriver head for the screw • Never use a screwdriver as a punch, prying tool, scraper of chisel • screwdrivers that are damaged or the wrong size or type may damage the user or the material being worked on or the screw head

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to enable you to put more torque on a fitting 91 .Maintaining Screwdrivers (cont’d) • Screwdriver bits are available for use in reversible drills • Screwdriver bits are also available as sockets.

plastic.Drill bits • Drill bits are available in clockwise and counter clockwise rotation for different applications – boring holes. bolt extraction • Other types may have specific applications for cutting different materials – metal. wood 92 .

Common Body Shop Drill Bits • Conventional bit 93 .

Stepped Drill Bit 94 .

Twist drill 10-12° lip clearance angle flute margin land flute cutting lip dead centre 95 .

Twist Drill 96 .

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