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ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR: LEADERSHIP

TOPIC 10

DEFINITION
LEADERSHIP Influencing, motivating and enabling others to contribute towards the effectiveness and success of the organizations of which they are members. SHARED LEADERSHIP The view that the leadership is broadly distributed rather than assigned to one person, such that people within the team and organization lead each other.

PERSPECTIVE OF LEADERSHIP
COMPETENCY PERSPECTIVE

IMPLICIT LEADERSHIP PERSPECTIVE

BEHAVIORAL PERSPECTIVE

PERSPECTIVE OF LEADERSHIP

TRANSFORMATIONAL PERSPECTIVE

CONTIGENCY PERSPECTIVE

COMPETENCY PERSPECTIVE OF LEADERSHIP


Leadership Traits Emotional intelligence Description The leaders ability to monitor his/her own & others emotion, discriminate among them & use the information to guide his/her thoughts and actions The leaders truthfulness & tendency to translate words into deeds.

Integrity

Drive
Leadership Motivation Self- Confidence Intelligence Knowledge Of Business

The leaders inner motivation to pursue goals.


The leaders need for socialized power to accomplish team or organizational goals. The leaders belief in his/her own leadership skills and ability to achieve objectives. The leaders above average cognitive ability to process and enormous amounts of information. The leaders tacit and explicit knowledge about the companys environment, enabling him/her to make more intuitive decisions.

Behavioral Perspective of Leadership


Cluster of leadership behavior
1.

People-oriented

Showing mutual trust and respect for subordinate demonstrating a genuine concern for their needs and having a desired to look for their welfare Example: Leaders listen to employee suggestion, do personal favor for employee, support their interest when required etc.

2.

Task-oriented

Behavior that define and structure work roles. Establish stretch goals and challenge employee beyond high standard. Example: Leaders assign employees specific task, clarify work duties and procedure, ensures employees follow company rules and push to reach their performance capacity.

CONTIGENCY PERSPECTIVE OF LEADERSHIP


Based on the idea that the most appropriate

leadership style depends on the situation Assume that effective leaders must be both insightful and flexible.

PATH-GOAL THEORY OF LEADERSHIP


A contingency theory of leadership based on expectancy

theory of motivation that relates several leadership styles to specific employee and situational contingencies.

PATH-GOAL LEADERSHIP THEORY

EMPLOYEE CONTIGENCIES Skills and experience Locus of control

LEADER BEHAVIORS Directive Supportive Participative Achievement oriented

LEADER EFFECTIVENESS Employee motivation Employee satisfaction Leader acceptance

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTIGENCIES Task structure Team dynamic

PATH GOAL LEADERSHIP STYLES


1.

DIRECTIVE
provide a psychological structure for subordinates. Includes judicious use of reward and disciplinary actions.

2.

SUPPORTIVE

Provide psychological support for subordinates. Reflects the benefits of social support to help employees cope with stressful situations.

Cont
3. PARTICIPATIVE
Encourage and facilitate subordinates involvement in

decision beyond their normal work activities. 4.

ACHIEVEMENT ORIENTED
Encourage employees to reach their peak performance. E.g. Continuously seeks improvement in employee

performance.

Contingencies of path-goal theory


The path-goal leadership model specifies two

sets of situational variable that moderate the relationship between a leaders style and effectiveness: Employee characteristics Characteristics of the employees work environment

Four contingencies
Skill and experience

Locus of control
Task structure

Team dynamics

Other Contingency Leader Theories


Situational Leadership

Fiedlers Contingency

Model (Hersey/Blanchard) Effective leaders vary style with follower readiness Leader styles telling, selling, participating, and delegating

Model
Leadership style is stable --based on personality Best style depends on situational control -leader-member relations, task structure, position power

TRANSFORMATION PERSPECTIVE OF LEADERSHIP


Transformation Leadership

- A leadership perspective that explain how leaders

c h a n g e teams o r organization b y c re a tin g , communicating and modeling a vision for the organization or work unit and inspiring employees to s t r i v e t h e v i s i o n
Transactional Leadership

- Leadership that help the organization achieve their current objectives more efficient, such as linking job performances to valued rewards and make sure the employees have the resources to make a job

TRANSFORMATION VERSUS TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP


TRANSFORMATION LEADERSHIP managing helping organizations achieve their current objectives more efficiently Ship steers company into a better with the surrounding environment. TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP leading- changing the organizations strategies and culture so they fit better with the surrounding environment. Improves the organizations efficiency .

TRANSFORMATION VERSUS CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP


TRANSFORMATIONS LEADERSHIP Personal trait that provides referent power over followers . Opposite effect they support follower empowerment, which tends to reduce dependence on the leader. CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP Set of behavior that people use to lead the change process. Produces dependent followers

ELEMENTS OF TRANFORMATIONALS LEADERSHIP


Creating a Strategic Vision.

- Leaders to shape a strategic vision of realistic

and attractive future that bonds employees together and focuses their energy towards a super ordinate organizational goal.
Communicating the Vision

- The substances of transformational leadership,

then communicating that vision is the process. The vision can bring through symbols, metaphors, stories and others.

Modeling the Vision.

- walk the walk by stepping outside the executive suite and doing things that symbolize the vision. - also reliable and persistent in their actions, thereby legitimizing the vision and providing further evidence that they can be trusted.
Building Commitments.

- Transforming vision into reality requires employee commitment. - Leaders demonstrate a can do by enacting their behavior. - Leaders builds commitment by involves in process shaping organization vision.

EVALUATING THE TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP PERSPECTIVE


- Subordinates are more satisfied and have

higher affective organizational commitment under transformational leaders. - Performs their jobs better, engage in more organizational citizenship behaviors, and make better or more creative decisions. - currently the most popular leadership perspectives but it faces numbers challenges. - writers engage in cir cular logic by defining transformational leadership in terms of the leaders success.

Implicit Leadership Perspective


Implicit leadership theory is theory hypothesizing that

perceptual processes cause people to inflate the importance of leadership as the cause of organizational events. Stereotyping Leadership Everyone have preconceived notions about the features and behaviors of an effective leader.
Develop through socialization within the family and society.

Mental images of an ideal leader shape our expectations

and acceptance of people as a leaders, which affect ability to influence us as followers.

Attributing Leadership
Implicit leadership are influence by attribution errors. People tend to attribute org events to the leader, even

factors beyond the leaders control.

ei: Leaders are given credit or blame for the company success or failure.
Leader reinforce this belief by taking credit for org

success.

Need for Situational Control


Perceptual distortion of leadership suggest that

people want to believe that leaders make a difference.


2 basic reason of this belief:

1st, leadership is a useful way for us to simplify the

life events. Ei: if the company having failures, we tend to simplify this situation by noting that the president of the company was inneffective.

Continue..
2nd,there is a strong tendency that people believe that

event are generate more from people than uncontrollable natural forces.
This illusion of control is satisfied by believing that

events from the rational action of leaders.


Employee feel better believing that leaders make a

difference, so they look for evidence.

Cross Cultural & Gender Issues in Leadership


Societal cultural values and practices affect

leaders decision and action Also shape the expectations that followers have of their leaders Example: in Afrika, Ubuntu tribe value shape the preferred leadership behaviors and style Leaders who act inconsistently with cultural expectation will be an ineffective leader

Leader get various experience from various

cultural values because of differences practices across culture


Example: GLOBE report-charismatic visionary

is characteristic of effective leaders. Its include visionary, inspirational, integrity, and decisiveness.

Gender Differences in Leadership


Do women lead differently than men? Women are more people oriented and participative leadership.
-

Women are more relationship-oriented, cooperative, nurturing and emotional in their leadership roles. Women to be more egalitarian and less statusoriented.

Actually male and female leaders do not differ.