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LEADERSHIP • Influencing, motivating and enabling others to contribute towards the effectiveness and success of the organizations of which they are members. SHARED LEADERSHIP • The view that the leadership is broadly distributed rather than assigned to one person, such that people within the team and organization lead each other.
PERSPECTIVE OF LEADERSHIP COMPETENCY PERSPECTIVE IMPLICIT LEADERSHIP PERSPECTIVE BEHAVIORAL PERSPECTIVE PERSPECTIVE OF LEADERSHIP TRANSFORMATIONAL PERSPECTIVE CONTIGENCY PERSPECTIVE .
enabling him/her to make more intuitive decisions.Confidence •Intelligence •Knowledge Of Business •The leader’s inner motivation to pursue goals. . discriminate among them & use the information to guide his/her thoughts and actions •The leader’s truthfulness & tendency to translate words into deeds. •The leader’s above –average cognitive ability to process and enormous amounts of information. •The leader’s need for socialized power to accomplish team or organizational goals. •Integrity •Drive •Leadership Motivation •Self. •The leader’s tacit and explicit knowledge about the company’s environment. •The leader’s belief in his/her own leadership skills and ability to achieve objectives.COMPETENCY PERSPECTIVE OF LEADERSHIP •Leadership Traits •Emotional intelligence •Description •The leader’s ability to monitor his/her own & others emotion.
Establish stretch goals and challenge employee beyond high standard. support their interest when required etc. 2. People-oriented • • Showing mutual trust and respect for subordinate demonstrating a genuine concern for their needs and having a desired to look for their welfare Example: Leaders listen to employee suggestion. . ensures employees follow company rules and push to reach their performance capacity. Task-oriented • • • Behavior that define and structure work roles. do personal favor for employee.Behavioral Perspective of Leadership • Cluster of leadership behavior 1. clarify work duties and procedure. Example: Leaders assign employees specific task.
.CONTIGENCY PERSPECTIVE OF LEADERSHIP Based on the idea that the most appropriate leadership style depends on the situation Assume that effective leaders must be both insightful and flexible.
.PATH-GOAL THEORY OF LEADERSHIP A contingency theory of leadership based on expectancy theory of motivation that relates several leadership styles to specific employee and situational contingencies.
PATH-GOAL LEADERSHIP THEORY EMPLOYEE CONTIGENCIES • Skills and experience • Locus of control LEADER BEHAVIORS • Directive • Supportive • Participative • Achievement oriented LEADER EFFECTIVENESS • Employee motivation • Employee satisfaction • Leader acceptance ENVIRONMENTAL CONTIGENCIES • Task structure • Team dynamic .
Reflects the benefits of social support to help employees cope with stressful situations. Includes judicious use of reward and disciplinary actions. 2.PATH GOAL LEADERSHIP STYLES 1. SUPPORTIVE Provide psychological support for subordinates. . DIRECTIVE provide a psychological structure for subordinates.
Cont… 3. E. Continuously seeks improvement in employee performance.g. 4. ACHIEVEMENT ORIENTED Encourage employees to reach their peak performance. . PARTICIPATIVE Encourage and facilitate subordinates involvement in decision beyond their normal work activities.
Contingencies of path-goal theory The path-goal leadership model specifies two sets of situational variable that moderate the relationship between a leader’s style and effectiveness: Employee characteristics Characteristics of the employee’s work environment .
Four contingencies Skill and experience Locus of control Task structure Team dynamics .
position power . selling. participating. task structure. and delegating Model Leadership style is stable --based on personality Best style depends on situational control -leader-member relations.Other Contingency Leader Theories Situational Leadership Fiedler’s Contingency Model (Hersey/Blanchard) Effective leaders vary style with follower “readiness” Leader styles – telling.
Leadership that help the organization achieve their current objectives more efficient. communicating and modeling a vision for the organization or work unit and inspiring employees to s t r i v e t h e v i s i o n • Transactional Leadership . such as linking job performances to valued rewards and make sure the employees have the resources to make a job .A leadership perspective that explain how leader’s c h a n g e teams o r organization b y c re a tin g .TRANSFORMATION PERSPECTIVE OF LEADERSHIP •Transformation Leadership .
. Improves the organizations efficiency .changing the organizations strategies and culture so they fit better with the surrounding environment.TRANSFORMATION VERSUS TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP TRANSFORMATION LEADERSHIP “managing” – helping organizations achieve their current objectives more efficiently Ship steers company into a better with the surrounding environment. TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP “leading”.
CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP Set of behavior that people use to lead the change process.TRANSFORMATION VERSUS CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP TRANSFORMATIONS LEADERSHIP Personal trait that provides referent power over followers . Opposite effect they support follower empowerment. Produces dependent followers . which tends to reduce dependence on the leader.
.Leaders to shape a strategic vision of realistic and attractive future that bonds employees together and focuses their energy towards a super ordinate organizational goal. Communicating the Vision . stories and others. . metaphors. The vision can bring through symbols. then communicating that vision is the process.The substances of transformational leadership.ELEMENTS OF TRANFORMATIONALS LEADERSHIP Creating a Strategic Vision.
Building Commitments. Modeling the Vision. . . thereby legitimizing the vision and providing further evidence that they can be trusted. .Leaders demonstrate a “can do” by enacting their behavior. .“walk the walk” by stepping outside the executive suite and doing things that symbolize the vision.also reliable and persistent in their actions. .Transforming vision into reality requires employee commitment. .Leaders builds commitment by involves in process shaping organization vision.
currently the most popular leadership perspectives but it faces numbers challenges. .EVALUATING THE TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP PERSPECTIVE .Subordinates are more satisfied and have higher affective organizational commitment under transformational leaders. . .writers engage in cir cular logic by defining transformational leadership in terms of the leader’s success. . engage in more organizational citizenship behaviors.Performs their jobs better. and make better or more creative decisions.
. Mental images of an ideal leader shape our expectations and acceptance of people as a leaders. Stereotyping Leadership Everyone have preconceived notions about the features and behaviors of an effective leader.Implicit Leadership Perspective Implicit leadership theory is theory hypothesizing that perceptual processes cause people to inflate the importance of leadership as the cause of organizational events. which affect ability to influence us as followers. Develop through socialization within the family and society.
ei: Leaders are given credit or blame for the company success or failure. People tend to attribute org events to the leader. Leader reinforce this belief by taking credit for org success. . even factors beyond the leader’s control.Attributing Leadership Implicit leadership are influence by attribution errors.
Need for Situational Control Perceptual distortion of leadership suggest that people want to believe that leaders make a difference. . Ei: if the company having failures. we tend to simplify this situation by noting that the president of the company was inneffective. 2 basic reason of this belief: 1st. leadership is a useful way for us to simplify the life events.
so they look for evidence. Employee feel better believing that leaders make a difference. This illusion of control is satisfied by believing that events from the rational action of leaders.Continue.there is a strong tendency that people believe that event are generate more from people than uncontrollable natural forces.. 2nd. .
Ubuntu tribe value shape the preferred leadership behaviors and style Leaders who act inconsistently with cultural expectation will be an ineffective leader .Cross Cultural & Gender Issues in Leadership Societal cultural values and practices affect leaders decision and action Also shape the expectations that followers have of their leaders Example: in Afrika.
and decisiveness. . inspirational. Its include visionary. Leader get various experience from various cultural values because of differences practices across culture Example: GLOBE report-“charismatic visionary” is characteristic of effective leaders. integrity.
. cooperative.Gender Differences in Leadership Do women lead differently than men? Women are more people –oriented and participative leadership. - Women are more relationship-oriented. Women to be more egalitarian and less statusoriented. nurturing and emotional in their leadership roles. - Actually male and female leaders do not differ.
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