Cell Structure IV | Translation (Biology) | Mitosis

Chapter 3: The Cellular Level of Organization What is cell theory?

The Cell - Performs all life functions -

Sex Cells

2 Types of Cells

Sex cells (germ cells):
– reproductive cells – male sperm – female oocytes (eggs)

Somatic cells (soma = body):
– all body cells except sex cells

Somatic Cells

Organelles

Organelle Functions

Organelle Functions

What are the structures and functions of the cell membrane?

Components of the Cell Membrane
Contains lipids, carbohydrates, and functional proteins

Phospholipid Bilayer

Double layer of phospholipid molecules:
– hydrophilic heads—toward watery environment, both sides – hydrophobic fatty-acid tails—inside membrane – barrier to ions and water soluble compounds

Membrane Proteins

Integral proteins:
– within the membrane

Peripheral proteins:
– inner or outer surface of the membrane

6 Functions of Membrane Proteins
Anchoring proteins (stabilizers):
– – attach to inside or outside structures label cells normal or abnormal

Recognition proteins (identifiers): Enzymes:
– catalyze reactions Receptor proteins:
– – – bind and respond to ligands (ions, hormones) transport specific solutes through membrane regulate water flow and solutes through membrane

Carrier proteins: Channels:

Proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and glycolipids:
– extend outside cell membrane – form sticky “sugar coat” (glycocalyx)

Membrane Carbohydrates

Functions of Membrane Carbohydrates
– Lubrication and protection – Anchoring and locomotion – Specificity in binding (receptors) – Recognition (immune response)

All materials inside the cell and outside the nucleus:
– cytosol (fluid):
dissolved materials:
– nutrients, ions, proteins, and waste products

Cytoplasm

– organelles:
structures with specific functions

What are cell organelles & their functions? Nonmembranous organelles:
– no membrane – direct contact with cytosol

Types of Organelles

Membranous organelles: 6 types of nonmembranous organelles:
– cytoskeleton – microvilli – centrioles – cilia – ribosomes – proteasomes – covered with plasma membrane – isolated from cytosol

The Cytoskeleton
Structural proteins for shape and strength Microfilaments
– Thin filaments composed of the protein actin:
provide additional mechanical strength interact with proteins for consistency Pairs with thick filaments of myosin for muscle movement

Intermediate
– Mid-sized between microfilaments and thick filaments:
durable (collagen) strengthen cell and maintain shape stabilize organelles stabilize cell position

Microtubules
– Large, hollow tubes of tubulin protein:
attach to centrosome strengthen cell and anchor organelles change cell shape move vesicles within cell (kinesin and dynein) form spindle apparatus

Microvilli
Increase surface area for absorption Attach to cytoskeleton

Centrioles in the Centrosome
Centrioles form spindle apparatus during cell division Centrosome: cytoplasm surrounding centriole

Cilia Power
Cilia move fluids across the cell surface

Build polypeptides in protein synthesis Two types:
– free ribosomes in cytoplasm:
proteins for cell

Ribosomes

– fixed ribosomes attached to ER:
proteins for secretion

Contain enzymes (proteases) Disassemble damaged proteins for recycling

Proteasomes

5 types of membranous organelles:
– endoplasmic reticulum (ER) – Golgi apparatus – lysosomes – peroxisomes – mitochondria

Membranous Organelles

endo = within, plasm = cytoplasm, reticulum = network Cisternae are storage chambers within membranes

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

Synthesis of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids Storage of synthesized molecules and materials Transport of materials within the ER Detoxification of drugs or toxins

Functions of ER

No ribosomes attached Synthesizes lipids and carbohydrates:

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)
– phospholipids and cholesterol (membranes) – steroid hormones (reproductive system) – glycerides (storage in liver and fat cells) – glycogen (storage in muscles)

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)
Surface covered with ribosomes:
– active in protein and glycoprotein synthesis – folds polypeptides protein structures – encloses products in transport vesicles

Vesicles enter forming face and exit maturing face – Secretory vesicles:
modify and package products for exocytosis

Golgi Apparatus

– Membrane renewal vesicles: – Transport vesicles:
add or remove membrane components Carry materials to and from Golgi apparatus

Lysosomes
– lyso = dissolve, soma = body

Powerful enzymecontaining vesicles:

Exocytosis

Primary lysosome: – formed by Golgi and inactive enzymes Secondary lysosome: – lysosome fused with damaged organelle – digestive enzymes activated – toxic chemicals isolated

– Ejects secretory products and wastes

Lysosome Functions
Clean up inside cells:
– break down large molecules – attack bacteria – recycle damaged organelles – ejects wastes by exocytosis

Self-destruction of damaged cells:
– auto = self, lysis = break – lysosome membranes break down – digestive enzymes released – cell decomposes – cellular materials recycle

Autolysis

Are enzyme-containing vesicles:
– break down fatty acids, organic compounds – produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) – replicate by division

Peroxisomes

KEY CONCEPT
Cells: basic structural and functional units of life
– respond to their environment – maintain homeostasis at the cellular level – modify structure and function over time

Mitochondrion Structure

Mitochondrion Structure
Have smooth outer membrane and folded inner membrane (cristae) Matrix:
– fluid around cristae
Figure 3–9a

Mitochondrial Function
Mitochondrion takes chemical energy from food (glucose):
– produces energy molecule ATP

Figure 3–9b

How does the nucleus control the cell?
Is the cell’s control center Nucleus:
– largest organelle

Nuclear envelope:
– double membrane around the nucleus

Perinuclear space:
– between 2 layers of nuclear envelope

Nuclear pores:
– communication passages

DNA:

Within the Nucleus

– all information to build and run organisms

Nucleoplasm:
– fluid containing ions, enzymes, nucleotides, and some RNA

Nuclear matrix:
– support filaments

Are related to protein production Are made of RNA, enzymes, and histones Synthesize rRNA and ribosomal subunits

Nucleoli in Nucleus

Organization of DNA
Nucleosomes:
– DNA coiled around histones

Chromatin:
– loosely coiled DNA (cells not dividing)

Chromosomes:
– tightly coiled DNA (cells dividing)

Figure 3–11

What is genetic code? DNA and Genes
DNA:
– instructions for every protein in the body

Gene:
– DNA instructions for 1 protein

Genetic Code
The chemical language of DNA instructions:
– sequence of bases (A, T, C, G) – triplet code:
3 bases = 1 amino acid

KEY CONCEPT
The nucleus contains chromosomes Chromosomes contain DNA DNA stores genetic instructions for proteins Proteins determine cell structure and function

How do DNA instructions become proteins?

Protein Synthesis
Transcription:
– copies instructions from DNA to mRNA (in nucleus)

Translation:
– ribosome reads code from mRNA (in cytoplasm) – assembles amino acids into polypeptide chain

Processing:
– by RER and Golgi apparatus produces protein

1. Important Features
a. DNA contains genetic template" for proteins. b. DNA is found in the nucleus c. Protein synthesis occurs in the cytoplasm - ribosome. d. "Genetic information" must be transferred to the cytoplasm where proteins are synthesized.

2. Processes of Protein Synthesis
a. Transcription - genetic template for a protein is copied and carried out to the cytoplasm b. Translation - template serves as a series of codes for the amino acid sequence of the protein

3. Steps of Transcription
a. DNA unwinds b. One side of DNA "codes for a protein" c. Genetic code of DNA is a triplet code of 3 nucleotides or bases d. Each triplet is specific for the coding of a single amino acid

A view of transcription
Fig. 14.12 Brum

Transcription (cont.)
e. Sequence of triplet codes on DNA will specify the amino acid sequence on the protein f. Major step is the synthesis of the coded "messenger" molecule - mRNA g. mRNA is "transcribed" from DNA by complementary base pairing (mRNA has no thymine, which is replaced by uracil) h. mRNA passes out to cytoplasm to the ribosome

fig. 15.5 from Raven

4. Translation
a. mRNA attaches to the ribosome b. tRNA's attach to free amino acids in the cytoplasmic "pool" of amino acids c. tRNA carries its specific amino acid to the ribosome

fig. 15.5 from Raven

Translation (cont.)
d. tRNA "delivers" its amino acid based on complementary pairing of a triplet code (anticodon) with the triplet code (codon) of the mRNA. e.Enzyme "hooks" the amino acid to the last one in the chain forming a peptide bond. f. Protein chain continues to grow as each tRNA brings in its amino acid and adds it to the chain. - This is translation!!

fig. 15.5 from Raven

C G TTC A AA T
Coding Stran mRNA

AG T C AAGTT U C G UU C A A A

C G TTC A AA T
Coding Stran Nucleus mRNA Cytoplasm

AG T C AAGTT U C G UU C A A A

Ribosome

C G TTC A AA T
Coding Stran Nucleus mRNA Cytoplasm

AG T C AAGTT U C G UU C A A A

U C G UU C A A A

C G TTC A AA T
Coding Stran Nucleus

AG T C AAGTT

1 AA

Cytoplasm

tR

A’s N

GC A

U C G UU C A A A

C G TTC A AA T
Coding Stran Nucleus

AG T C AAGTT

AA1

tRNA’s

Cytoplasm

AGC

U C G UU C A A A

C G TTC A AA T
Coding Stran Nucleus ATP
AA1 •AA2

AG T C AAGTT

tRNA’s

Cytoplasm

AGC AAG

U C G UU C A A A

C G TTC A AA T
Coding Stran Nucleus ATP
AA1 •AA2 AA3

AG T C AAGTT
AA1

Cytoplasm

AG C

AAG U U U

U C G UU C A A A

C G TTC A AA T
Coding Stran Nucleus

AG T C AAGTT
AA1

AA1

•AA2

AA3

AGC
Cytoplasm

AAG U U U

U C G UU C A A A

C G TTC A AA T
Coding Stran Nucleus

AG T C AAGTT
AA1

AA1

•AA2

AA3

AGC
Cytoplasm

AAG U U U

U C G UU C A A A

C G TTC A AA T
Coding Stran Nucleus

AG T C AAGTT
AA1

AA1

•AA2

AA3

AGC
Cytoplasm

AA G

UUU

U C G UU C A A A

The Genetic Code
1. A triplet code comprised of three nucleotide bases in a sequence. 2. How many triplet codes?
20 common amino acids in a protein
4 diff. bases on DNA 4 diff. bases on RNA A,T,C, & G

| | |
U,A,G, & C

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4 things put together in combinations of 3 = 43= 64
Therefore - 64 different DNA triplet codes or RNA codons

The 64 triplet codes
60 code for amino acids 4 act as "stop" and "start " codes Degenerate Code- more than one triplet code for some amino acids e.g.,

The 64 triplet codes
60 code for amino acids 4 act as "stop" and "start codes Degenerate Code- more than one triplet code for some amino acids e.g., GGG
GGU GGC GGA
All code for the amino acid glycine

Codons

Table 3–2

Nucleus Controls Cell Structure and Function
Direct control through synthesis of:
– structural proteins – secretions (environmental response)

Indirect control over metabolism through enzymes

Genes: – are functional units of DNA – contain instructions for 1 or more proteins Protein synthesis requires: – several enzymes – ribosomes – 3 types of RNA Mutation is a change in the nucleotide sequence of a gene: – can change gene function Causes: – exposure to chemicals – exposure to radiation – mistakes during DNA replication

KEY CONCEPT

How do things get in out of cells?
Overcoming the Cell Barrier
The cell membrane is a barrier, but and nutrients must get in products and wastes must get out Permeability determines what moves in and out of a cell. A membrane that lets nothing in or out is impermeable, lets anything pass is freely permeable, restricts movement is selectively permeable

Cell membrane is selectively permeable and allows some materials to move freely but restricts other materials
– Selective permeability restricts materials based on size, electrical charge, molecular shape, lipid solubility

Transport through a cell membrane can be:
– active (requiring energy and ATP) – passive (no energy required)

Transport

3 Categories of Transport
Diffusion (passive) Carrier-mediated transport (passive or active) Vesicular transport (active) All molecules are constantly in motion Molecules in solution move randomly Random motion causes mixing

Solutions

The 7 methods of transport

Table 3–3

Concentration is the amount of solute in a solvent Concentration gradient:
– more solute in 1 part of a solvent than another

Concentration Gradient

Function of Concentration Gradient
Diffusion:
– molecules mix randomly – solute spreads through solvent – eliminates concentration gradient

Solutes move down a concentration gradient

Factors Affecting Diffusion Rates
Distance the particle has to move Molecule size:
– smaller is faster

Temperature: Gradient size:
– more heat, faster motion – the difference between high and low concentration

Electrical forces:
– opposites attract, like charges repel

Diffusion and the Cell Membrane
Diffusion can be simple or channel-mediated Simple (1) - Materials which diffuse through cell membrane:
– lipid-soluble compounds (alcohols, fatty acids, and steroids) – dissolved gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide)

Channel-Mediated (2) - Materials which pass through transmembrane proteins (channels):
– are water soluble compounds – are ions – factors - passage depends on size, charge, interaction with the channel

Osmosis is the diffusion of water across the cell membrane

Osmosis (3)

More solute molecules, lower concentration of water molecules Membrane must be freely permeable to water, selectively permeable to solutes
Figure 3–16

Water molecules diffuse across membrane toward solution with more solutes Volume increases on the side with more solutes Is the force of a concentration gradient of water Equals the force (hydrostatic pressure) needed to block osmosis

Osmosis Water Movement

Osmotic Pressure

Tonicity
The osmotic effect of a solute on a cell:
– 2 fluids may have equal osmolarity, but different tonicity

Isotonic Solutions
A solution that does not cause osmotic flow of water in or out of a cell iso = same, tonos = tension

Hypotonic Solutions
hypo = below Has less solutes Loses water through osmosis A cell in a hypotonic solution:
– gains water – ruptures (hemolysis of red blood cells)

KEY CONCEPT
Concentration gradients tend to even out In the absence of membrane, diffusion eliminates concentration gradients When different solute concentrations exist on either side of a selectively permeable membrane, osmosis moves water through the membrane to equalize the concentration gradients

What are special transport mechanisms?
Carrier-mediated transport of ions and organic substrates: facilitated diffusion & active transport

Carrier-Mediated Transport

Characteristics of Carrier-Mediated Transport
Specificity: 1 transport protein, 1 set of substrates Saturation limits: rate depends on transport proteins, not substrate Regulation: cofactors such as hormones

2 substances move in the same direction at the same time 1 substance moves in while another moves out

Cotransport

Countertransport

Passive and carrier mediated

Facilitated Diffusion (4)

Carrier proteins transport molecules too large to fit through channel proteins (glucose, amino acids):
– molecule binds to receptor site on carrier protein – protein changes shape, molecules pass through – receptor site is specific to certain molecules Figure 3–18

Active transport proteins:

Active Transport (5)

– move substrates against concentration gradient – require energy, such as ATP – ion pumps move ions (Na+, K+, Ca+, Mg2+) – exchange pump countertransports 2 ions at the same time Sodium-Potassium Exchange Pump - Active transport, carrier mediated: – sodium ions (Na+) out, potassium ions (K+) in – 1 ATP moves 3 Na+

Secondary Active Transport (5) Sodium Potassium Pump
Na+ concentration gradient drives glucose transport ATP energy pumps Na+ back out

Figure 3–20

Transport Vesicles
Also called bulk transport Vesicles:
– Endocytosis (6) (endo = into) – active transport using ATP:
receptor-mediated pinocytosis phagocytosis

– exocytosis (7) (exo = out of)

Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis
Receptors (glycoproteins) bind target molecules (ligands) Coated vesicle (endosome) carries ligands and receptors into the cell

Exocytosis is the reverse of endocytosis

Figure 3–21

Pinocytosis (cell drinking) Endosomes “drink” extracellular fluid

Pinocytosis

Phagocytosis
Phagocytosis (cell eating)
– pseudopodia (psuedo = false, podia = feet) – engulf large objects in phagosomes
Figure 3–22a

How do cells reproduce? Cell Life Cycle
Most of a cell’s life is spent in a nondividing state (interphase) Body (somatic) cells divide in 3 stages:
– DNA replication duplicates genetic material exactly – Mitosis divides genetic material equally – Cytokinesis divides cytoplasm and organelles into 2 daughter cells
Figure 3–3

Interphase
The nondividing period:
– G-zero phase— specialized cell functions only – G1 phase—cell growth, organelle duplication, protein synthesis – S phase—DNA replication and histone synthesis – G2 phase—finishes protein synthesis and centriole replication

DNA Replication
DNA strands unwind DNA polymerase attaches complementary nucleotides

Figure 3–24

Somatic Cell Nuclear Division Two important processes to maintain constant number of chromosomes.
Duplication of chromosomes Distribution of duplicated chromosomes into two daughter cells

1

4

2

3

5

9 1 1

6

7

8

1

2

1

0

The Human Karyotype

1

7

1

5

1

6

1

8

1 1 3

4

1

9

2

0

2

1

2

2

X

Y

X

Y

Importance of Mitosis
2N or Diploid Number in Humans

46 46
Daughter Cells

46
Mother Cell

Importance of Mitosis (cont.) a. b. c. d. Cellular replacement Tissue Repair Development Tumor growth

Cell cycle prior to mitosis:
Interphase: nondividing state but cell is metabolically active. nucleus clearly visible one or more nucleoli-nucleolar organizer regions of chromosomes. chromosomes long and thin centriole (animal cells only) located along margin of nucleus

Replication of DNA and duplication of chromosomes occurs in the cell cycle.
Chromatids

Centromere

Prophase:
prepares the cell for division chromosomes shorten and thicken centriole divides into two entities which migrate down sides of nuclear envelope, spindle fibers stretch between centrioles

Prophase: The cell is prepared for nuclear division
Nuclear envelope has disappeared Spindle has formed Chromosomes short and thick

Metaphase: final preparation for nuclear division
chromosomes line up on equatorial plate of division centromeres of chromosomes attached by kinetocores (protein) to spindle fibers, microtubules made up of tubulin

A single chromosome attached to spindle fibers

centromeres divide chromosome halves migrate to opposite poles of cell chromosomes migrate by sliding of microtubules

Anaphase: chromosome halves migrate to poles

Telophase:
reverse of activities of prophase chromosomes reach poles of cell spindle fibers degraded nuclear membrane reassembled chromosomes elongate nucleoli reassembled

Cytokinesis - division of the cell
Cytokinesis occurs by constriction of actin fibers forming a belt around cell in animal cells Plant cells form a cell plate from nuclear membrane and then cellulose is added to the plate.

Animal cell - cytokinesis occurs by constriction of actin fibers

Plant cell - cytokinesis occurs by synthesis of cell plate.

Typical Timing of Mitosis

What regulates cell division? Mitotic Rate and Energy
Rate of cell division:
– slower mitotic rate means longer cell life – cell division requires energy (ATP)

Long Life, Short Life
Muscle cells, neurons rarely divide Exposed cells (skin and digestive tract) live only days or hours

Chemicals Controlling Cell Division

Table 3–4

Regulating Cell Life
Normally, cell division balances cell loss

Factors Increase Cell Division
Increases cell division:
– internal factors (Maturation Promoting Factor) – extracellular chemical factors (growth factors)

Factors Decrease Cell Division
Decreases cell division:
– repressor genes (faulty repressors cause cancers) – worn out telomeres (terminal DNA segments)

Cancer

Cancer illness that disrupts cellular controls and Oncogenes: mutated genes that cause cancer produces malignant cells Cancer Stages - develops in steps:
– abnormal cell – primary tumor – metastasis

Figure 3–26

Tumor (neoplasm):

Cell Division and Tumors Benign Tumors

– enlarged mass of cells – abnormal cell growth and division

Benign tumor:

– contained – not life threatening

Malignant tumor:

Malignant Tumors

– spread into surrounding tissues (invasion) – start new tumors (metastasis)

KEY CONCEPT
Mutations disrupt normal controls over cell growth and division Cancers often begin where stem cells are dividing rapidly More chromosome copies mean greater chance of error

What makes cells different? Cell Diversity
All cells carry complete DNA instructions for all body functions Cells specialize or differentiate: All body cells, except sex cells, contain the same 46 chromosomes Differentiation depends on which genes are active and which are inactive
– to form tissues (liver cells, fat cells, and neurons) – by turning off all genes not needed by that cell

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