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Dr.

D G Borse
B
C
E
Dr. D G Borse
The BJT Bipolar Junction Transistor
Note: Normally Emitter layer is heavily doped, Base layer is lightly
doped and Collector layer has Moderate doping.
The Two Types of BJT Transistors:
npn pnp
n p n E
B
C p n p E
B
C
Cross Section Cross Section
B
C
E
Schematic
Symbol
B
C
E
Schematic
Symbol
Collector doping is usually ~ 10
9
Base doping is slightly higher ~ 10
10
10
11
Emitter doping is much higher ~ 10
17
Dr. D G Borse
BJT Current & Voltage - Equations
B
C
E
I
E
I
C
I
B
-
+
V
BE
V
BC
+
-
+ - V
CE
B
C
E
I
E
I
C
I
B
-
+
V
EB
V
CB
+
-
+ - V
EC
n p n
I
E
= I
B
+ I
C
V
CE
= -V
BC
+ V
BE
p n p
I
E
= I
B
+ I
C
V
EC
= V
EB
- V
CB
Dr. D G Borse
Figure : Current flow (components) for an n-p-n BJT in the active region.
NOTE: Most of the current is due to electrons moving from the emitter through base to the
collector. Base current consists of holes crossing from the base into the emitter and of holes
that recombine with electrons in the base.
- Electrons
+ Holes
V
BE
V
CB
+
-
+
-
n
+
n
p
-
I
ne
I
pe
-
I
co
Bulk-recombination
Current
I
nc
Dr. D G Borse
Physical Structure
Consists of 3 alternate layers of n- and p-
type semiconductor called emitter (E),
base (B) and collector (C).
Majority of current enters collector,
crosses base region and exits through
emitter. A small current also enters base
terminal, crosses base-emitter junction
and exits through emitter.
Carrier transport in the active base
region directly beneath the heavily
doped (n
+
) emitter dominates i-v
characteristics of BJT.
Dr. D G Borse

- - - - - -
- - -
- - - - - - - -
- - - - - - -
- - -
-- - - - - -
- - - -
- -


- - - - - - - - -
-
-
- - - - -
- + - - + - -
Recombination
- Electrons
+ Holes
+
_
+
_
C
B
E
n
p
n
+
I
B
I
c
I
E
V
BE
V
CB
Dr. D G Borse
Figure: An npn transistor with variable biasing sources (common-emitter configuration).
I
nc
I
ne
I
pe
For CB Transistor I
E
= I
ne
+ I
pe
I
c
= I
nc
- I
co
And I
c
= - I
E
+ I
Co
CB Current Gain, (I
c
- I
co
) .
(I
E
- 0)

For CE Trans., I
C
= I
b
+ (1+) I
co

where ,
1- is CE Gain
I
CO
Bulk-
recombination
current
Dr. D G Borse
Common-Emitter
Circuit Diagram
+
_ V
C
C
I
C
V
CE
I
B
Collector-Current Curves
V
CE
I
C
Active
Region
I
B
Saturation Region
Cutoff Region
I
B
= 0
Region of
Operation
Description
Active Small base current
controls a large
collector current
Saturation V
CE(sat)
~ 0.2V, V
CE

increases with I
C
Cutoff Achieved by reducing I
B

to 0, Ideally, I
C
will also
be equal to 0.
Dr. D G Borse
BJTs have three regions of operation:
1) Active - BJT acts like an amplifier (most common use)
2) Saturation - BJT acts like a short circuit
3) Cutoff - BJT acts like an open circuit
BJT is used as a switch by switching
between these two regions.
r
sat

Vo
_
+
C
B
E
Saturat ion Region Model
Vo
_
+
C
B
E
Active Region Model #1
|dc IB
IB
R
o

Vo
_
+

C
B
E
Active Region Model #2
|
dc
I
B

ICEO

RBB
V
CE
(V)
I
C
(mA)
I
B
= 50 A
I
B
= 0
30
5 10 15 20 0
0
I
B
= 100 A
I
B
= 150 A
I
B
= 200 A
22.5
15
7.5
Saturation Region
Active Region
Cutoff Region
C
E
B
When analyzing a DC
BJT circuit, the BJT
is replaced by one of
the DC circuit models
shown below.
DC Models for a BJT:
Dr. D G Borse
DC | and DC o
| = Common-emitter current gain
o = Common-base current gain
| = I
C
o = I
C
I
B
I
E

The relationships between the two parameters are:
o = | | = o
| + 1 1 - o

Note: o and | are sometimes referred to as o
dc
and |
dc

because the relationships being dealt with in the BJT
are DC.
Dr. D G Borse
Output characteristics: npn BJT (typical)
V
CE
(V)
I
C
(mA)
I
B
= 50 A
I
B
= 0
30
5 10 15 20 0
0
I
B
= 100 A
I
B
= 150 A
I
B
= 200 A
22.5
15
7.5
C
dc FE
B
I
= = h
I
|
Note: Two key specifications for the BJT are
B
dc
and V
o
(or assume V
o
is about 0.7 V)


Note: The PE review text
sometimes uses o
dc
instead of |
dc.

They are related as follows:
Input characteristics: npn BJT (typical)
V
BE
(V)
I
B
(A)
200
0.5 1.0 0
0
V
CE
= 0
150
100
50
V
CE
= 0.5 V
V
CE
> 1 V
The input characteristics look like the characteristics of a
forward-biased diode. Note that V
BE
varies only slightly,
so we often ignore these characteristics and assume:
Common approximation: V
BE
= V
o
= 0.65 to 0.7V
dc
dc
dc
=
+ 1
|
o
|
Find the approximate values
of |
dc
and o
dc
from the graph.
dc
dc
- 1 o
o
| =
dc
Dr. D G Borse
Figure: Common-emitter characteristics displaying exaggerated secondary effects.
Dr. D G Borse
Figure: Common-emitter characteristics displaying exaggerated secondary effects.
Dr. D G Borse
Various Regions (Modes) of Operation of BJT
Most important mode of operation
Central to amplifier operation
The region where current curves are practically flat
Active:
Saturation:
Barrier potential of the junctions cancel each other out
causing a virtual short (behaves as on state Switch)
Cutoff:
Current reduced to zero
Ideal transistor behaves like an open switch
* Note: There is also a mode of operation called
inverse active mode, but it is rarely used.
Dr. D G Borse
BJT Trans-conductance Curve
For Typical NPN Transistor
1

V
BE
I
C
2 mA
4 mA
6 mA
8 mA
0.7 V
Collector Current:
I
C
= o I
ES
e
V
BE
/
qV
T

Transconductance:
(slope of the curve)
g
m
= I
C
/ V
BE
I
ES
= The reverse saturation current
of the B-E Junction.
V
T
= kT/q = 26 mV (@ T=300
o
K)
q = the emission coefficient and is
usually ~1

Dr. D G Borse
Three Possible Configurations of BJT
Biasing the transistor refers to applying voltages to the
transistor to achieve certain operating conditions.
1. Common-Base Configuration (CB) : input = V
EB
& I
E
output = V
CB
& I
C

2. Common-Emitter Configuration (CE): input = V
BE
& I
B
output= V
CE
& I
C

3. Common-Collector Configuration (CC) :input = V
BC
& I
B
(Also known as Emitter follower) output = V
EC
& I
E
Dr. D G Borse
Common-Base BJT Configuration
Circuit Diagram: NPN Transistor
+

_

+

_

I
C
I
E
I
B
V
CB
V
BE
E

C

B

V
CE
V
BE
V
CB
Region of
Operation
I
C
V
CE
V
BE
V
CB
C-B
Bias
E-B
Bias
Active |I
B
=V
BE
+V
CE
~0.7V 0V Rev. Fwd.
Saturation Max ~0V ~0.7V -0.7V<V
CE
<0 Fwd. Fwd.
Cutoff ~0 =V
BE
+V
CE
0V 0V Rev.
None
/Rev.
The Table Below lists assumptions
that can be made for the attributes
of the common-base BJT circuit in
the different regions of operation.
Given for a Silicon NPN transistor.
Dr. D G Borse
Common-Base (CB) Characteristics
Although the Common-Base configuration is not the most
common configuration, it is often helpful in the understanding
operation of BJT
V
c
- I
c
(output) Characteristic Curves
S
a
t
u
r
a
t
i
o
n

R
e
g
i
o
n

I
E
I
C

V
CB
Active
Region
Cutoff
I
E
= 0
0.8V 2V 4V 6V 8V
mA
2
4
6
I
E
=1mA
I
E
=2mA
Breakdown Reg.
Dr. D G Borse
Common-Collector BJT Characteristics
Emitter-Current Curves
V
CE
I
E
Active
Region
I
B
Saturation Region
Cutoff Region
I
B
= 0
The Common-
Collector biasing
circuit is basically
equivalent to the
common-emitter
biased circuit except
instead of looking at
I
C
as a function of V
CE

and I
B
we are looking
at I
E
.
Also, since o ~ 1, and
o = I
C
/I
E
that means
I
C
~I
E

Dr. D G Borse
n p n Transistor: Forward Active Mode Currents
Forward Collector current is

I
co
is reverse saturation current
(
(
(
(

|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
= 1 exp
T
V
BE
V
co
I
C
I
A
9
10 A
18
10

s s

co
I
V
T
= kT/q =25 mV at room temperature
Base current is given by
(
(
(
(

|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
= = 1 exp
co
T
V
BE
V
F F
C
I
B
I
I
| |
500 20 s s
F
|
Emitter current is given by
(
(
(
(

|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
= + = 1 exp
T
V
BE
V
F
co
I
B
I
C
I
E
I
o
0 . 1
1
95 . 0 s
+
= s
F
F
F
|
|
o
is forward common-emitter
current gain
is forward common-
base current gain
In this forward active operation region,
F
B
I
C
I
| =
F
E
I
C
I
o =
V
BE
I
E
=

I
C
=
I
B
=
Dr. D G Borse
Various Biasing Circuits used for BJT
Fixed Bias Circuit
Collector to Base Bias Circuit
Potential Divider Bias Circuit


Dr. D G Borse
The Thermal Stability of Operating Point S
Ico
The Thermal Stability Factor : S
Ico
S
Ico
= I
c

I
co
This equation signifies that I
c
Changes S
Ico
times as fast as I
co
Differentiating the equation of Collector Current I
C
& rearranging
the terms we can write
S
Ico
1+

1- (I
b
/I
C
)

It may be noted that Lower is the value of S
Ico
better is the stability

V
be
,

Dr. D G Borse
The Fixed Bias Circuit
15 V

C

E

B

15 V

200 k 1 k
The Thermal Stability Factor : S
Ico
S
Ico
= I
c

I
co
General Equation of S
Ico
Comes out to be

S
Ico
1 +
1- (I
b
/I
C
)
V
be
,

Applying KVL through Base Circuit we
can write, I
b
R
b
+ V
be
= V
cc
Diff w. r. t. I
C
, we get (I
b
/ I
c
) = 0
S
Ico
= (1+) is very large
Indicating high un-stability
I
b
R
b
R
C
R
C
Dr. D G Borse
The Collector to Base Bias Circuit
The General Equation for Thermal
Stability Factor,
S
Ico
= I
c

I
co
Comes out to be

S
Ico
1 +
1- (I
b
/I
C
)
V
be
,

Applying KVL through base circuit
we can write (I
b
+ I
C
) R
C
+ I
b
R
b
+ V
be
= V
cc
Diff. w. r. t. I
C
we get
(I
b
/ I
c
) = - R
C
/ (R
b
+ R
C
)
Therefore, S
Ico
(1+ )
1+ [R
C
/(R
C
+ R
b
)]
Which is less than (1+), signifying better
thermal stability
V
CC
R
C
C

E

B

R
F
I
c
I
b
V
BE
+
-
I
E
Dr. D G Borse
The Potential Devider Bias Circuit
V
CC
R
C
C

E

B

V
CC
R
1
R
E
R
2
The General Equation for Thermal Stability
Factor, S
Ico
1 +
1- (I
b
/I
C
)
Applying KVL through input base circuit
we can write I
b
R
Th
+ I
E
R
E
+ V
be
= V
Th
Therefore, I
b
R
Th
+ (I
C
+ I
b
) R
E
+ V
BE
= V
Th
Diff. w. r. t. I
C
& rearranging we get
(I
b
/ I
c
) = - R
E
/ (R
Th
+ R
E
)
Therefore,


This shows that S
Ico
is inversely proportional
to R
E
and
It is less than (1+), signifying better thermal
stability
V
CC
R
C
C

E

B

R
E
R
Th
V
Th _

+

Thevenin
Equivalent Ckt
I
C
I
b
I
C
I
b
I
C
Thevenins
Equivalent Voltage
Self-bias Resistor
R
th

=
R
1
*R
2
&

Vth
=
Vcc R
2
R
1
+R
2
R
1
+R
2
(

+
+
+
=
Th R R
R
E
E
Ico S
|
|
1
1
Dr. D G Borse
A Practical C E Amplifier Circuit
V
CC
R
C
C

E

B

V
CC
R
1
R
E
R
2
R
s
C
i
R
L
C
o
C
E
v
i
v
o
+

+

v
s
+

_

_

_

i
o
i
i
Common Emitter (CE) Amplifier

Input Signal Source
Dr. D G Borse
BJT Amplifier (continued)
An 8 mV peak change in v
BE
gives a 5
A change in i
B
and a 0.5 mA change in
i
C
.
The 0.5 mA change in i
C
gives a 1.65 V
change in v
CE
.
If changes in operating currents and
voltages are small enough, then I
C

and V
CE
waveforms are undistorted
replicas of the input signal.
A small voltage change at the base
causes a large voltage change at the
collector. The voltage gain is given
by:


The minus sign indicates a 180
0

phase shift between input and
output signals.
206 180 206
0 008 . 0
180 65 . 1
~
~
~
= Z =
Z
Z
= =
be
v
ce
v
v
A
Dr. D G Borse
A Practical BJT Amplifier using Coupling and Bypass
Capacitors
AC coupling through capacitors is used to inject an ac input signal
and extract the ac output signal without disturbing the DC Q-point
Capacitors provide negligible impedance at frequencies of interest
and provide open circuits at dc.
In a practical amplifier design, C
1
and C
3
are
large coupling capacitors or dc blocking
capacitors, their reactance (X
C
= |Z
C
| = 1/eC) at
signal frequency is negligible. They are effective
open circuits for the circuit when DC bias is
considered.
C
2
is a bypass capacitor. It provides a low
impedance path for ac current from emitter to
ground. It effectively removes R
E
(required for
good Q-point stability) from the circuit when ac
signals are considered.
Dr. D G Borse
D C Equivalent for the BJT Amplifier (Step1)
All capacitors in the original amplifier circuit are replaced by open
circuits, disconnecting v
I
, R
I
, and R
3
from the circuit and leaving R
E

intact. The the transistor Q will be replaced by its DC model.
DC Equivalent Circuit
Dr. D G Borse
A C Equivalent for the BJT Amplifier (Step 2)
Coupling capacitor C
C
and Emitter bypass capacitor C
E
are replaced by short
circuits.
DC voltage supply is replaced with short circuits, which in this case is connected
to ground.
R
1
IIR
2
=R
B
R
in
R
o
Dr. D G Borse
A C Equivalent for the BJT Amplifier
(continued)
100k 4.3k
3
R
C
R R
30k 10k
2
R
1
R
B
R
= =
= =
By combining parallel resistors into equivalent R
B
and R, the equivalent AC
circuit above is constructed. Here, the transistor will be replaced by its
equivalent small-signal AC model (to be developed).
All externally connected capacitors are assumed
as short circuited elements for ac signal
Dr. D G Borse
A C Analysis of CE Amplifier
1) Determine DC operating point and
calculate small signal parameters
2) Draw the AC equivalent circuit of Amp.
DC Voltage sources are shorted to ground
DC Current sources are open circuited
Large capacitors are short circuits
Large inductors are open circuits
3) Use a Thevenin circuit (sometimes a
Norton) where necessary. Ideally the
base should be a single resistor + a single
source. Do not confuse this with the DC
Thevenin you did in step 1.
4) Replace transistor with small signal model
5) Simplify the circuit as much as necessary.
Steps to Analyze a Transistor Amplifier
6) Calculate the small signal parameters and
gain etc.
Step 1
Step
2
Step
3
Step
4
Step
5
-model
used
Dr. D G Borse
Hybrid-Pi Model for the BJT
The hybrid-pi small-signal model is the
intrinsic low-frequency representation of
the BJT.
The small-signal parameters are
controlled by the Q-point and are
independent of the geometry of the BJT.
Transconductance:
q
KT
T
V
C
I
m
g T V = = ,
Input resistance: Rin
m
g
o
C
I
T
V
o
r
|
|
t
= =
Output resistance:
C
I
CE
V
A
V
o
r
+
=
Where, V
A
is Early Voltage
(V
A
=100V for npn)
Dr. D G Borse
Hybrid Parameter Model
h
i
h
r
V
o
h
o
h
f
I
i
V
i
I
i
2
2'
I
o
V
o
1
1'
11 12
21 22
i i o i i r o
o i o f i o o
V h I h V h I h V
I h I h V h I h V
= + = +
= + = +
Linear Two
port Device
V
i
I
i I
o
V
o
Dr. D G Borse
11 12
21 22
0 0
0 0
i i
o i i o
o o
o i i o
V V
h h
V I I V
I I
h h
V I I V
= =
= =
= =
= =
h-Parameters
h
11
= h
i
= Input Resistance
h
12
= h
r
= Reverse Transfer Voltage Ratio
h
21
= h
f
= Forward Transfer Current Ratio
h
22
= h
o
= Output Admittance
Dr. D G Borse
The Mid-frequency small-signal models
b
e
hoe
hie
hrevce
hfeib
vbe
ib ic
vce
c
e
+
_
+ +
_
_
h-parameter model
b
e
rd
gmvt
vbe
ib ic
vce
c
e
+ +
_
_
hybrid-t model
rt vt
+
_
b
e
|ib
vbe
ib ic
vce
c
e
+ +
_
_
re model
|re
fe ac o
Alternate names:
h = = = | | |
m C C
o fe d
oe
o
re ie
m
38.92
g = I (Note: Uses DC value of I )
n
where n = 1 (typical, Si BJT)
1
= h r =
h
h = 0 r = h =
g
t
|
|
e B
B
o fe
o e ie
re
oe d
oe
26 mV
r = (Note: uses DC value of I )
I
= h
r = h
h = 0
1
h = 0, or use r =
h
|
|
Three Small signal Models of CE Transistor
Dr. D G Borse
BJT Mid-frequency Analysis using the hybrid-t model:
b
e
rd
gmvt
vi
ii
io
vo
c
e
+ +
_
_
mid-frequency CE amplifier circuit
rt vt
+
_
RC RL RTh vs

+

_

is
RS

A common emitter (CE) amplifier
VCC
RC
C

E

B

VCC
R1
RE R2
Rs
Ci
RL
Co
CE
vi
vo
+
+
vs
+

_
_
_
io
ii
The mid-frequency circuit is drawn as follows:
the coupling capacitors (C
i
and C
o
) and the
bypass capacitor (C
E
) are short circuits
short the DC supply voltage (superposition)
replace the BJT with the hybrid-t model
The resulting mid-frequency circuit is shown below.
(
(

+
= - = = = = =
s i
i
v
s
i
i
o
s
o
s
v C L o L L m
i
o
v
R Z
Z
A
v
v
v
v
v
v
A R R r R R g
v
v
A where, , ,
' '
R where,
2 1
R R r R
I
v
Z
Th Th
i
i
i
= = = ,
t
C o
o v
o
o
o
R r
i
v
Z
i
= =
=
i
o
i
i
i
A =
An a c Equivalent Circuit
r
o
Dr. D G Borse
Details of Small-Signal Analysis for Gain Av (Using -model)
3
3
R
C
R
C
R
o
r
L
R
R
= ,
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
i
v
be
v
be
v
o
v
i
v
o
v
v
A
L be m
R v g v
L
R
o
I
o
(

= =
Rs
Rs

L
R
o
r R
C
R
be
v
m
g
o
v
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
3
(
(
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
t
t
r
B
R
S
R
r
B
R
L
R
m
g
v
A
(
(
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
t
t
r
B
R
S
R
r
B
R
i
v
be
v
From input circuit
Dr. D G Borse
C-E Amplifier Input Resistance
The input resistance, the total resistance
looking into the amplifier at coupling
capacitor C
1
, represents the total
resistance presented to the AC source.
t t
t
r R R r
B
R R
r
B
R
2
1
x
i
x
v
in
) (
x
i
x
v
= = =
=
Dr. D G Borse
C-E Amplifier Output Resistance
The output resistance is the total equivalent
resistance looking into the output of the
amplifier at coupling capacitor C
3.
The input
source is set to 0 and a test source is applied
at the output.
C
R
o
r
C
R R
m
g
o
r
C
R
~ = =
+ + =
x
i
x
v
out
be
v
x
v
x
v
x
i
But v
be
=0.
since r
o
is usually >> R
C
.
Dr. D G Borse
High-Frequency Response BJT Amplifiers
Capacitances that will affect the high-frequency response:
Cbe, Cbc, Cce internal capacitances
Cwi, Cwo wiring capacitances
C
S
, C
C
coupling capacitors
C
E
bypass capacitor
Dr. D G Borse
Frequency Response of Amplifiers
The voltage gain of an amplifier is typically flat over the mid-frequency
range, but drops drastically for low or high frequencies. A typical
frequency response is shown below.
LM(A
vi
) = 20log(v
o
/v
i
) [in dB]
BW


3dB

20log(A
vi
(mid))
f
f
LOW
f
HIGH
LM Response for a General Amplifier
For a CE BJT: (shown on lower right)
low-frequency drop-off is due to C
E
, C
i
and C
o

high-frequency drop-off is due to device capacitances C
p
and C
m

(combined to form C
total
)
Each capacitor forms a break point (simple pole or zero) with a break
frequency of the form f=1/(2pR
Eq
C), where R
Eq
is the resistance seen by
the capacitor
C
E
usually yields the highest low-frequency break
which establishes f
Low
.
Dr. D G Borse
Amplifier Power Dissipation
Static power dissipation in amplifiers is determined from their DC
equivalent circuits.

P
D
=V
CE
I
C
+V
BE
I
B
Total power dissipated in C-B
and E-B junctions is:
where
Total power supplied is:
B
I I I I
C
I
CC
V
S
P + = + =
|
.
|

\
|
1 2
where ,
2
BE
V
CB
V
CE
V + =
E
R
F EQ
R
BE
V
EQ
V
B
I
R R
CC
V
I
|
.
|

\
|
+ +

=
+
=
1
and
2 1
1
|
The difference is the power dissipated by the bias resistors.
Dr. D G Borse
Dr. D G Borse
Figure 4.36a Emitter follower.
Dr. D G Borse
Figure Emitter follower.
Very high input Resistance
Very low out put Resistance
Unity Voltage gain with no phase shift
High current gain
Can be used for impedance matching or a
circuit for providing electrical isolation
An Emitter Follower (CC Amplifier) Amplifier
Dr. D G Borse
Figure 4.36b Emitter follower.
Dr. D G Borse
Figure 4.36c Emitter follower.
Dr. D G Borse
Capacitor Selection for the CE Amplifier

Z
c
=
1
jeC
Capacitive Reactance X
c
Z
c
=
1
eC
where e=2tf

X
c1
<<R
B
r
t
Make X
c1
s0.01 R
B
r
t
|
\


|
.
|
|
for < 1% gain error.

X
c2
0 Make X
c2
s1O for <1% gain error.

X
c3
<<R
3
Make X
c3
s0.01 R
3
|
\


|
.
|
|
for <1% gain error.
The key objective in design is to make the capacitive reactance
much smaller at the operating frequency f than the associated
resistance that must be coupled or bypassed.
Dr. D G Borse
Summary of Two-Port Parameters for
CE/CS, CB/CG, CC/CD
Dr. D G Borse
A Small Signal h-parameter Model of C E - Transistor
= h
11
V
ce
*h
12
Dr. D G Borse
A Simple MOSFET Amplifier
The MOSFET is biased in the saturation region by dc voltage sources V
GS
and
V
DS
= 10 V. The DC Q-point is set at (V
DS
, I
DS
) = (4.8 V, 1.56 mA) with V
GS
=
3.5 V.
Total gate-source voltage is:
gs
v
GS
V
GS
v + =
A 1 V p-p change in v
GS
gives a 1.25 mA p-p change in i
DS
and a 4 V p-p change
in v
DS
. Notice the characteristic non-linear I/O relationship compared to the BJT.
Dr. D G Borse
Eber-Moll BJT Model
The Eber-Moll Model for BJTs is fairly complex, but it is
valid in all regions of BJT operation. The circuit diagram
below shows all the components of the Eber-Moll Model:
E
C
B
I
R
I
F
I
E
I
C
I
B
o
R
I
E
o
R
I
C
Dr. D G Borse
Eber-Moll BJT Model
o
R
= Common-base current gain (in forward active mode)
o
F
= Common-base current gain (in inverse active mode)
I
ES
= Reverse-Saturation Current of B-E Junction
I
CS
= Reverse-Saturation Current of B-C Junction

I
C
= o
F
I
F
I
R
I
B
= I
E
- I
C
I
E
= I
F
- o
R
I
R

I
F
= I
ES
[exp(qV
BE
/kT) 1] I
R
= I
C
[exp (qV
BC
/kT) 1]

If I
ES
& I
CS
are not given, they can be determined using various
BJT parameters.
Dr. D G Borse
Small Signal BJT Equivalent Circuit
The small-signal model can be used when the BJT is in the active region.
The small-signal active-region model for a CB circuit is shown below:
|i
B
r
t

i
E
i
C
i
B
B C
E
r
t
= (| + 1) * qV
T
I
E
@ q = 1 and T = 25C
r
t
= (| + 1) * 0.026

I
E

Recall:
| = I
C
/ I
B
Dr. D G Borse
The Early Effect (Early Voltage)
V
CE
I
C
Note: Common-Emitter
Configuration
-V
A
I
B
Green = Ideal I
C
Orange = Actual I
C
(I
C
)

I
C
= I
C
V
CE
+ 1
V
A

Dr. D G Borse
Early Effect Example
Given: The common-emitter circuit below with I
B
= 25A,
V
CC
= 15V, | = 100 and V
A
= 80.
Find: a) The ideal collector current
b) The actual collector current
Circuit Diagram
+
_ V
CC
I
C
V
CE
I
B
| = 100 = I
C
/I
B
a)
I
C
= 100 * I
B
= 100 * (25x10
-6
A)
I
C
= 2.5 mA
b) I
C
= I
C
V
CE
+ 1 = 2.5x10
-3
15 + 1 = 2.96 mA
V
A
80
I
C
= 2.96 mA


Dr. D G Borse
Breakdown Voltage
The maximum voltage that the BJT can withstand.

BV
CEO
= The breakdown voltage for a common-emitter
biased circuit. This breakdown voltage usually
ranges from ~20-1000 Volts.
BV
CBO
= The breakdown voltage for a common-base biased
circuit. This breakdown voltage is usually much
higher than BV
CEO
and has a minimum value of ~60
Volts.

Breakdown Voltage is Determined By:
The Base Width
Material Being Used
Doping Levels
Biasing Voltage
Dr. D G Borse
Potential-Divider Bias Circuit with Emitter Feedback
Most popular biasing circuit.
Problem: |
dc
can vary over a wide range for BJTs (even with the same part number)
Solution: Adding the feedback resistor R
E
. How large should R
E
be? Lets see.
Substituting the active region model into
the circuit to the left and analyzing the
circuit yields the following well known
equation:
VCC
RC
C

E

B

VCC
R1
RE R2
VCC
RC
C

E

B

RE
RTh
V
Th _
+
2
Th CC Th 1 2
1 2
R
V = V and R = R R
R + R
(
(

( ) ( )
( )
( )
dc Th o CEO Th E
C
Th dc E
CEO dc CBO
V - V + I R + R
I =
R + + 1 R
where I = + 1 I
|
|
|
I
CEO
has little effect and is often
neglected yielding the simpler
relationship:
( )
( )
dc Th o
C
Th dc E
V - V
I =
R + + 1 R
|
|
Test for stability: For a stable Q-point w.r.t. variations in |
dc
choose:
( )
Th dc E
R << + 1 R |
Why? Because then
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
dc Th o dc Th o Th o
C dc
Th dc E dc E E
V - V V - V V - V
I = (independent of )
R + + 1 R + 1 R R
| |
|
| |
~ ~
Voltage divider biasing
circuit with emitter
feedback
Replacing the input circuit by a
Thevenin equivalent circuit yields:
Dr. D G Borse
PE-Electrical Review Course - Class 4 (Transistors)
Example :
Find the Q-point for the biasing circuit shown below.
The BJT has the following specifications:
|
dc
= 100, r
sat
= 100 O (V
o
not specified, so assume V
o
= 0.7 V)
15 V
C

E

B

15 V
200 k 1 k
Example : Repeat Example 3 if R
C
is changed from 1k to 2.2k.
Dr. D G Borse
PE-Electrical Review Course - Class 4 (Transistors)
Example
Determine the Q-point for the biasing circuit shown.
The BJT has the following specifications:
|
dc
varies from 50 to 400, V
o
= 0.7 V, I
CBO
= 10 nA
Solution:
Case 1: |
dc
= 50
C

E

B

18 V
30 k
15 k
10 k
8 k
18 V
Case 2: |
dc
= 400 Similar to Case 1 above. Results are: I
C
= 0.659 mA, V
CE
=
6.14 V Summary:
|
dc
I
C
V
CE
50
400
Dr. D G Borse
PE-Electrical Review Course - Class 4 (Transistors)
BJT Amplifier Configurations
and Relationships:
Using the hybrid-t model.
VCC
RC
C

E

B

VCC
R1
RE R2
Rs
Ci
RL
Co
CE
vi
vo
+
+
vs
+
_
_
_
io
ii
Common Emitter (CE) Amplifier
( )
( )
( )
( )
'
o L ' '
vi m L m L '
o L
'
L d C L d C L E L
'
i Th E Th o L
m
Th S
o d C d C E
o
i i i
vs vi vi vi
s i s i s i
CE CB CC
1 + R
A -g R g R
r + 1 + R
R r R R r R R R R
1
Z R r R r R r + 1 + R
g
r + R R
Z r R r R R
1 +
Z Z Z
A A A A
R + Z R + Z R + Z
t
t t t
t
|
|
|
|
(

(
(

( ( (
( ( (

i i i
I vi vi vi
L L L
P vi I vi I vi I
Th 1 2

Z Z Z
A A A A
R R R
A A A A A A A
where R = R R
( ( (
( ( (

VCC
RC
E

R2
RE
Rs
Ci
RL
Co
C2
vi
vo
+
+
vs
+
_
_
_
io
ii
Common Base (CB) Amplifier
R1
C

B

V CC
C

E

B

V CC
R 1
R E R 2
R s
C i
v i
+
v s
+
_
_
R L
C o
v o
+
_
i o
i i
Common Collector (CC) Amplifier (also called emitter-follower)

Note: The biasing circuit is
the same for each amplifier.
Dr. D G Borse
Figure 4.16 The pnp BJT.
Dr. D G Borse
Figure 4.17 Common-emitter characteristics for a pnp BJT.
Dr. D G Borse
Figure 4.18 Common-emitter amplifier for Exercise 4.8.
Dr. D G Borse
Figure 4.19a BJT large-signal models. (Note: Values shown are appropriate for typical small-signal silicon devices at
a temperature of 300K.
Dr. D G Borse
Figure 4.19b BJT large-signal models. (Note: Values shown are appropriate for typical small-signal silicon devices at
a temperature of 300K.
Dr. D G Borse
Figure 4.19c BJT large-signal models. (Note: Values shown are appropriate for typical small-signal silicon devices at
a temperature of 300K.
Dr. D G Borse