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**Direct – Current Motor
**

Characteristics and Applications

• Straight Shunt Motor

– Essentially a constant speed motor

• Compound or Stabilized – Shunt Motors

– Has both shunt and series field windings

– Series field generates mmf in the same

direction as the shunt field mmf.

ECE 441 2

Circuit Diagram of a Compound Motor

ECE 441 3

Differential Connection of Fields

• Both the series and shunt fields must

provide fluxes that are additive.

• If the series field is reversed with respect

to the shunt field, the net flux decreases,

and the speed increases.

• The time constant of the series field is

such that the current increases faster than

the shunt field current.

ECE 441 4

Differential Connection of Fields

• If the series field is reversed,

– The motor will start in the wrong direction

– Depending upon the load and the structure of

the series field, the motor could

• slow down and stop, tripping the breaker

• slow down, stop, reverse direction, and accelerate

• slow down, stop, reverse direction, slow down,

stop, reverse direction, etc. until a breaker trips

ECE 441 5

Reversing the Direction of

Compound Motors

• Reverse either the armature current or

reverse both the series and shunt fields.

– If only one field is reversed, a “differential”

connection results!

– The field mmfs will be reduced, resulting in

excessive speed!

ECE 441 6

Reversing the Armature Current

ECE 441 7

Using NEMA standard

terminal markings

ECE 441 8

Series Motor

• Series field

– Heavy windings

– Must conduct the armature current

• Potentially dangerous problem if the shaft

load is removed!

ECE 441 9

Field winding is in

series with the

armature

ECE 441 10

More Details

• When shaft load is removed, T

D

>T

load

– Motor speed increases

– cemf increases

– armature current decreases

– series field flux decreases

ECE 441 11

Reversing the Direction

of a Series Motor

• Reverse the current in the armature-

interpole-compensating branch

• Reverse the current in the series field

windings

ECE 441 12

Reversing the Armature Current

ECE 441 13

Using NMEA standard

Terminal Markings

ECE 441 14

Using NEMA standard

terminal markings

Reversing the series field

ECE 441 15

Effect of Magnetic Saturation on

DC Motor Performance

• Pole flux is not directly proportional to the

applied mmf due to magnetic saturation

• Net mmf is made up of the following

components, as applicable

– F

net

= F

f

+ F

s

- F

d

– F

net

= net mmf (A-t/pole)

– F

f

= shunt field mmf (N

f

I

f

)(A-t/pole)

– F

s

= series field mmf (N

s

I

a

)(A-t/pole)

– F

d

= equivalent demagnetizing mmf due to armature

reaction (A-t)/pole

ECE 441 16

Effect of Magnetic Saturation on

DC Motor Performance

• Note that F

d

is not exactly proportional to

the armature current, but is assumed to

be.

• If a compensating winding is used, F

d

= 0.

ECE 441 17

Developed Torque and Speed

0

p

D p a M

T a acir

p G

acir a IP CW s

T B I k

V I R

n

k

R R R R R

u =

=

÷

=

u

= + + +

ECE 441 18

Defining Parameters

• R

acir

= resistance of armature circuit (Ω)

• R

a

= resistance of armature windings (Ω )

• R

IP

= resistance of interpole windings (Ω)

• R

CW

= resistance of compensating

windings (Ω)

• R

s

= resistance of series field winding (Ω)

• B

p

= air-gap flux density (T)

• Φ

p

= pole flux (Wb)

ECE 441 19

Solve Problems with Proportions

1

1

2 2

1 1

2

2

1

2

2

1

[ ]

[ ]

, 0

p a

D

D p a

T a acir

p G

T a acir

p G

p p

p

T a acir

p T a acir

B I

T

T B I

V I R

k

n

n

V I R

k

B A

B

V I R n

n B V I R

=

(

÷

(

u

(

¸ ¸

= u =

(

÷

(

u

(

¸ ¸

u = ×

(

(

÷

= ×

(

(

÷

(

¸ ¸

¸ ¸

ECE 441 20

Example 11.1

• A 240-V, 40-hp, 1150 r/min stabilized-

shunt motor, operating at rated conditions,

has an efficiency at rated load of 90.2%.

The motor parameters are

• R

a

= 0.0680 Ω R

IP

= 0.0198 Ω

R

s

= 0.00911 Ω R

shunt

= 99.5 Ω

• Turns/pole series - ½ shunt - 1231

ECE 441 21

Example 11.1 (continued)

• The circuit diagram and magnetization

curve are shown on the next slide.

Determine (a) the armature current when

operating at rated conditions; (b) the

resistance and power rating of an external

resistance required in series with the shunt

field in order to operate at 125% rated

speed. Assume the shaft load is adjusted

to a value that limits armature current to

115% of rated current.

ECE 441 22

ECE 441 23

40 746

0.902 240

137.84

240

2.4121

99.5

137.84 2.41 135.43

T T T

T

T

T

f

f

a T f

P

P V I I

V

I A

V

I A

R

I I I A

q

×

= ¬ = =

×

=

= = =

= ÷ = ÷ =

Solution for Armature Current

ECE 441 24

Solution for External Resistance

• The series field of a compound motor is

designed to be approximately equal and

opposite to the equivalent demagnetizing

mmf of armature reaction. Therefore, the

net flux is due to the shunt field alone.

1231 2.412 2969.2 /

net f f f

N I A t pole = = = × = ÷ F F

ECE 441 25

net mmf = 0.70 T

ECE 441 26

1

2

2

1

2 1

2 1

2 1

2

2

0.0680 0.0198 0.0091 0.0969

[ ]

[ ]

1150 240 1.15 135.43 0.0969

0.70

1.25 1150 240 135.43 0.0969

acir a IP s

acir

p

T a acir

p T a acir

T a acir

p p

T a acir

p

p

R R R R

R

B

V I R n

n B V I R

V I R n

B B

n V I R

B

B

= + +

= + + = O

(

(

÷

= ×

(

(

÷

(

¸ ¸

¸ ¸

÷

= × ×

÷

÷ × ×

= × ×

× ÷ ×

= 0.56T

ECE 441 27

F

f

= 2.3 X 1000 = 2300 A-t/pole

ECE 441 28

2 2

2300

1231

1.87

240

99.5 28.8

187

(1.87) 28.8 100.7

x

f

f f f f

f

f

T T

f x f

f x f

x

R f x

N I I

N

I A

V V

I R R

R R R

R

P I R W

= ¬ = =

=

= ¬ = ÷

+

= ÷ = O

= = × =

F

F

ECE 441 29

Linear Approximations

• If the magnetization curve is not available

– rough approximation obtained by assuming

magnetization effects are negligible

– Do not use approximations if the motor is

operating under heavy overload or locked

rotor conditions.

• If the net mmf is to be reduced below its

rated value, approximation using the linear

assumption is OK.

ECE 441 30

Approximate Equations for

Torque and Speed

1

1 1

2 2 2

1

2

2

1

1

2

1 2

[ ]

[ ]

[ ] [ ]

, 0

p a

net a D

D p a net a

p

T a acir

p T a acir

T a acir net

net T a acir

B I

I T

T B I I

B

V I R n

n B V I R

V I R n

n V I R

= ¬

(

(

÷

= × ¬

(

(

÷

(

¸ ¸

¸ ¸

( (

÷

= × u =

( (

÷

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

F

F

F

F

ECE 441 31

For the Series Motor

1 1

,

2 2

2

,

[ ]

[ ]

net a D

D series net a s a

D net a

D series a

I T

T I N I

T I

T I

= ¬ · =

·

F

F

F

If the range of operation is in the unsaturated

region, and armature reaction effects are

either negligible or compensated for,

The developed torque is proportional to the

square of the armature current.

ECE 441 32

Example 11.2

• Example 11.1 is re-solved using the linear

approximation, and the solution is

compared to the results obtained in

Example 11.1.

ECE 441 33

1

1

1

2

1 2

2 1

2 1

2 1

2

240

2.412

99.5

137.84 2.412 135.43

1231 2.412 2969.2 /

[ ]

[ ]

1150

2969.2

1

T

f

f

a T f

net f f f

T a acir net

net T a acir

T a acir

net net

T a acir

net

V

I A

R

I I I A

N I A t pole

V I R n

n V I R

V I R n

n V I R

= = =

= ÷ = ÷ =

= = = × = ÷

( (

÷

= ×

( (

÷

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

÷

= × ×

÷

= ×

F F

F

F

F F

F

2

240 1.15 135.43 0.0969

.25 1150 240 135.43 0.0969

2354.8 /

net

A t pole

÷ × ×

×

× ÷ ×

= ÷ F

ECE 441 34

2354.8

1.91

1231

240

99.5 26.15

1.91

net

f

f

T T

f x f

f x f

x

I A

N

V V

I R R

R R I

R

= = =

= ¬ = ÷

+

= ÷ = O

F

From Example 11.1, the value of resistance was

determined to be 28.8 Ω

ECE 441 35

% 100%

28.8 26.15

% 100%

28.8

% 9.2%

actual approx

actual

R R

error

R

error

error

÷

= ×

÷

= ×

=

Calculate the Percent Error

This lower value of resistance would cause

a slightly higher field current, and therefore,

a speed slightly lower than 1437.5 r/min.

ECE 441 36

Comparison of Steady – State

Operating Characteristics of DC Motors

• The steady-state operating characteristics

of typical shunt, compound, and series

motors of the same torque and speed

ratings are shown on the next slide.

ECE 441 37

ECE 441 38

Comparisons (continued)

• Shunt Motor

– relatively constant speed from no-load to

full-load

– does not have high starting torque

– essentially constant flux

– torque varies linearly with armature current

– speed regulation around 5%

ECE 441 39

Relatively

Constant Speed

Linear Torque

ECE 441 40

Comparisons (continued)

• Compound Motor

– Higher torque, lower speed than shunt motor

– speed regulation between 15 and 25%

– used with loads requiring high starting torques

or have pulsating loads

• smoothes out the energy required by the pulsating

load, lowering the demand on the electrical supply

ECE 441 41

Higher Torque

above base speed

than Shunt motor

Lower Speed at

Higher Torque

ECE 441 42

Comparisons (continued)

• Series Motor

– high starting torque

– wide speed range

– REMOVING THE LOAD CAUSES IT TO RUN

AWAY!

• CONNECT LOAD BY GEARS OR SOLID

COUPLING – NO BELT DRIVES!

ECE 441 43

Wide Speed Range

High Starting Torque

ECE 441 44

Dynamic Braking, Plugging,

and Jogging

• Dynamic Braking is the deceleration of the

motor by converting the energy stored in

the moving masses into electrical energy

and dissipating it as heat via resistors.

Also called resistive braking.

ECE 441 45

Dynamic Braking (continued)

• Disconnect the armature from the

electrical supply lines and connect across

a suitable resistor while maintaining the

field at full strength.

• The motor behaves as a generator,

feeding current to the resistor, dissipating

heat.

ECE 441 46

Dynamic Braking (continued)

• Choose the resistance for current between

150 and 300% of rated current.

• The armature current is in a direction to

oppose the armature motion, producing a

negative, or, counter-torque, slowing down

the load.

ECE 441 47

Compound Motor Example

Normal Operation

Dynamic Braking

ECE 441 48

Normal Operation

Closed

Open

ECE 441 49

Dynamic - Braking

Open

Closed

ECE 441 50

Regenerative Braking

• Convert energy of overhauling loads into

electrical energy and pumps it back into

the electrical system.

• The overhauling load drives a DC motor

faster than normal, causing the cemf to

become greater than the supply voltage

and results in generator action.

• Trains, elevators, hybrid automobiles

ECE 441 51

Plugging

• The electrical reversal of a motor before it

stops

• Reverse the voltage applied to the

armature

• Current in the series and shunt fields is not

reversed

• Insert resistance in series with the

armature to limit the current

ECE 441 52

Normal Operation

ECE 441 53

Plugging

ECE 441 54

Jogging

• Very brief application of power to a motor

• Fraction of a revolution

• Used for positioning the load

• Place resistance in series with the

armature to limit the current

ECE 441 55

Example 11.7

• A 240-V, compensated shunt motor driving a

910 lb-ft torque load is running at 1150 r/min.

The efficiency of the motor at this load is 94.0%.

The combined armature, compensating winding,

and interpole resistance is 0.00707Ω, and the

resistance of the shunt field is 52.6Ω. Determine

the resistance of a dynamic-braking resistor that

will be capable of developing 500 lb-ft of braking

torque at a speed of 1000 r/min. Assume

windage and friction at 1000r/min are essentially

the same as at 1150 r/min.

ECE 441 56

Circuit for Dynamic Braking

ECE 441 57

1 1 1

1

910 1150

199.257

5252 5252

199.257 746

158134

0.940

158134

658.89

240

240

4.56

52.6

658.89 4.56 654.33

240 654.33 0.00707

235.37

shaft

shaft

in

in T T T

T

f

f

a T f

T a a acir a

a

T n

P hp

P

P W

P V I I A

V

I A

R

I I I A

V E I R E

E V

q

× ×

= = =

×

= = =

= ¬ = =

= = =

= ÷ = ÷ =

= + ¬ = ÷ ×

=

ECE 441 58

1

1 1 2 1

2

2 2 2 1

2

1

1 1 2

2 1

2 2 2 1

2

2 2

2 2

2

[ ]

[ ]

654.33 500

359.52

910

[ ]

[ ]

1000

235.37 204.67

1150

( )

204.67 359.52 0.00707

359.52

p a

a a

a

p a a

a

p G

a

a a

a p G

a

a a acir

a a acir DB DB

a

DB

B I

I I T T

I

T B I I T

I A

n k

E n n

E E

E n k n n

E V

E I R

E I R R R

I

R

×

= = ¬ =

×

= =

u

= ¬ ¬ =

u

= × =

÷

= + ¬ =

÷ ×

= 0.562

0.562

DB

R

= O

= O

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