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Engineering

Mechanics:
STATICS

Anthony Bedford and


Wallace Fowler
SI Edition

Teaching Slides
Chapter 8:
Moments of Inertia
Chapter Outline
 Introduction
 Definitions
 Parallel-Axis Theorems

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8.1 Introduction

Tarbela Dam
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8.1 Introduction

Hoover Dam
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8.1 Introduction

 When forces are distributed continuously over


an area on which they act, it is often necessary
to calculate the moment of these forces about
some axis either in or perpendicular to the
plane of the area.
 Frequently the intensity of the force (pressure
or stress) is proportional to the distance of the
line of action of the force from the moment axis.
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8.1 Introduction

 The elemental force acting on an element


of area is proportional to distance times
differential area, and the elemental
moment is proportional to distance
squared times differential area.
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2
∫ (dis tan ce) d (area)

8.1 Introduction

 Total moment involves an integral of form


2
∫ (dis tan ce) d (area)
 This integral is called the moment of
inertia or the second moment of the area.
 The integration is a function of the
geometry of the area and occurs
frequently in the applications of
mechanics.
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8.1 Introduction
 The second moment of area, also known as the
area moment of inertia or second moment of
inertia is a property of a shape that can be used
to predict the resistance of beams to bending and
deflection.
 The deflection of a beam under load depends not
only on the load, but also on the geometry of the
beam's cross-section.

Learning
©2001 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, ™
Inc. a trademark used herein under license.
isThomson
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8.1 Introduction
 This is why beams with higher area moments of
inertia, such as I-beams, are so often seen in
building construction as opposed to other beams
with the same area.
 It is analogous to the polar moment of inertia,
which characterizes an object's ability to resist
torsion.

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©2001 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ThomsonLearning" is a trademark used herein under license.
8.1 Introduction
The surface area ABCD is subjected to a
distributed pressure p whose intensity is
proportional to the distance y from the axis
AB. The moment about AB due to the
pressure on the element of area dA is
py dA=ky2dA
Total Moment = 2
M = k ∫ y dA

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8.1 Introduction

 The word inertia appears in the terminology


by reason of the similarity between the
mathematical form of the integrals for second
moments of areas and those for the resultant
moments of the so-called inertia forces in the
case of rotating bodies.
 The moment of inertia of an area is a purely
mathematical property of the area and in itself
has no physical significance.

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8.2 Definition

 Consider an area A in the x-y plane:

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8.2 Definition

 4 moments of inertia of A are defined:


1. Moment of inertia about the x axis:
I x = ∫ A y 2 dA (8.1)
where y is the y coordinate of the differential element
of area dA
This moment of inertia is sometimes
expressed in terms of the radius of gyration
about the x axis, kx, which is defined by:
I x = k x2 A (8.2)
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8.2 Definition

2. Moment of inertia about the y axis:


I y = ∫ A x 2 dA (8.3)
where x is the x coordinate of the element dA

The radius of gyration about the y axis,


ky, is defined by: 2
I y = ky A
(8.4)
3. Product of inertia:
I xy = ∫ A xy dA
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14
8.2 Definition
4. Polar moment of inertia:
J O = ∫ A r 2 dA (8.6)
where r is the radial distance from the origin
of the coordinate system to dA
The radius of gyration about the origin, kO, is
defined by:
J O = kO2 A (8.7)
The polar moment of inertia is equal to the
sum of moments of inertia about the x & y
(
axes:J O = ∫ A r 2dA = ∫ A y 2 + x 2 dA = I x + I y )
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8.2 Definition
Substituting the expressions for the
moments of inertia in terms of the radii of
gyration into this equation, we obtain:
kO2 = k x2 + k y2
 The dimensions of the moments of inertia of an
area are (length)4 & the radii of gyration have
dimensions of length
 Notice that the definitions of the moments of
inertia Ix, Iy & JO & the radii of gyration imply that
they have positive values for any area
 They cannot be negative or zero
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8.2 Definition
 If an area A is symmetric about the x axis, for
each element dA with coordinates (x, y), there is
a corresponding element dA with coordinates (x,
−y):

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8.2 Definition
 The contributions of these 2 elements to the
product of inertia Ixy of the area cancel:
xy dA + (−xy) dA = 0
 This means that the product of inertia of the
area is zero
 The same kind of argument can be used for
an area that is symmetric about the y axis
 If an area is symmetric about either the x or y
axis, its product of inertia is zero

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Example 8.1 Moments of Inertia of a
Triangular Area

Determine Ix, Iy & Ixy for the triangular area in


Fig. 8.1.

Fig. 8.1

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Example 8.1 Moments of Inertia of a
Triangular Area
Strategy
Eq. (8.3) for the moment of inertia about the y
axis is very similar to the equation for the x
coordinate of the centroid of an area & it can be
evaluated for this triangular area in exactly in the
same way: by using a differential element of
area dA in the form of a vertical strip of width dx.
Then show that Ix & Ixy can be evaluated by using
the same element of area.

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Example 8.1 Moments of Inertia of a
Triangular Area
Solution
Let dA be the vertical strip.
The equation describing the
triangular area’s upper
boundary is f(x) = (h/b)x,
so dA = f(x) dx = (h/b)x dx.

To integrate over the entire area, we must


integrate with respect to x from x = 0 to x = b.

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Example 8.1 Moments of Inertia of a
Triangular Area
Solution
Moment of Inertia About the y Axis:
I y = ∫ x 2dA = ∫ x 2 f ( x ) dA
A A
4 b
b 2 h  h x 1 3
=∫ x  x  dx =   = hb
0 b  b  4 0 4

Moment of Inertia About the x Axis:


1st, determine the moment of inertia of the strip
dA about the x axis while holding x & dx fixed.
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Example 8.1 Moments of Inertia of a
Triangular Area
Solution
In terms of the element area dAs = dx dy:

( I x ) strip = ∫
strip
y dAs = ∫
2
0
f ( x)
( y 2dx ) dy
y 3  f ( x)
1
=  dx = [ f ( x ) ] 3 dx
 3 0 3

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Example 8.1 Moments of Inertia of a
Triangular Area
Solution
Integrating this expression with respect to x from
x = 0 to x = b, we obtain the value of Ix for the entire
area: b1 b 1 h 
3
I x = ∫ [ f ( x ) ] dx = ∫  x  dx
3
0 3 0 3 b 

4 b
h x 3
1 3
= 3   = bh
3b  4  0 12

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Example 8.1 Moments of Inertia of a
Triangular Area
Solution
Product of Inertia:
1st evaluate the product of inertia of the strip dA,
holding x & dx fixed:
f ( x)
( I xy )strip = ∫strip xy dAs = ∫0 ( xy dx ) dy

y 2  f ( x)
1
=  [ ]
x dx = f ( x ) x dx
2

 2 0 2

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Example 8.1 Moments of Inertia of a
Triangular Area
Solution
Integrate this expression with respect to x from
x = 0 to x = b to obtain the value of Ixy for the entire
area:
2
b1 b 1h 
I xy = ∫ [ f ( x ) ] x dx = ∫  x  x dx
2
0 2 0 2 b 

4 b
h x 2
1 2 2
= 2  = b h
2b  4  0 8

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Example 8.1 Moments of Inertia of a
Triangular Area
Critical Thinking
 This example is chosen so that you can confirm
that we obtain the results tabulated for a
triangular area in Appendix B
 Notice that the same procedure can be used to
obtain the moments of inertia of other areas
whose boundaries are described by the
functions of the form y = f(x)

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Example 8.2 Moments of Inertia of a
Circular Area
Determine the moments of inertia & radii of
Fig. 8.2
gyration of the circular area in Fig. 8.2.

Strategy
1st , determine the polar moment of inertia JO by
integrating in terms of polar coordinates. We know from
the symmetry of the area that Ix = Iy & since Ix + Iy = JO,
the moments of inertia of Ix & Iy are each equal to ½ JO.
We also know from the symmetry of the area that Ixy = 0.

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Example 8.2 Moments of Inertia of a
Circular Area
Solution
By letting r change by an amount dr, we obtain an
annular element of area dA = 2π r dr.
The polar moment of inertia is:
R
J O = ∫ r dA = ∫ 2πr 3 dxr
2
A 0

r 4 R
1 4
= 2π   = πR
 4 0 2

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Example 8.2 Moments of Inertia of a
Circular Area
Solution
And the radius of gyration about O is:
JO (1 2) πR 4 1
kO = = = R
A πR 2 2
The moments of inertia about the x & y axes are:
1 1 4
I x = I y = J O = πR
2 4
and the radii of gyration about the x & y axes are:
I (1 4) πR 4 1
kx = k y = x = 2
= R
A πR 2
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Example 8.2 Moments of Inertia of a
Circular Area
Solution
The product of inertia is zero:
I xy = 0
Critical Thinking
 The symmetry of this example saved us from
having to integrate to determine Ix, Iy & Ixy
 Be alert for symmetry that can shorten your
work
 In particular, remember that Ixy = 0 if the area is
symmetric about either the x or the y axis
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8.2 Parallel-Axis Theorems
 The values of the moments of inertia of an area
depend on the position of the coordinate system
relative to the area
 In some situations the moments of inertia of an
area are known in terms of a particular
coordinate system but we need their values in
terms of a different coordinate system

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8.2 Parallel-Axis Theorems
 When the coordinate systems are parallel, the
desired moments of inertia can be obtained
using the parallel-axis theorems:
 Possible to determine the moments of inertia
of a composite area when the moments of
inertia of its parts are known

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8.2 Parallel-Axis Theorems
 Suppose that we know the moments of inertia of
an area A in terms of a coordinate system x’y’
with its origin at the centroid of the area & we
wish to determine the moments of inertia in
terms of a parallel coordinate system xy:

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8.2 Parallel-Axis Theorems
 Denote the coordinates of the centroid of
A in the xy coordinate system by (dx, dy) &
d = d x2 + d is
2
y the distance from the
origin of the xy coordinate system to the
centroid

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8.2 Parallel-Axis Theorems
 In terms of the x’y’ coordinate system,
the coordinates of the centroid of A are:
d = d x2 + d y2
∫ A x′dA ∫ A y′dA
x′ = , y′ =
∫ A dA ∫ A dA

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8.2 Parallel-Axis Theorems
 But the origin of x’y’ coordinate system is
located at the centroid of A, so x ′ = 0 & y ′ = 0.
 Therefore,
∫ A x′dA ∫ A y′dA
x′ = , y′ = (8.8)
∫ A dA ∫ A dA
 Moment of Inertia About the x Axis:
 In terms of the xy coordinate system, the
moment of inertia of A about the x axis is:
2
I x = ∫ A y dA (8.9)
where y is the y coordinate of the element dA relative
to the xy coordinate system
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8.2 Parallel-Axis Theorems
 From the figure, y = y’ + dy, where y’ is the
coordinate of dA relative to the x’y’ coordinate
system
 Substituting this expression into Eq. (8.9), we
obtain:
I x = ∫ ( y′ + d y ) 2 dA = ∫ ( y′) 2 dA + 2d y ∫ y′ dA + d y2 ∫ dA
A A A A
 The 1st integral on the right is the moment of
inertia of A about the x’ axis
 From Eq. (8.8) the 2nd integral on the right
equals zero
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8.2 Parallel-Axis Theorems
 Therefore, we obtain:
I x = I x′ + d y2 A (8.10)
 This is a parallel-axis theorem:
 It relates the moment of inertia of A about
the x’ axis through the centroid to the
moment of inertia about the parallel axis x

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8.2 Parallel-Axis Theorems
 Moment of Inertia About the y Axis:
 In terms of the xy coordinate system, the
moment of inertia of A about the y axis is:
I y = ∫ x 2 dA = ∫ ( x′ + d x ) 2 dA
A A

=∫ ( x ) dA + 2d x ∫ x dA + d x ∫ dA
′ 2
′ 2
A A A
 From Eq. (8.8), the 2nd integral on the right
equals zero

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8.2 Parallel-Axis Theorems
 Therefore, the parallel-axis theorem that
relates the moment of inertia of A about the y’
axis through the centroid to the moment of
inertia about the parallel axis y is:
I y = I y ′ + d x2 A (8.11)

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8.2 Parallel-Axis Theorems
 Product of Inertia:
 In terms of the xy coordinate system, the
product of inertia is:
I xy = ∫ xy dA = ∫ ( x′ + d x ) ( y′ + d y ) dA
A A

= ∫ x′y′ dA + d y ∫ x′ dA + d x ∫ y′ dA + d x d y ∫ dA
A A A A

 The 2nd & 3rd integrals equal zero from Eq.


(8.8)
 The parallel-axis theorem for the product of
inertia is: I xy = I x′y ′ + d x d y A (8.12)
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8.2 Parallel-Axis Theorems
 Polar Moment of Inertia:
 The polar moment of inertia JO = Ix + Iy
 Summing Eqs. (8.10) & (8.11), the parallel-
axis theorem for the polar moment of inertia
is: 2 2 2
( )
J O = J O′ + d x + d y A = J O′ + d A
(8.13)
where d is the distance form the origin
of the x’y’ coordinate system to the
origin of the xy coordinate system

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8.2 Parallel-Axis Theorems
 To determine the moments of inertia of a
composite area:
 Suppose that we want to determine the
moment of inertia about the y axis of the area:

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8.2 Parallel-Axis Theorems
 We can divide it into a triangle, a semicircle
& a circular cutout, denoted as parts 1, 2 & 3
 By using the parallel-axis theorem for Iy, we
can determine the moment of inertia of each
part about the y axis
 E.g. the moment of inertia of part 2 (the
semicircle) about the y axis is:
( I y ) 2 = ( I y′ ) 2 + ( d x ) 22 A2

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8.2 Parallel-Axis Theorems
 We must determine the values of (Iy’)2 & (dx)2
 Once this procedure is carried out for each
part, the moment of inertia of the composite
I y = ( I y )1 + ( I y ) 2 − ( I y ) 3
area is:

 Notice that the moment of inertia of the


circular cutout is subtracted

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8.2 Parallel-Axis Theorems
 Determining a moment of inertia of a composite area in terms
of a given coordinate system involves 3 steps:
1.Choose the parts — try to divide the composite
area into parts whose moments of inertia you know
or can easily determine.
2.Determine the moments of inertia of the parts —
determine the moment of inertia of each part in
terms of a parallel coordinate system with its origin
at the centroid of the part & then use the parallel-
axis theorem to determine the moment of inertia in
terms of the given coordinate system.

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8.2 Parallel-Axis Theorems
3.Sum the results — sum the moments of
inertia of the parts (or subtract in the
case of a cutout) to obtain the moment
of inertia of the composite area.

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Example 8.3 Demonstration of the
Parallel-Axis Theorems
The moments of inertia of the rectangular area in
Fig. 8.3 in terms of the x’y’ coordinate system are
1 bh3 , I = 1 hb3 , I
I x′ = 12 y′ 12 x ′y ′ = 0 & J ′
O = 12
( )
1 bh3 + hb3 .

Determine its moment of inertia in terms of the xy


coordinate system.

Fig. 8.3 49
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Example 8.3 Demonstration of the
Parallel-Axis Theorems
Strategy
The x’y’ coordinate system has its origin at the
centroid of the area & is parallel to the xy
coordinate system. Use the parallel-axis theorems
to determine the moments of inertia of A in terms
of the xy coordinate system.

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Example 8.3 Demonstration of the
Parallel-Axis Theorems
Solution
The coordinates of the centroid in terms of the xy
coordinate system are dx = b/2, dy = h/2.
The moment of inertia about the x axis is:
Ix = I x′ + d y2 A 1 bh3
= 12 +( 2
)
1 h 2 bh = 13 bh3

The moment of inertia about the y axis is:


I y = I y ′ + d x A = 12 hb + ( 2 b ) bh = 13 hb3
2 1 3 1 2

The product of inertia is:


I xy = I x′y ′ + d x d y A = 0 + ( 12 b )( 12 h )bh = 14 b 2 h 2
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Example 8.3 Demonstration of the
Parallel-Axis Theorems
Solution
The polar moment of inertia is:
J O = J O′ + d 2 A = 12
1 bh3 + hb3 + ( ) [( ) + ( )
1b 2
2
1h 2
2
] bh
Critical Thinking
 Notice that we could also have determined JO
using the relation
J O = I x + I y = 13 bh3 + 13 hb3

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Example 8.3 Demonstration of the
Parallel-Axis Theorems
Critical Thinking
 This example is designed so that you can
confirm that the parallel-axis theorems yield the
results in Appendix B for a rectangular area
 But the same procedure can be used to obtain
the moments of inertia of the area in terms of
any coordinate system that is parallel to the x’y’
system

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Example 8.4 Moments of Inertia of a
Composite Area
Fig. 8.4
Determine Ix, kx & Ixy for the composite
area in Fig. 8.4.

Strategy
This area can be divided into 2
rectangles. Use the parallel-axis
theorems to determine Ix & Ixy for each rectangle in
terms of the xy coordinate system & sum the results
for the rectangles to determine Ix & Ixy for the
composite area. Then use Eq. (8.2) to determine the
radius of gyration kx for the composite area.
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Example 8.4 Moments of Inertia of a
Composite Area
Solution
Choose the Parts:
Determine the moments of inertia by dividing the
area in 2 rectangular parts 1 & 2:

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Example 8.4 Moments of Inertia of a
Composite Area
Solution
Determine the Moments of Inertia of the Parts:
For each part, introduce a coordinate system x’y’
with its origin at the centroid of the part:

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Example 8.4 Moments of Inertia of a
Composite Area
Solution
Use the parallel-axis theorem to determine the
moment of inertia of each part about the x axis
(Table 8.1):
Table 8.1 Determining the moments of inertia of the parts
about the x axis
dy (m) A (m2) Ix’ (m4) I x = I x ′ + d 2y A (m 4 )
Part 1 2 (1)(4) 1
12
(1)( 4) 3 21.33
Part 2 0.5 (2)(1) 1 ( 2 )( 1) 3 0.67
12

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Example 8.4 Moments of Inertia of a
Composite Area
Solution
Sum the Results:
The moment of inertia of the composite area about
the x axis is:
I x = ( I x )1 + ( I x ) 2 = 21.33 m 4 + 0.67 m 4 = 22.00 m 4

The sum of the areas is A = A1 + A2 = 6 m2,


so the radius of gyration about the x axis is:
Ix 22 m 4
k= = 2
= 1.91 m
A 6m

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Example 8.4 Moments of Inertia of a
Composite Area
Solution
Repeating this procedure, determine Ixy for each
part in Table 8.2:
Table 8.2 Determining the products of inertia of the parts
of the xy coordinate system
dx (m) dy (m) A (m2) Ix’y’ (m4) I xy = I x ′y ′ + d x d y A (m 4 )
Part 1 0.5 2 (1)(4) 0 4
Part 2 2 0.5 (2)(1) 0 2

The product of inertia of the composite area is:


I xy = ( I xy )1 + ( I xy ) 2 = 4 m 4 + 2 m 4 = 6 m 4

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Example 8.4 Moments of Inertia of a
Composite Area
Critical Thinking
 The moments of inertia you obtain do not
depend on how you divide a composite area into
parts & you will often have a choice of
convenient ways to divide a given area.

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Example 8.5 Moments of Inertia of a
Composite Area
Determine Iy & ky for the composite area in Fig. 8.5.

Fig. 8.5

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Example 8.5 Moments of Inertia of a
Composite Area
Strategy
Divide the area into a rectangle without the
semicircular cutout, a semicircle without the
semicircular cutout & a circular cutout. Use a
parallel-axis theorem to determine Iy for each part in
terms of the xy coordinate system.
Then, determine Iy for the composite area by adding
the values of the rectangle & semicircle &
subtracting the circular cutout. Then use Eq. (8.4)
to determine the radius of gyration ky for the
composite area.

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Example 8.5 Moments of Inertia of a
Composite Area
Solution
Choose the Parts:
Divide the area into a rectangle,
a semicircle & the circular cutout,
calling them parts 1, 2 & 3,
respectively:

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Example 8.5 Moments of Inertia of a
Composite Area
Solution
Determine the Moments of Inertia of the Parts:
The moments of inertia of the parts in terms of the
x’y’ coordinate systems & location of the centroid
of the semicircular part are summarized in Table 8.3.
Use the parallel-axis theorem to determine the
moment of inertia of each part about the y axis.
dx (mm) A (mm2) Iy’ (mm4) I y = I y′ + d x2 A (mm 4 )
Part 1 60 (120)(80) 1
12
( 80)(120) 3 4.608 × 107
4( 40)  π − 8 ( 40 ) 4
120 + 1π ( 40) 2 
 8 9π 

Part 2 3π 2
4.744 × 107
1π ( 20) 4
Part 3 120 π (20) 2 4
1.822 × 107
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Example 8.5 Moments of Inertia of a
Composite Area
Solution
Sum the Results:
The moment of inertia of the composite area about
the y axis is:
I y = ( I y )1 + ( I y ) 2 − ( I y ) 3 = ( 4.608 + 4.744 − 1.822 ) × 107 mm4
= 7.530 × 107 mm 4
The total area is:
A = A1 + A2 − A3 = (120 mm )( 80 mm ) + 12 π ( 40 mm ) 2 − π ( 20 mm ) 2
= 1.086 × 104 mm 2
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Example 8.5 Moments of Inertia of a
Composite Area
Solution
So the radius of gyration about the y axis is:
Iy 7.530 × 107 mm 4
ky = = 4 2
= 83.3 mm
A 1.086 × 10 mm

Critical Thinking
 Integration is an additive process, which is why
the moments of inertia of composite areas can
be determined by adding (or in the case of a
cutout, subtracting) the moments of inertia of the
parts
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Example 8.5 Moments of Inertia of a
Composite Area
Critical Thinking
 But the radii of gyration of composite areas
cannot be determined by adding or subtracting
the radii of gyration of the parts
 This can be seen from the equations relating
the moments of inertia, radii of gyration & area
 For this example, we can demonstrate it
numerically: the operation
( I y )1 ( I y )2 ( I y )3
( k y )1 + ( k y ) 2 − ( k y )3 = + − = 86.3 mm
A1 A2 A3
does not yield the correct radius of gyration of
the composite area.
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Design Example 8.6 Beam Design

The equal areas in Fig. 8.6 are


candidates for the cross-section
of a beam. (A beam with the 2nd
cross section shown is called an
I-beam.) compare their moments
of inertia about the x axis.

Fig. 8.6 68
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Design Example 8.6 Beam Design
Strategy
Obtain the moment of inertia of the square cross
section from Appendix B. Divide the I-beam into 3
rectangles & use the parallel-axis theorem to
determine its moment of inertia by the same
procedure used in Examples 8.4 & 8.5.

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 69


Design Example 8.6 Beam Design
Solution
Square Cross Section:
From Appendix B, the moment of inertia of the
square cross section about the x axis is:
1
Ix = (144.2 mm )(144.2 mm) 3 = 3.60 × 107 mm4
12

I-Beam Cross Section:


Divide the area into the rectangular
parts shown:

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Design Example 8.6 Beam Design
Solution
Introducing the coordinate system x’y’ with their
origins at the centroids of the parts:

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Design Example 8.6 Beam Design
Solution
Use the parallel-axis theorem to determine the
moments of inertia about the x axis (Table 8.4):

dy (mm) A (mm2) Ix’ (mm4) I x = I x ′ + d 2y A (mm 4 )


Part 1 80 (200)(40) 1
12
( 200 )( 40 ) 3 5.23 × 107
1 ( 40 )( 120 ) 3
12
Part 2 0 (40)(120) 1 ( 200 )( 40 ) 3 0.58 × 10
7
12

Part 3 −80 (200)(40) 5.23 × 107

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Design Example 8.6 Beam Design
Solution
Their sum is:
I x = ( I x )1 + ( I x ) 2 + ( I x ) 3 = ( 5.023 + 0.58 + 5.23) × 107 mm 4
= 11.03 × 107 mm4

The moment of inertia of the I-beam about the x


axis is 3.06 times that of the square cross section
of equal area.

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Design Example 8.6 Beam Design
Design Issues
 A beam is a bar of material that supports
lateral loads, meaning loads perpendicular to
the axis of the bar
 2 common types of beams:
 Simply supported beam:
a beam with pinned ends
 Cantilever beam: a beam
with a single, built-in
support
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Design Example 8.6 Beam Design
Design Issues
 The lateral loads on a beam cause it to bend &
it must be stiff or resistant to bending to support
them
 It is shown in mechanics of materials that a
beam’s resistance to bending depends directly
on the moment of inertia of its cross-sectional
area

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Design Example 8.6 Beam Design
Design Issues
 The cross sections in the figure all have the
same area:

(the numbers are the ratios of the moment of


inertia Ix to the value of Ix for the solid square
cross section)
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Design Example 8.6 Beam Design
Design Issues
 However, configuring the cross
section of a beam to increase its
moment of inertia can be carried
too far:
 The “box” beam in the figure

has a value of Ix that is 4 times


as large as a solid square
beam of the same cross-
sectional area but its walls are
so thin that they may “buckle”
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Design Example 8.6 Beam Design
Design Issues
 The stiffness implied by the beam’s large
moment of inertia is not realized because it
becomes geometrically unstable
 1 solution used by engineers to achieve a

large moment of inertia in a relatively light


beam while avoiding failure due to buckling
is to stabilize its walls by filling the beam
with a light material such as
honeycombed metal or foamed
plastic
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