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Mechanics:

STATICS

Wallace Fowler

SI Edition

Teaching Slides

Chapter 8:

Moments of Inertia

Chapter Outline

Introduction

Definitions

Parallel-Axis Theorems

8.1 Introduction

Tarbela Dam

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 3

8.1 Introduction

Hoover Dam

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 4

8.1 Introduction

an area on which they act, it is often necessary

to calculate the moment of these forces about

some axis either in or perpendicular to the

plane of the area.

Frequently the intensity of the force (pressure

or stress) is proportional to the distance of the

line of action of the force from the moment axis.

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 5

8.1 Introduction

of area is proportional to distance times

differential area, and the elemental

moment is proportional to distance

squared times differential area.

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 6

2

∫ (dis tan ce) d (area)

8.1 Introduction

2

∫ (dis tan ce) d (area)

This integral is called the moment of

inertia or the second moment of the area.

The integration is a function of the

geometry of the area and occurs

frequently in the applications of

mechanics.

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 7

8.1 Introduction

The second moment of area, also known as the

area moment of inertia or second moment of

inertia is a property of a shape that can be used

to predict the resistance of beams to bending and

deflection.

The deflection of a beam under load depends not

only on the load, but also on the geometry of the

beam's cross-section.

Learning

©2001 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, ™

Inc. a trademark used herein under license.

isThomson

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 8

8.1 Introduction

This is why beams with higher area moments of

inertia, such as I-beams, are so often seen in

building construction as opposed to other beams

with the same area.

It is analogous to the polar moment of inertia,

which characterizes an object's ability to resist

torsion.

©2001 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. ThomsonLearning" is a trademark used herein under license.

8.1 Introduction

The surface area ABCD is subjected to a

distributed pressure p whose intensity is

proportional to the distance y from the axis

AB. The moment about AB due to the

pressure on the element of area dA is

py dA=ky2dA

Total Moment = 2

M = k ∫ y dA

8.1 Introduction

by reason of the similarity between the

mathematical form of the integrals for second

moments of areas and those for the resultant

moments of the so-called inertia forces in the

case of rotating bodies.

The moment of inertia of an area is a purely

mathematical property of the area and in itself

has no physical significance.

8.2 Definition

8.2 Definition

1. Moment of inertia about the x axis:

I x = ∫ A y 2 dA (8.1)

where y is the y coordinate of the differential element

of area dA

This moment of inertia is sometimes

expressed in terms of the radius of gyration

about the x axis, kx, which is defined by:

I x = k x2 A (8.2)

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 13

8.2 Definition

I y = ∫ A x 2 dA (8.3)

where x is the x coordinate of the element dA

ky, is defined by: 2

I y = ky A

(8.4)

3. Product of inertia:

I xy = ∫ A xy dA

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd (8.5)

14

8.2 Definition

4. Polar moment of inertia:

J O = ∫ A r 2 dA (8.6)

where r is the radial distance from the origin

of the coordinate system to dA

The radius of gyration about the origin, kO, is

defined by:

J O = kO2 A (8.7)

The polar moment of inertia is equal to the

sum of moments of inertia about the x & y

(

axes:J O = ∫ A r 2dA = ∫ A y 2 + x 2 dA = I x + I y )

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8.2 Definition

Substituting the expressions for the

moments of inertia in terms of the radii of

gyration into this equation, we obtain:

kO2 = k x2 + k y2

The dimensions of the moments of inertia of an

area are (length)4 & the radii of gyration have

dimensions of length

Notice that the definitions of the moments of

inertia Ix, Iy & JO & the radii of gyration imply that

they have positive values for any area

They cannot be negative or zero

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8.2 Definition

If an area A is symmetric about the x axis, for

each element dA with coordinates (x, y), there is

a corresponding element dA with coordinates (x,

−y):

8.2 Definition

The contributions of these 2 elements to the

product of inertia Ixy of the area cancel:

xy dA + (−xy) dA = 0

This means that the product of inertia of the

area is zero

The same kind of argument can be used for

an area that is symmetric about the y axis

If an area is symmetric about either the x or y

axis, its product of inertia is zero

Example 8.1 Moments of Inertia of a

Triangular Area

Fig. 8.1.

Fig. 8.1

Example 8.1 Moments of Inertia of a

Triangular Area

Strategy

Eq. (8.3) for the moment of inertia about the y

axis is very similar to the equation for the x

coordinate of the centroid of an area & it can be

evaluated for this triangular area in exactly in the

same way: by using a differential element of

area dA in the form of a vertical strip of width dx.

Then show that Ix & Ixy can be evaluated by using

the same element of area.

Example 8.1 Moments of Inertia of a

Triangular Area

Solution

Let dA be the vertical strip.

The equation describing the

triangular area’s upper

boundary is f(x) = (h/b)x,

so dA = f(x) dx = (h/b)x dx.

integrate with respect to x from x = 0 to x = b.

Example 8.1 Moments of Inertia of a

Triangular Area

Solution

Moment of Inertia About the y Axis:

I y = ∫ x 2dA = ∫ x 2 f ( x ) dA

A A

4 b

b 2 h h x 1 3

=∫ x x dx = = hb

0 b b 4 0 4

1st, determine the moment of inertia of the strip

dA about the x axis while holding x & dx fixed.

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 22

Example 8.1 Moments of Inertia of a

Triangular Area

Solution

In terms of the element area dAs = dx dy:

( I x ) strip = ∫

strip

y dAs = ∫

2

0

f ( x)

( y 2dx ) dy

y 3 f ( x)

1

= dx = [ f ( x ) ] 3 dx

3 0 3

Example 8.1 Moments of Inertia of a

Triangular Area

Solution

Integrating this expression with respect to x from

x = 0 to x = b, we obtain the value of Ix for the entire

area: b1 b 1 h

3

I x = ∫ [ f ( x ) ] dx = ∫ x dx

3

0 3 0 3 b

4 b

h x 3

1 3

= 3 = bh

3b 4 0 12

Example 8.1 Moments of Inertia of a

Triangular Area

Solution

Product of Inertia:

1st evaluate the product of inertia of the strip dA,

holding x & dx fixed:

f ( x)

( I xy )strip = ∫strip xy dAs = ∫0 ( xy dx ) dy

y 2 f ( x)

1

= [ ]

x dx = f ( x ) x dx

2

2 0 2

Example 8.1 Moments of Inertia of a

Triangular Area

Solution

Integrate this expression with respect to x from

x = 0 to x = b to obtain the value of Ixy for the entire

area:

2

b1 b 1h

I xy = ∫ [ f ( x ) ] x dx = ∫ x x dx

2

0 2 0 2 b

4 b

h x 2

1 2 2

= 2 = b h

2b 4 0 8

Example 8.1 Moments of Inertia of a

Triangular Area

Critical Thinking

This example is chosen so that you can confirm

that we obtain the results tabulated for a

triangular area in Appendix B

Notice that the same procedure can be used to

obtain the moments of inertia of other areas

whose boundaries are described by the

functions of the form y = f(x)

Example 8.2 Moments of Inertia of a

Circular Area

Determine the moments of inertia & radii of

Fig. 8.2

gyration of the circular area in Fig. 8.2.

Strategy

1st , determine the polar moment of inertia JO by

integrating in terms of polar coordinates. We know from

the symmetry of the area that Ix = Iy & since Ix + Iy = JO,

the moments of inertia of Ix & Iy are each equal to ½ JO.

We also know from the symmetry of the area that Ixy = 0.

Example 8.2 Moments of Inertia of a

Circular Area

Solution

By letting r change by an amount dr, we obtain an

annular element of area dA = 2π r dr.

The polar moment of inertia is:

R

J O = ∫ r dA = ∫ 2πr 3 dxr

2

A 0

r 4 R

1 4

= 2π = πR

4 0 2

Example 8.2 Moments of Inertia of a

Circular Area

Solution

And the radius of gyration about O is:

JO (1 2) πR 4 1

kO = = = R

A πR 2 2

The moments of inertia about the x & y axes are:

1 1 4

I x = I y = J O = πR

2 4

and the radii of gyration about the x & y axes are:

I (1 4) πR 4 1

kx = k y = x = 2

= R

A πR 2

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 30

Example 8.2 Moments of Inertia of a

Circular Area

Solution

The product of inertia is zero:

I xy = 0

Critical Thinking

The symmetry of this example saved us from

having to integrate to determine Ix, Iy & Ixy

Be alert for symmetry that can shorten your

work

In particular, remember that Ixy = 0 if the area is

symmetric about either the x or the y axis

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 31

8.2 Parallel-Axis Theorems

The values of the moments of inertia of an area

depend on the position of the coordinate system

relative to the area

In some situations the moments of inertia of an

area are known in terms of a particular

coordinate system but we need their values in

terms of a different coordinate system

8.2 Parallel-Axis Theorems

When the coordinate systems are parallel, the

desired moments of inertia can be obtained

using the parallel-axis theorems:

Possible to determine the moments of inertia

of a composite area when the moments of

inertia of its parts are known

8.2 Parallel-Axis Theorems

Suppose that we know the moments of inertia of

an area A in terms of a coordinate system x’y’

with its origin at the centroid of the area & we

wish to determine the moments of inertia in

terms of a parallel coordinate system xy:

8.2 Parallel-Axis Theorems

Denote the coordinates of the centroid of

A in the xy coordinate system by (dx, dy) &

d = d x2 + d is

2

y the distance from the

origin of the xy coordinate system to the

centroid

8.2 Parallel-Axis Theorems

In terms of the x’y’ coordinate system,

the coordinates of the centroid of A are:

d = d x2 + d y2

∫ A x′dA ∫ A y′dA

x′ = , y′ =

∫ A dA ∫ A dA

8.2 Parallel-Axis Theorems

But the origin of x’y’ coordinate system is

located at the centroid of A, so x ′ = 0 & y ′ = 0.

Therefore,

∫ A x′dA ∫ A y′dA

x′ = , y′ = (8.8)

∫ A dA ∫ A dA

Moment of Inertia About the x Axis:

In terms of the xy coordinate system, the

moment of inertia of A about the x axis is:

2

I x = ∫ A y dA (8.9)

where y is the y coordinate of the element dA relative

to the xy coordinate system

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 37

8.2 Parallel-Axis Theorems

From the figure, y = y’ + dy, where y’ is the

coordinate of dA relative to the x’y’ coordinate

system

Substituting this expression into Eq. (8.9), we

obtain:

I x = ∫ ( y′ + d y ) 2 dA = ∫ ( y′) 2 dA + 2d y ∫ y′ dA + d y2 ∫ dA

A A A A

The 1st integral on the right is the moment of

inertia of A about the x’ axis

From Eq. (8.8) the 2nd integral on the right

equals zero

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 38

8.2 Parallel-Axis Theorems

Therefore, we obtain:

I x = I x′ + d y2 A (8.10)

This is a parallel-axis theorem:

It relates the moment of inertia of A about

the x’ axis through the centroid to the

moment of inertia about the parallel axis x

8.2 Parallel-Axis Theorems

Moment of Inertia About the y Axis:

In terms of the xy coordinate system, the

moment of inertia of A about the y axis is:

I y = ∫ x 2 dA = ∫ ( x′ + d x ) 2 dA

A A

=∫ ( x ) dA + 2d x ∫ x dA + d x ∫ dA

′ 2

′ 2

A A A

From Eq. (8.8), the 2nd integral on the right

equals zero

8.2 Parallel-Axis Theorems

Therefore, the parallel-axis theorem that

relates the moment of inertia of A about the y’

axis through the centroid to the moment of

inertia about the parallel axis y is:

I y = I y ′ + d x2 A (8.11)

8.2 Parallel-Axis Theorems

Product of Inertia:

In terms of the xy coordinate system, the

product of inertia is:

I xy = ∫ xy dA = ∫ ( x′ + d x ) ( y′ + d y ) dA

A A

= ∫ x′y′ dA + d y ∫ x′ dA + d x ∫ y′ dA + d x d y ∫ dA

A A A A

(8.8)

The parallel-axis theorem for the product of

inertia is: I xy = I x′y ′ + d x d y A (8.12)

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 42

8.2 Parallel-Axis Theorems

Polar Moment of Inertia:

The polar moment of inertia JO = Ix + Iy

Summing Eqs. (8.10) & (8.11), the parallel-

axis theorem for the polar moment of inertia

is: 2 2 2

( )

J O = J O′ + d x + d y A = J O′ + d A

(8.13)

where d is the distance form the origin

of the x’y’ coordinate system to the

origin of the xy coordinate system

8.2 Parallel-Axis Theorems

To determine the moments of inertia of a

composite area:

Suppose that we want to determine the

moment of inertia about the y axis of the area:

8.2 Parallel-Axis Theorems

We can divide it into a triangle, a semicircle

& a circular cutout, denoted as parts 1, 2 & 3

By using the parallel-axis theorem for Iy, we

can determine the moment of inertia of each

part about the y axis

E.g. the moment of inertia of part 2 (the

semicircle) about the y axis is:

( I y ) 2 = ( I y′ ) 2 + ( d x ) 22 A2

8.2 Parallel-Axis Theorems

We must determine the values of (Iy’)2 & (dx)2

Once this procedure is carried out for each

part, the moment of inertia of the composite

I y = ( I y )1 + ( I y ) 2 − ( I y ) 3

area is:

circular cutout is subtracted

8.2 Parallel-Axis Theorems

Determining a moment of inertia of a composite area in terms

of a given coordinate system involves 3 steps:

1.Choose the parts — try to divide the composite

area into parts whose moments of inertia you know

or can easily determine.

2.Determine the moments of inertia of the parts —

determine the moment of inertia of each part in

terms of a parallel coordinate system with its origin

at the centroid of the part & then use the parallel-

axis theorem to determine the moment of inertia in

terms of the given coordinate system.

8.2 Parallel-Axis Theorems

3.Sum the results — sum the moments of

inertia of the parts (or subtract in the

case of a cutout) to obtain the moment

of inertia of the composite area.

Example 8.3 Demonstration of the

Parallel-Axis Theorems

The moments of inertia of the rectangular area in

Fig. 8.3 in terms of the x’y’ coordinate system are

1 bh3 , I = 1 hb3 , I

I x′ = 12 y′ 12 x ′y ′ = 0 & J ′

O = 12

( )

1 bh3 + hb3 .

coordinate system.

Fig. 8.3 49

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 8.3 Demonstration of the

Parallel-Axis Theorems

Strategy

The x’y’ coordinate system has its origin at the

centroid of the area & is parallel to the xy

coordinate system. Use the parallel-axis theorems

to determine the moments of inertia of A in terms

of the xy coordinate system.

Example 8.3 Demonstration of the

Parallel-Axis Theorems

Solution

The coordinates of the centroid in terms of the xy

coordinate system are dx = b/2, dy = h/2.

The moment of inertia about the x axis is:

Ix = I x′ + d y2 A 1 bh3

= 12 +( 2

)

1 h 2 bh = 13 bh3

I y = I y ′ + d x A = 12 hb + ( 2 b ) bh = 13 hb3

2 1 3 1 2

I xy = I x′y ′ + d x d y A = 0 + ( 12 b )( 12 h )bh = 14 b 2 h 2

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 51

Example 8.3 Demonstration of the

Parallel-Axis Theorems

Solution

The polar moment of inertia is:

J O = J O′ + d 2 A = 12

1 bh3 + hb3 + ( ) [( ) + ( )

1b 2

2

1h 2

2

] bh

Critical Thinking

Notice that we could also have determined JO

using the relation

J O = I x + I y = 13 bh3 + 13 hb3

Example 8.3 Demonstration of the

Parallel-Axis Theorems

Critical Thinking

This example is designed so that you can

confirm that the parallel-axis theorems yield the

results in Appendix B for a rectangular area

But the same procedure can be used to obtain

the moments of inertia of the area in terms of

any coordinate system that is parallel to the x’y’

system

Example 8.4 Moments of Inertia of a

Composite Area

Fig. 8.4

Determine Ix, kx & Ixy for the composite

area in Fig. 8.4.

Strategy

This area can be divided into 2

rectangles. Use the parallel-axis

theorems to determine Ix & Ixy for each rectangle in

terms of the xy coordinate system & sum the results

for the rectangles to determine Ix & Ixy for the

composite area. Then use Eq. (8.2) to determine the

radius of gyration kx for the composite area.

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 54

Example 8.4 Moments of Inertia of a

Composite Area

Solution

Choose the Parts:

Determine the moments of inertia by dividing the

area in 2 rectangular parts 1 & 2:

Example 8.4 Moments of Inertia of a

Composite Area

Solution

Determine the Moments of Inertia of the Parts:

For each part, introduce a coordinate system x’y’

with its origin at the centroid of the part:

Example 8.4 Moments of Inertia of a

Composite Area

Solution

Use the parallel-axis theorem to determine the

moment of inertia of each part about the x axis

(Table 8.1):

Table 8.1 Determining the moments of inertia of the parts

about the x axis

dy (m) A (m2) Ix’ (m4) I x = I x ′ + d 2y A (m 4 )

Part 1 2 (1)(4) 1

12

(1)( 4) 3 21.33

Part 2 0.5 (2)(1) 1 ( 2 )( 1) 3 0.67

12

Example 8.4 Moments of Inertia of a

Composite Area

Solution

Sum the Results:

The moment of inertia of the composite area about

the x axis is:

I x = ( I x )1 + ( I x ) 2 = 21.33 m 4 + 0.67 m 4 = 22.00 m 4

so the radius of gyration about the x axis is:

Ix 22 m 4

k= = 2

= 1.91 m

A 6m

Example 8.4 Moments of Inertia of a

Composite Area

Solution

Repeating this procedure, determine Ixy for each

part in Table 8.2:

Table 8.2 Determining the products of inertia of the parts

of the xy coordinate system

dx (m) dy (m) A (m2) Ix’y’ (m4) I xy = I x ′y ′ + d x d y A (m 4 )

Part 1 0.5 2 (1)(4) 0 4

Part 2 2 0.5 (2)(1) 0 2

I xy = ( I xy )1 + ( I xy ) 2 = 4 m 4 + 2 m 4 = 6 m 4

Example 8.4 Moments of Inertia of a

Composite Area

Critical Thinking

The moments of inertia you obtain do not

depend on how you divide a composite area into

parts & you will often have a choice of

convenient ways to divide a given area.

Example 8.5 Moments of Inertia of a

Composite Area

Determine Iy & ky for the composite area in Fig. 8.5.

Fig. 8.5

Example 8.5 Moments of Inertia of a

Composite Area

Strategy

Divide the area into a rectangle without the

semicircular cutout, a semicircle without the

semicircular cutout & a circular cutout. Use a

parallel-axis theorem to determine Iy for each part in

terms of the xy coordinate system.

Then, determine Iy for the composite area by adding

the values of the rectangle & semicircle &

subtracting the circular cutout. Then use Eq. (8.4)

to determine the radius of gyration ky for the

composite area.

Example 8.5 Moments of Inertia of a

Composite Area

Solution

Choose the Parts:

Divide the area into a rectangle,

a semicircle & the circular cutout,

calling them parts 1, 2 & 3,

respectively:

Example 8.5 Moments of Inertia of a

Composite Area

Solution

Determine the Moments of Inertia of the Parts:

The moments of inertia of the parts in terms of the

x’y’ coordinate systems & location of the centroid

of the semicircular part are summarized in Table 8.3.

Use the parallel-axis theorem to determine the

moment of inertia of each part about the y axis.

dx (mm) A (mm2) Iy’ (mm4) I y = I y′ + d x2 A (mm 4 )

Part 1 60 (120)(80) 1

12

( 80)(120) 3 4.608 × 107

4( 40) π − 8 ( 40 ) 4

120 + 1π ( 40) 2

8 9π

Part 2 3π 2

4.744 × 107

1π ( 20) 4

Part 3 120 π (20) 2 4

1.822 × 107

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 64

Example 8.5 Moments of Inertia of a

Composite Area

Solution

Sum the Results:

The moment of inertia of the composite area about

the y axis is:

I y = ( I y )1 + ( I y ) 2 − ( I y ) 3 = ( 4.608 + 4.744 − 1.822 ) × 107 mm4

= 7.530 × 107 mm 4

The total area is:

A = A1 + A2 − A3 = (120 mm )( 80 mm ) + 12 π ( 40 mm ) 2 − π ( 20 mm ) 2

= 1.086 × 104 mm 2

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 65

Example 8.5 Moments of Inertia of a

Composite Area

Solution

So the radius of gyration about the y axis is:

Iy 7.530 × 107 mm 4

ky = = 4 2

= 83.3 mm

A 1.086 × 10 mm

Critical Thinking

Integration is an additive process, which is why

the moments of inertia of composite areas can

be determined by adding (or in the case of a

cutout, subtracting) the moments of inertia of the

parts

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 66

Example 8.5 Moments of Inertia of a

Composite Area

Critical Thinking

But the radii of gyration of composite areas

cannot be determined by adding or subtracting

the radii of gyration of the parts

This can be seen from the equations relating

the moments of inertia, radii of gyration & area

For this example, we can demonstrate it

numerically: the operation

( I y )1 ( I y )2 ( I y )3

( k y )1 + ( k y ) 2 − ( k y )3 = + − = 86.3 mm

A1 A2 A3

does not yield the correct radius of gyration of

the composite area.

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 67

Design Example 8.6 Beam Design

candidates for the cross-section

of a beam. (A beam with the 2nd

cross section shown is called an

I-beam.) compare their moments

of inertia about the x axis.

Fig. 8.6 68

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Design Example 8.6 Beam Design

Strategy

Obtain the moment of inertia of the square cross

section from Appendix B. Divide the I-beam into 3

rectangles & use the parallel-axis theorem to

determine its moment of inertia by the same

procedure used in Examples 8.4 & 8.5.

Design Example 8.6 Beam Design

Solution

Square Cross Section:

From Appendix B, the moment of inertia of the

square cross section about the x axis is:

1

Ix = (144.2 mm )(144.2 mm) 3 = 3.60 × 107 mm4

12

Divide the area into the rectangular

parts shown:

Design Example 8.6 Beam Design

Solution

Introducing the coordinate system x’y’ with their

origins at the centroids of the parts:

Design Example 8.6 Beam Design

Solution

Use the parallel-axis theorem to determine the

moments of inertia about the x axis (Table 8.4):

Part 1 80 (200)(40) 1

12

( 200 )( 40 ) 3 5.23 × 107

1 ( 40 )( 120 ) 3

12

Part 2 0 (40)(120) 1 ( 200 )( 40 ) 3 0.58 × 10

7

12

Design Example 8.6 Beam Design

Solution

Their sum is:

I x = ( I x )1 + ( I x ) 2 + ( I x ) 3 = ( 5.023 + 0.58 + 5.23) × 107 mm 4

= 11.03 × 107 mm4

axis is 3.06 times that of the square cross section

of equal area.

Design Example 8.6 Beam Design

Design Issues

A beam is a bar of material that supports

lateral loads, meaning loads perpendicular to

the axis of the bar

2 common types of beams:

Simply supported beam:

a beam with pinned ends

Cantilever beam: a beam

with a single, built-in

support

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 74

Design Example 8.6 Beam Design

Design Issues

The lateral loads on a beam cause it to bend &

it must be stiff or resistant to bending to support

them

It is shown in mechanics of materials that a

beam’s resistance to bending depends directly

on the moment of inertia of its cross-sectional

area

Design Example 8.6 Beam Design

Design Issues

The cross sections in the figure all have the

same area:

inertia Ix to the value of Ix for the solid square

cross section)

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 76

Design Example 8.6 Beam Design

Design Issues

However, configuring the cross

section of a beam to increase its

moment of inertia can be carried

too far:

The “box” beam in the figure

as large as a solid square

beam of the same cross-

sectional area but its walls are

so thin that they may “buckle”

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 77

Design Example 8.6 Beam Design

Design Issues

The stiffness implied by the beam’s large

moment of inertia is not realized because it

becomes geometrically unstable

1 solution used by engineers to achieve a

beam while avoiding failure due to buckling

is to stabilize its walls by filling the beam

with a light material such as

honeycombed metal or foamed

plastic

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 78

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