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Anthony Bedford and Wallace Fowler SI Edition Teaching Slides Chapter 5: Objects in Equilibrium

Chapter Outline

The Equilibrium Equations 2-Dimensional Applications

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

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**5.1 The Equilibrium Equations
**

When an object acted upon by a system of forces & moments is in equilibrium, the following conditions are satisfied: 1. The sum of the forces is zero: ΣF=0 (5.1) 2. The sum of the moments about any point is zero: Σ Many point = 0 (5.2)

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

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**5.1 The Scalar Equilibrium Equations
**

When the loads and reactions on an object in equilibrium form a two-dimensional system of forces and moments, they are related by three scalar equilibrium equations: Σ Fx = 0 (5.3) Σ Fy = 0 (5.4) Σ Many point = 0 (5.5) More than three independent equilibrium equations cannot be obtained from a two-dimensional free-body diagram, which means we can solve for at most three unknown forces or couples.

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 4

**5.1 The Equilibrium Equations
**

Eqs.

(5.1) & (5.2) imply that the system of forces & moments acting on an object in equilibrium is equivalent to a system consisting no forces & no couples If the sum of the forces on an object is zero & the sum of the moments about 1 point is zero, then the sum of the moments about every point is zero

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

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5.2 2-Dimensional Applications

Supports:

Forces

& couples exerted on an object by its supports are called reactions, expressing the fact that the supports “react” to the other forces & couples or loads acting on the object

20 KN-m

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5.2 2-Dimensional Applications

Supports:

Some

very common kinds of supports are represented by stylized models called support conventions if the actual supports exert the same reactions as the models

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5.2 2-Dimensional Applications

**The Pin Support:
**

Figure

a: a pin support a bracket to which an object (such as a beam) is attached by a smooth pin that passes through the bracket & the object Figure b: side view

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5.2 2-Dimensional Applications

To

understand the reactions that a pin support can exert: Imagine holding the bar attached to the pin support If you try to move the bar without rotating it (i.e. translate the bar), the support exerts a reactive force that prevents this movement However, you can rotate the bar about the axis of the pin The support cannot exert a couple about the pin axis to prevent rotation

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(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

5.2 2-Dimensional Applications

Thus,

a pin support can’t exert a couple about the pin axis but it can exert a force on the object in any direction, which is usually expressed by representing the force in terms of components The arrows indicate the directions of the reactions if Ax & Ay are positive you determine Ax or Ay to be negative, the reaction is in the direction opposite to that of the (C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd arrow

If

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5.2 2-Dimensional Applications

The

pin support is used to represent any real support capable of exerting a force in any direction but not exerting a couple

Used

in many common devices, particularly those designed to allow connected parts to rotate relative to each other

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

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5.2 2-Dimensional Applications

**The Roller Support:
**

A

pin support mounted on wheels Like a pin support, it cannot exert a couple about the axis of the pin Since it can move freely in the direction parallel to the surface on which it rolls, it can’t exert a force parallel to the surface but can exert a force normal (perpendicular) to this surface

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

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5.2 2-Dimensional Applications

Other

commonly used conventions equivalent to the roller support:

The

wheels of vehicles & wheels supporting parts of machines are roller supports if the friction forces exerted on them are negligible in comparison to the normal forces

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(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

5.2 2-Dimensional Applications

A

plane smooth surface can also be modeled by a roller support:

Beams

& bridges are sometimes supported in this way so that they will be free to undergo thermal expansion & contraction

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

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5.2 2-Dimensional Applications

These

supports are similar to the roller support in that they cannot exert a couple & can only exert a force normal to a particular direction (friction is neglected)

(a) Pin in a slot

(b) Slider in a slot

(c) Slider on a shaft

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

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5.2 2-Dimensional Applications

In

these supports, the supported object is attached to a pin or slider that can move freely in 1 direction but is constrained in the perpendicular direction Unlike the roller support, these supports can exert a normal force in either direction

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

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5.2 2-Dimensional Applications

**The Fixed Support:
**

The

fixed support shows the supported object literally built into a wall (built-in)

To

**understand the reactions: Imagine holding a bar attached to the fixed support
**

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(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

5.2 2-Dimensional Applications

If

you try to translate the bar, the support exerts a reactive force that prevents translation If you try to rotate the bar, the support exerts a reactive couple that prevents rotation A fixed support can exert 2 components of force & a couple

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

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5.2 2-Dimensional Applications

term MA is the couple exerted by the support & the curved arrow indicates its direction Fence posts have fixed supports The attachments of parts connected so that they cannot move or rotate relative to each other, such as the head of a hammer & its handle, can be modeled as fixed supports

The

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5.2 2-Dimensional Applications

Table 5.1 summarizes the support conventions commonly used in 2-D applications:

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5.2 2-Dimensional Applications

Table 5.1

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5.2 2-Dimensional Applications

**Free-Body Diagrams:
**

By

using the support conventions, we can model more elaborate objects & construct their free-body diagrams in a systematic way Example: a beam with a pin support at the left end & a roller support on at the right end & is loaded with a force F The roller support rests on a surface inclined at 30°

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 22

5.2 2-Dimensional Applications

To

obtain a free-body diagram of the beam, isolate it from its supports Complete the free-body diagram by showing the reactions that may be exerted on the beam by the supports Notice that the reaction at B exerted by the roller support is normal to the surface on which the support rests

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 23

5.2 2-Dimensional Applications

Example:

The

object in this figure has a fixed support at the left end A cable passing over a pulley is attached to the object at 2 points

Isolate

it from its supports & complete the free-body by showing the reactions at the fixed support & the forces exerted by the cable

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

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5.2 2-Dimensional Applications

Don’t forget the couple at the fixed support Since we assume the tension in the cable is the same on both sides of the pulley, the 2 forces exerted by the cable have the magnitude T

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 25

5.2 2-Dimensional Applications

Once

you have obtained the free-body diagram of an object in equilibrium to identify the loads & reactions acting on it, you can apply the equilibrium equations

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

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**Example 5.1 Reactions at Pin & Roller Supports
**

The beam in Fig. 5.1 has a pin at A & roller supports at B & is subjected to a 2-kN force. What are the reactions at the supports?

Fig. 5.1

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(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

**Example 5.1 Reactions at Pin & Roller Supports Strategy
**

To determine the reactions exerted on the beam by its supports, draw a free-body diagram of the beam isolated from the supports. The free-body diagram must show all external forces & couples acting on the beam, including the reactions exerted by the supports. Then determine the unknown reactions by applying equilibrium equations

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

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**Example 5.1 Reactions at Pin & Roller Supports Solution
**

Draw the Free-Body Diagram: Isolate the beam from its supports & show the loads & the reactions that may be exerted by the pin & roller supports. There are 3 unknown reactions: 2 components of force Ax & Ay at the pin support & a force B at the roller support

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 29

**Example 5.1 Reactions at Pin & Roller Supports Solution
**

Apply the Equilibrium Equations: Summing the moments about point A:

Σ Fx = Ax − Bsin 30° = 0 Σ Fy = Ay + Bcos 30° − 2 kN = 0 Σ Mpoint A = (5 m)(Bcos 30°) − (3 m)(2 kN) = 0

Solving these equations, the reactions are: Ax = 0.69 kN, Ay = 0.80 kN & B = 1.39 kN

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

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**Example 5.1 Reactions at Pin & Roller Supports Solution
**

Confirm that the equilibrium equations are satisfied: Σ Fx = 0.69 kN − (1.39 kN)sin 30° = 0 Σ Fy = 0.80 kN + (1.39 kN)cos 30° − 2 kN = 0 Σ Mpoint A = (5 m)(1.39 kN)cos 30° − (3 m)(2 kN) = 0

Critical Thinking

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In drawing free-body diagrams, you should try to choose the correct directions of the reactions 31

**Example 5.1 Reactions at Pin & Roller Supports Critical Thinking
**

However, if you choose an incorrect direction for a reaction in drawing the free-body diagram of a single object, the value you obtain from the equilibrium equations for that reaction will be negative, which indicates that its actual direction is opposite to the direction you chose E.g. if we draw the free-body diagram of the beam with the component Ay pointed downward:

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

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**Example 5.1 Reactions at Pin & Roller Supports Critical Thinking
**

Equilibrium

equations: Σ Fx = Ax − Bsin 30° = 0 Σ Fy = −Ay + Bcos 30° − 2 kN = 0 Σ Mpoint A = (5 m)(Bcos 30°) − (3 m)(2 kN) = 0

Solving, The

we obtain: Ax = 0.69 kN, Ay = −0.80 kN & B = 1.39 kN

negative value of Ay indicates that the vertical force exerted on the beam by the pin support at A is in the direction opposite to the arrow, i.e. the force is 0.80 kN upward 33 (C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

**Example 5.2 Reactions at a Fixed Support
**

The object in Fig. 5.2 has a fixed support at A & is subjected to 2 forces & a couple. What are the reactions at the support?

Fig. 5.2

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 34

**Example 5.2 Reactions at a Fixed Support Strategy
**

Obtain a free-body diagram by isolating the object from the fixed support at A & showing the reactions exerted at A, including the couple that may be exerted by a fixed support. Then determine the unknown reactions by applying the equilibrium equations.

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

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**Example 5.2 Reactions at a Fixed Support Solution
**

Draw the Free-Body Diagram: Isolate the object from its support & show the reactions at the fixed support. There are 3 unknown reactions: 2 force components Ax & Ay & a couple MA. (Remember that we can choose the directions of these arrows arbitrarily) Also resolve the 100-N force into its components.

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 36

**Example 5.2 Reactions at a Fixed Support Solution
**

Draw the Free-Body Diagram:

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

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**Example 5.2 Reactions at a Fixed Support Solution
**

Apply the Equilibrium Equation: Summing the moments about point A: Σ Fx = Ax + 100cos 30° N = 0 Σ Fy = Ay − 200 N + 100sin 30° N = 0 Σ Mpoint A = MA + 300 N-m − (2 m)(200 N) − (2 m)(100cos 30° N) + (4 m)(100sin 30° N)= 0 Solving these equations, Ax = −8.86 N, Ay = 150.0 N & MA = 73.2 N-m.

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 38

**Example 5.2 Reactions at a Fixed Support Critical Thinking
**

Why don’t the 300 N-m couple & the couple MA exerted by the fixed support appear in the first 2 equilibrium equations? A couple exerts no net force Also, because the moment due to a couple is the same about any point, the moment about A due to the 300 N-m counterclockwise couple is 300 N-m counterclockwise

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(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

**Exercise 5.6 Diving Board
**

The masses of the person and the diving board are 54 kg and 36 kg, respectively. Assume that they are in equilibrium.

(a) Draw the free-body diagram of the diving board. (b) Determine the reactions at the supports A and B.

Answers

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd Ax=0; Ay=-1.85 KN;By=2.74 KN 40

**Exercise 5.7 Ironing Board
**

The ironing board has supports at A and B that can be modeled as roller supports. (a) Draw the free-body diagram of the ironing board. (b) Determine the reactions at A and B.

Answers

Ay=79.2 N By=144.2 N

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 41

**Exercise 5.16 A Person Doing Push-ups
**

A person doing push-ups pauses in the position shown. His mass is 80 kg. Assume that his weight W acts at the point shown. The dimensions shown are a = 250 mm, b = 740 mm, and c = 300 mm. Determine the normal force exerted by the floor (a) on each hand, (b) on each foot.

**Answers Force on each hand=FH=293.3 N Force on each feet=FF=99.1 N
**

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Exercise 5.19 Beam with cable passing through pulley (a) Draw the free-body diagram of the beam. (b) Determine the tension in the cable and the reactions at A.

**Answers AX=554 N AY=-160 N T=640 N
**

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 43

Exercise 5.26 Wheelbarrow

The total weight of the wheelbarrow and its load is W = 100 lb. (a) If F = 0, what are the vertical reactions at A and B? (b) What force F is necessary to lift the support at A off the ground?

Answers AX= 0 N AY= 269.2 N FB= 230.8 N F= 106.1 N

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 44

Exercise 5.34

The forklift is stationary. The sign’s weight WS = 160 N acts at the point shown. The 50-N weight of the bar AD acts at the midpoint of the bar. Determine the tension in the cable AE and the reactions at D.

Answers TAE= 165.2 N, DX= -155.2 N DY=2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd -153.5 N (C)

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Exercise 5.36 Truss This structure, called a truss, has a pin support at A and a roller support at B and is loaded by two forces. Determine the reactions at the supports.

Answers AX= -1.828 KN AY= 2.10 KN BY= 2.46 KN

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 46

Exercise 5.61

The dimensions a = 2 m and b = 1 m. The couple M = 2400 N-m. The spring constant is k = 6000 N/m, and the spring would be unstretched if h = 0.The system is in equilibrium when h = 2 m and the beam is horizontal. Determine the force F and the reactions at A.This structure, called a truss, has a pin support at A and a roller support at B and is loaded by two forces. Determine the reactions at the supports.

Answers AX= 3045 N AY= -185 N F= 1845 N

(C) 2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd 47

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