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Present Perfect

Pattern
The pattern of present Subje perfect Has / : Past
ct Sh e Has
Have
Participle

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A Mountain

Function 1 : Unspecified Time Before Now

Present Perfect are used to say an action that happened at an unspecified time before now so the exact time is not important. Specific time expressions such as yesterday, an hour ago, last week, one year ago, etc. cannot be used with Present Perfect. Here are some related topics

Experience
You can use the Present Perfect to describe your experience. It is like saying, "I have the experience of..." You can also use this tense to say that you have never had a certain experience. The Present Perfect is NOT used to describe a specific event. Ex. I Have been to France Ex. I havent finished my homework Ex. She has mastered five languages

Change Over Time


We often use the Present Perfect to talk about change that has happened over a period of time.
Ex. You have grown since the last time I saw you Ex. My English has improved since I moved here Ex. She has been better since she got treatment

Accomplishments
We often use the Present Perfect to list the accomplishments of individuals and humanity. You cannot mention a specific time.
Ex. Human has landed on the moon Ex. I have finished my homework Ex. We have invented many things

Multiple action at different time


We often use the Present Perfect to say that an action which we expected has not happened. Using the Present Perfect suggests that we are still waiting for the action to happen.
Ex. I have written that letter six times Ex. She has talked to several people about his concern Ex. Daniel have been to france several times

Function 2:Duration From the Past Until Now

WithNon-Continous verbs, we use the Present Perfect to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Tuesday" are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect. Ex. I have had a cold for two weeks Ex. She has been in England for six months Ex. We have gone since Tuesday

Time Expressions
When we use the Present Perfect it means that something has happened at some point in our lives before now. Remember, the exact time the action happened is not important. Sometimes, we want to limit the time we are looking in for an experience. We can do this with expressions such as: in the last week, in the last year, this week, this month, so far, up to now, etc.
Ex. Have you been to Australia in the last year ? Ex. I have collected 30 postcard so far Ex. They have had four tests in the last week Ex. She has changed her bike four times up to now

Example
+) They have been to Australia -) They havent been to Australia ?) Have They been to Australia ?

+) She has played chess before -) She hasnt played chess before ?) Has she played chess before ?

+) We have won that match several times -) We havent won that match ?) Have we won that match ?