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 Name: Josephine Cortez Tagalog

 N-Name: josh,bunny,tagy
 Add: east rembo makati
 Contact No.# 09196924674
 Email add: FS: jorshbunny@yahoo.com

joshphen666@yahoo.com
 Yr/Section: IV-701
 School: STI Global City
Carbohydrates
 Composed of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
atoms
 The ratio of hydrogen atom to oxygen
atom is two to one (2:1), the same as in
water(H20) combined to an atom of
carbon.
Monosaccharides (simple sugars)
 Smallest carbohydrates
 Building blocks of carbohydrates
 Glucose, Fructose and Galactose
Disaccharides
 Larger carbohydrates formed by
chemically binding monosaccharides
together
 Glucose + Glucose = Maltose
 Glucose + Fructose = Sucrose
 Glucose + Galactose = Lactose
Polysaccharides
 Composed of more than 12
monosaccharide units bound in long
chains
 Glycogen (animal starch)
 Cellulose (plants)
 C, H, O, N bound together by covalent
bonds. Small amounts of sulfur.
 Amino acid, building block of protein;
organic acids containing and anime group
and a carboxyl group
 20 basic types: 8 essential and 12 non-
essential
 Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen +
Phosphorus and Nitrogen
 Dissolve in non-polar solvents (alcohol
and acetone) but not in polar solvents
(water)
 Fats, Phospholipids and Steroids
Fats
 Triglycerides, most common type of fat
molecule
 Fatty acid bound to a glycerol
› Saturated
› Unsaturated
Polyunsaturated
Monounstaurated
Phospholipids
 Similar to triglycerides
 Phosphorus molecule replaces one of the
fatty acids bound to glycerol
 Water soluble vitamins
 Fat soluble vitamins
 Minerals
 Inadequate intake of macro and
micronutrients that causes physiologic
impairment of body function
 Protein Calorie Malnutrition (PCM)
Marasmus
 State of semi starvation due to poor
protein intake
 Decreased body weight
 Muscle and organ protein are cannibalized
to preserve serum protein levels and
immune competence
Kwashiorkor
 “the disease the first child gets when the
second one comes”
 Low protein calorie ratio
 Protein loss, visceral impairment, immune
deficiency and hypoaluminemia
 Hypoalbuminemic malnutrition (stress
starvation)
 Glycolysis – metabolic pathway employed
by all tissues for the breakdown of
glucose to provide energy

 Gluconeogenesis – Circulating blood


glucose as well as hepatic glycogen stores
have been depleted, glucose is formed
from other precursors such as lactate,
pyruvate, glycerol and ketoacids
 Glycogen - Primary source of calories
 Muscle and visceral protein
 Fats
Fasting or starvation

Decrease in blood glucose levels

Decrease in insulin levels

Increase in glucagons levels

Glycolysis vs. Glycogenolysis  release of
hepatic glucose

Gluconeogenesis  increase
nitrogen excretion
Lipolysis (ketone synthesis)

Crosses the blood brain barrier
 Anorexia Nervosa
 Psychological disorder with physiologic
manifestation
Diagnostic Criteria Anorexia Nervosa

A. Refusal to maintain body weight at a minimum (age for weight and height)

B. Intense fear of gaining weight

C. Disturbance in self-evaluation or denial of current state of health

D. Amenorrhea

Specific types of Anorexia Nervosa

RESTRICTING TYPE– has not engaged in binge eating or purging behavior

BINGE-EATING/PURGING TYPE – has engaged in binge eating or purging


behavior
Physical Symptoms Mental and Behavioral Symptoms

Extreme weigh loss and muscle Refusal to eat


wasting
Arrested sexual development Low self esteem, social isolation

Dry skin Preoccupied with dieting and death

Pain Distorted body image and denial of


eating disorder

Hypotension Frantic pursuit of further weight loss

Anemia
Bulimia Nervosa
 Preoccupation with weight and dieting
 Binging and purge episodes
Diagnostic Criteria Bulimia Nervosa

A. Recurrent episodes of binge eating

B. Recurrent inappropriate compensatory behavior to prevent weight gain

C. Both A and B occur, on average, 2x a week for 3 months

D. Self evaluation is unduly influenced by body shape and weight

E. The disturbance does not occur exclusively during episodes of anorexia


nervosa
Purging and Non-purging type
Purging

Plasma and intestinal fluid volume and ↓ Na

Dehydration

HYPOVOLEMIA / HYPONATREMIA
↓ Effective Tachycardia → Hypotension
Circulating
Volume

↓ GFR ↑Proximal
Tubule Na resorption

↓K excretion

Hyperkalemia
↑ Renin Aldosterone →↑ Na, H2­­O → Edema
retention

↑K secretion → Dysrhythmia
Hypokalemia
 Overweight and obesity are a result of
energy imbalance over a long period of
time.
 Labels for ranges of weight that are
greater than what is generally considered
healthy for a given height
 Identify ranges of weight that have been
shown to increase the likelihood of certain
diseases and other health problems
 A tool for indicating weight status in
adults
 It is a measure of weight for height
 Correlates with the amount of body fat
 Does not directly measure body fat
› Ex. Athletes may have a BMI that identifies
them as overweight even though they do not
have excess body fat.
BMI =             Weight in
Kilograms             
(Height in Meters) x (Height in
Meters)  

or

BMI =             Weight in Kilograms  


(Height in cm) x (Height in cm) x
10,000
BMI Weight Status

Below 18.5 Underweight

18.5 – 24.9 Normal

25.0 – 29.9 Overweight

30.0 and Above Obese


As BMI increases, the risk for some disease
increases. Some common conditions
related to overweight and obesity include
› Hypertension
› Cardiovascular disease
› Diabetes
› Osteoarthritis
› Sleep apnea
› Gallstones (cholelitiasis)
 Hyperplastic Obesity
› increase in the number of adipocytes
› Develops during early childhood, adolescence
and pregnancy

 Hypertrophic Obesity
› increase in the size of the adipocytes
› Adult-onset type obesity
Appetite Control
 Lateral hypothalamus (hunger center) ←
hypoglycemia
 Ventromedial hypothalamus (satiety
center) ← gastric filling or distension
 Cerebral cortex ← psychological
(depression, anxiety)
Hormonal Regulation
 Hypothyroidism or a deficiency in thyroid
hormone lowers basal metabolic rate
 Hypothyroidism, increases basal
metabolic rate
 Hyperinsulinemia (upper body obesity
“android obesity”, glucose intolerance,
dyslipidemia and hypertension)
Life style
 Inactivity or sedentary life style
 Good physical activity reduces insulin
resistance
 Exercise, improves blood lipids, decrease
the risk of mortality and morbidity
 Nutritional needs

Genetics
 Obesity is highly familial