Topic: Call Handover

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The reason for call loss may be the excessive co-channel interference. The third purpose to ease traffic congestion by moving some calls from a highly congested cell to a cell that is not so congested. The second purpose may be to reduce the interference that a call in one cell may cause to calls in the other cell. which imposes urgency for call transfer. such as the loss received signal strength.CALL HANDOVER • Hand over is the process of automatically transferring a call in progress to a different cell to avoid the adverse effects of user movement. There are three purpose of handover : • • • 2 . First rescue the call. If the call is not transferred immediately it will be lost.

• The new speech path becomes MSC (a) to BSC (1). there is handover between channels of different BSCs under the control of the same MSC. First. • If the measurements by the mobile and the BSC indicate that the adjoining cell 2 is a better choice. the BSC selects link 1b and a new voice channel and informs the mobile to tune this new channel. iii. all of which must be treated differently: i. there is handover from one radio channel to another of the same BTS (same BSC) ii. The initial link 1(a) is released 3 .CALL HANDOVER There are also three cases of handover. Third there is handover between channels under control of different MSCs in the same PLMN These three hand-off process are as shown in Fig 1 • Assume that the initial mobile call is established through MSC (a) to BSC (1) link 1a to cell 1. through link 1b to cell 2. Second.

the mobile may come to a cell that is controlled by a different BSC and MSC. but retain supervision of call. through link 3a or 3b to the mobile. in this case. for example MSC (b).CALL HANDOVER • • • • • • The further movement of the mobile may bring the mobile to cell 3. but the new path becomes MSC (a) to BSC (2). which is controlled by a different BS but within the same MSC. The voice channel path in this case becomes MSC (a) to MSC (b) to BSC (3) . The MSC (a) . The MSC (a) delegates activation and deactivation to MSC (b) during further hand over to a new MSC. The process is the same. 4 . is known as the anchor MSC. In this case MSC (a) will extend the fixed telephone link to the new MSC (b). through link 2a to cell 3. Finally.

Mobile Handover .CALL HANDOVER Cell 1 1a 1 MSC Fixed Line BTS 1b Cell 2 BTS BSC(1) 4 2a a Cell 3 BTS 2b 2 3 MSC PSTN Cell 4 BTS 3a BSC(2) b Cell 5 BTS 3b 3 BSC (3) MSC 4 4 c 5 Cell 6 Cell 7 Cell 8 BTS BTS BTS 4a 4b BSC (4) Fig.

• The difference in timing advance between the old and new cells is then just twice the difference in arrival times of signals within the same slot to the MS from the two different BTSs.CALL HANDOVER There are two modes of handover: i) Synchronous Mode ii)Asynchronous Mode Synchronous Mode : • In synchronous mode old and new cells are synchronized so that their TDMA timeslots start at exactly the same time. Asynchronous Hanover: • In asynchronous handover. The MS sends the new BTS access bursts with a zero timing advance. so the MS cannot independently correct the timing advance in this way. the old and new cells are unsynchronized. and the BTS then determines the required timing advance from the round trip delay of the message The BTS then sends the required timing advance to MS 6 . The timing advance must then be initialized at both the MS and the new BTS during handover. This permits the MS to compute the timing advance for the new cell without any help.

if available.BTS-2 allocates a channel. The hand over to different cells controlled by the same BSC. With a call progress. The message will also include the assignment of a new SACCH. Upon receiving this message . assigning the new channel. the BSC may determine that a change of channel or cell (BTS-2) is necessary. its characteristics. 7 .CALL HANDOVER • • • • • Hanover to another cell is the usual case. BSC request a new channel from BTS-2 with an “RSM Channel Activation” message. The BSC then sends an “RIL3-RR Handover Command” message to MS on the FACCH. and responds with an “ RSM Channel Acknowledge” message to BSC. and whether to use synchronous or asynchronous hand over. the MS initiates the release of the old channel and the connection to the new one. the power level to use. via BTS-1 ( mobile currently talking through BTS-1). but handover to another channel in the same cell might also take place in order to mitigate interference with other cells.

after switching to the new channels the MS sends to the new BTS. MS start sending a continuous stream of “RIL3-RR Handover Access” message to new BTS until It receives in response an “RIL3-RRPhysical Information” message giving timing advance to apply. In the synchronous mode .CALL HANDOVER • • • Two procedures are possible depending on whether the old and new cells are synchronized or not. 8 . In the asynchronous mode. in successive assigned multi-frame slots on the FACCH. The new BTS may also (optional) send an “RSM Hanover Detection” message to BSC. This handover message Is repeated several times to ensure that the message is received by BTS 2. When it has received sufficient access “ Hand over Access” message. four “ RIL3-RR Handover Access” message as shown in the fig. It then activates the new channel in both directions.

25 packet switched protocol) answered by an UA frame. The MS then sets up the link layer of the radio link by sending a SABM frame (an X.The BSC also directsBTS1 to release the old channels by sending an “RSM RF Channel Release” message acknowledgement from BTS1 • • 9 . Communication over the newly established channel is then is resumed through BTS-2.the MS sends an “ RIL3-RR Handover Complete” message to BSC over the new FACCH. It does not activate transmit side until it receive the timing advance in the “Physical Information” message.CALL HANDOVER • After starting the “ Handover Access” message. After the lower connection are successfully established . the MS activate the new channels in the receiving mode only.

CALL HANDOVER MS BTS-1 BSC BTS-2 MS Call in Progress RSM Channel Activation RSM Channel Activation Acknowledge RIL3-RR Handover Command RIL3-RR Handover Access RSM Handover Detection or RIL3-RR Handover Access Synchronous Mode only Asynchronous Mode only RIL3-RR Physical Information SABM Frame UA Frame RIL3-RR Handover Complete Resume on Communication New Channel RSM RF Channel Release RSM RF Channel Acknowledge 10 Fig Handover between RF CHL of the same BSC .

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