Topic: Basic Steps In The Formation Of A Call



CONTENT : 1. Connection Request 2. Paging Procedure 3. Identification Process 4. Authentication 5. Ciphering 6. Call Clearing 7. IMSI Attach and Detach



To get any type of service from the system, the mobile has to request the service. This can occur in many ways. For example, the mobile unit may request a channel or can respond for the system page, IMSI attach, IMISI detach, normal and periodic location updating, call set up, or supplementary services .(As shown in Table 1) As shown in figure • As a first step the mobile will request service on the Reverse Access Channel (RACH). • If the request is not answered by the network within a set time the mobile will repeat the message a predetermined number of times, till it is answered. •Upon receiving the message, BSS sends an acknowledgement with the same random number as originally received over the AGCH channel along with the channel number for SDCCH. •The assigned SDCCH channel is usually at 1/8 TCH (SDCCH +SACCH) rate. •One-eighth TCH simply means these channels transmit data once every eight frames; their data rate is only 1/8 of TCH/F.

The MS at this point sends “SABM frame ”(Set Asynchronous Balanced Mode) as initial message.CONNECTION REQUEST • • • • • • • It should be noted that the SACCH can also be assigned with SDCCH. the resulting message by mobile is “ RIL-MM location updating request” For IMSI detach the message on the application layer is “RIL3-MM IMSI detach” For call setup and supplementary services the message is “RIL3-CC (Application Layer. This message contains the reason for the specific message. Call Control Management) and shown in Table-1 4 . SACCH is also assigned when the mobile gets the assignment of a TCH. This will allow MS to set up link layer protocol (layer2) over the radio path. the mobile provides a “RIL3-RR paging response” If the response is the result of location updating or IMSI attach.1. If the response is result of paging.

CONNECTION REQUEST Table-1 Type of Connection Request by Mobile and Their Responses Reason for Access Paging response Location update or IMSI attach IMSI detach Call setup and supplementary services Initial Message RIL-3 RR paging response RIL-3 MM location update RIL-3 MM IMSI detach RIL-3CC (Application layer.1. call control management) 5 .

CONNECTION REQUEST MS BSS MSC VLR HLR AUC RIL3-RR Channel request (on RACH) RIL 3-RR immediate Assign (on AGCH. Connection Request Procedure 6 .1. assigns a SDCCH channel) SABM < Identity of message>(SDCCH) Initial Message Unnumbered acknowledge (UA) SCCP Connection Request BSSMAP Complete Layer 3 information SCCP Connection Confirm Fig.

In other words. • • In response to a “SABM frame” message. MSC in turn responds to BSS by a “SCCP connection” message.CONNECTION REQUEST • SABM frame contains the setup request (CM Service Request) to the network. to which the service request information is attached as a “BSSMAP complete layer 3 information” message. BSS requests connection to MSC through a “SCCP connection request” message. the BSS is transparent to these messages. It should be noted that the RIL 3-MM and RIL-3 CC messages are between MS and MSC and pass directly through BSS.1. BSSMAP messages are between BSC and MSC 7 • • • • . BSS sends an Unnumbered Acknowledge (UA) message. At this point. One of the response messages is a result of paging.

The maximum number of paged MSs per message is four when using only TMSIs for the identification of the MSSs.PAGING PROCEDURE Necessary Steps For Paging Procedure: • • • The network initiates the paging procedure by broadcasting a “ paging request” message on the appropriate paging sub-channel. A “ paging request” message may include more than one MS identification. The use of a sub-channel narrows the time when a group of mobile users will be looking for their page. The choice of message depends on the number MSs to be paged and types of identities that are used. The information received in the Channel Request can be used by the network to assign a suitable channel. an indication that defines how mobiles of different capabilities shall code the field in the “ Channel Request” message.2. for each paged message by MS. There are three types of paging messages : A ” paging request” message includes. 8 • i) ii) . Mobile users do not have to continuously monitor the PCH and can perform other tasks.

PAGING PROCEDURE iii) The Ms is required to receive and analyze the paging messages and immediate assignment messages sent on the paging sub-channel corresponding to its paging subgroup. The establishment of the main signaling link is then initiated using an “SABM” message with the information field containing the “ Paging Response” message as shown in Figure 2 9 .2. Upon the receipt of a “ Paging Request’ message. if the access to the network is allowed.5sec initiate the immediate assignment procedure by requesting a channel through Revese Access Channel. the addressed message shall within 0.

2.2 Paging procedure 10 .PAGING PROCEDURE MS Paging Request on paging channel (1) Network Channel request on Random Access Channel (RACH) (2) IMM Assigns SDCCH Channel (3) SABM ( Paging Response. initial message (4) Fig.

In fig 3 we designate this operation by <IMSI>. MSC sends an “RIL3.IDENTIFICATION PROCEDURE • • • • • Identification procedure is used to identify the MS/SIM by its IMSI if the VLR does not recognize the TMSI sent by the MS.3. If identification is required. It should be noted that this is the only time that the IMSI is sent over the air unencrypted. and IMSI is not required 11 . Normally TMSI is sent over the air. This can be the result of the mobile changing the MSC/VLR area from the last time it access the system or due to similar reason. The MS respond by returning an “RIL3-MM Identity Response” message.MM Request” message to the MS. the VLR first sends a “ MAP/B Provide IMSI” message to the MSC as shown in Fig.3. meaning that the message contains the mobile IMSI. containing its IMSI. As a result of this message . to the MSC.

If the IMSI is currently in the VLR. the HLR responds with a “MAP/D Update Location Result” message followed by a “MAP/D Insert Subscriber Data” message containing other pertinent data needed by the VLR. then the VLR must get the individual user’s file from the HLR. VLR acknowledges the data transfer with a “MAP/D Insert Subscriber Data Result’ message to HLR.3. • • 12 .IDENTIFICATION PROCEDURE • MSC then sends the “MAP/B IMSI acknowledge” to the VLR. Assuming the IMSI is. in fact. which identifies its IMSI To do this. . registered in the HLR. the VLR sends HLR a “ MAP/D Update Location” message.

3.IDENTIFICATION PROCEDURE MS BSS MSC VLR MAP/B Provide IMSI RIL 3 – MM identity Request RIL 3 – MM Identity Response MAP/B IMSI Acknowledge MAP/D Update Location MAP/D Update Location Result MAP/D Insert Subscriber Data MAP/D Insert Subscriber Data Result HLR AUC <IMSI> Fig 3 Mobile Identification Process 13 .

SRES . •Actually the AUC normally calculates and sends a few such triplets at a time for each requesting MS. so the VLR only has to request parameters from the AUC if it has no stored unused triplets for the particular MS. which relays the message to AUC. If the VLR determines that authentication is required.Kc ) value VLR in a “MAP/D Send Parameter Result” message. Authentication process starts at VLR. it sends a” MAP/D Send Parameters” message to HLR. 14 . •AUC then draws a value for the random challenge RAND and applies Algorithms A3 and A8 to generate the response SRES and cipher key. •The AUC then returns the triplet ( RAND .4.AUTHENTICATION PROCEDURE Authentication process may be run at each and every location update and at the initiation of every service request.

and if they agree.( Authentication process is shown in Figure 4) 15 . SRESc is returned to the MSC in a “ RIL3 –MM Authentication Response” message. containing RAND.4. it sends the an “ RIL3-MM Service Accept” message. to the MS over the air. The MSC compares SRESc with SRES (SRES response is already at MSC as it has been sent to MSC by VLR as a part of MAP/B authenticate message). The MSC also sends the VLR a “ MAP/B Authentication Complete “ message If SRESc and SRES disagree.AUTHENTICATION PROCEDURE • • • • • The VLR then sends a “ MAP/B Authenticate “ message to the MSC. The MS calculates the required response SRESc using Algorithm A3 and authentication key Ki stored in the SIM. which in turn sends “ RIL3-MM Authentication Request” message . the MSC sends the MS an “ RIL3-MM Service Reject “ message and terminates the request for service.

4. 4 Authentication Process. 16 .AUTHENTICATION PROCEDURE MS BSS MSC VLR HLR AUC MAP/D Send Parameters MAP/D Send Parameters Results MAP/B Authenticate RIL3-MM Authentication Request RIL3-MM Authentication Response MAP/B Authentication Complete RIL3 – MM Service Accept (Conditional) RIL3-MM Service Reject ( I f not accepted) MAP/D Authentication Complete Fig.

The BSS in turn sends an RIL3-RR Ciphering Mode Command” message to the MS The MS then switches to encrypted transmission and reception and sends back an “RIL3-RR Cipher Mode Complete” message in encrypted mode. This Kc is generated during authentication by using Algorithm A8 at AUC. the decision to switch encryption is dependent upon the operator. The MSC sends the new ciphering mode and ciphering key to BSS in a “ BSSMAP Cipher Command” message to the MS. 17 .CIPHERING • • • • • Encryption ( or ciphering ) is normal required for all user transaction over the RF link once the user has been authenticated by the system. This is an optional feature and may or may not be included in the particular system.5. Thus. Ciphering begins with the VLR sending the MSC a “MAP/B Set Cipher Mode” message containing the value Kc for use.

5) 18 .5. it sends a “BSSMAP Ciphering Mode Complete” message to the MSC to indicate that the encryption process is complete.( Shown in Fig.CIPHERING • After BSS receives this message.

CIPHERING MS BSS MSC Yes BSSMAP Cipher Mode Command RIL3.5.5 Encryption Process 19 .RR Cipher Mode Command RIL3 – RR Cipher Mode Complete VLR HLR AUC MAP/B Set Cipher Mode BSSMAP Cipher mode Complete Fig.

6. the network sends a “Release Complete” to the MS and sends the confirmation message for channel release to PSTN.based user or mobile user. 20 . The MS in turn responds by a “ Release Channel Message” in DTAP protocol to the MSC.6(a). Network –Initiated ( Mobile Terminated Call) Mobile. (Call clearing process as initiated by land is shown in Fig. Upon receiving the “ Release Channel Message” from the MS. Upon receiving this message the network (MSC) initiates the clearing of a call by sending a “ Disconnect Messages” to MS.Initiated ( Network Terminated Cal ) NET WORK – INITIIATED (MOBILE-TERMINATED CALL) The release process in this case starts with a “ Release” request from PSTN.CALL CLEARING • (i) (ii) (iii) • • • • Call clearing can be initiated by either the land.

CALL CLEARING MS BSS MSC VLR HLR PSTN CONVERSATION Release (REL) RIL3.Mobile Terminated 21 .6.6(a) Call Clearing .RR Disconnect (BSSMAP) Disconnect Message Release (DTAP) Release Confirmed (REL CONF) Release Complete RIL3-RR Release Complete (BSSMAP) Fig.

MSC can send the “ Release” message to PSTN without waiting for the “ Release Complete Message” from the MS as shown in Fig.6(b). 22 . respectively.CALL CLEARING (ii) MOBILE. • The clearing procedure applies with the exchange of the “ Release and Release Complete Message “ from the network and MS.INITIATED (NETWORK – TERMINATED CALL) • MS initiates the clearing of a call by sending a “ Disconnect Message” to the network.6. • Upon receiving the “Disconnect Message” from MS.

6(b) Call Clearing Network Terminated 23 .CALL CLEARING MS BSS MSC VLR HLR PSTN CONVERSATION RIL3.RR Disconnect (BSSMAP) Disconnect Message Release (DTAP) Release (REL) Release Confirmed (REL CONF) RIL3-RR Release Complete Release Complete (BSSMAP) Fig.6.

Registering and unregistering are necessary for the system to page or not to page the mobile. The IMSI attach is also performed as a part of the location updating procedure. •The IMSI attach procedure is a complement of the IMSI detach procedure.7. activation of a MS with plug-in SIM) within the coverage area of the network or when a MS with an IMSI activated out side the coverage area enters the coverage area. he will be paged in the LA where he is present. • IMSI attach is invoked if attach/detach procedures are required by the network and an IMSI is activated in a MS ( that is.IMSI ATTACH AND DETACH The IMSI attach and detach procedures register and unregister the mobile to the system. If the mobile is attached . 24 . and it is used to indicate that the IMSI is now active in the network. IMSI ATTACH PROCEDURE: • The IMSI attach procedure is used by the MS to indicate that it has reentered the active state ( Power On). the system will not waste its resources in paging for an incoming call. If the mobile is detached.

The network assigns the channel and the BSS sends an “RIL3-RR IMM Assignment Message” to Ms over the AGCH for the connection request message. VLR acknowledges MSC as “IMSI Attach Acknowledge” as a MAP/B protocol.IMSI ATTACH AND DETACH • • • IMSI attach is marked in MSC/VLR with an “ attach” flag.7(a). Upon turning the power on . After the channel is assigned. The Following sequence of events describes the IMSI attach procedure as shown in the Fig. MS sends an “ RIL3-MM IMSI Attach” message over the SDCCH to BSS. which is forwarded to BSS then to MS. MS sends an “ RIL3-RR Channel Request Message” on the Reverse Access Channel to BSS. Upon receiving the “ RIL3-RR Disconnect” signal from MS . This flag is related to IMSI. This message assigns the SDCCH to Mobile. MSC also sends “ Clear Command” for the channel release to BSS as BSSMAP protocol. • • • • 25 . which is then forwarded to MS. a “Clear Complete “ message is sent to MSC as BSSMAP protocol. which is forwarded to MSC and then to VLR as a MAP/B protocol message.7.

(SDCCH) RIL3-RR Channel Release (SDCCH) RIL3-RR DISC (SDCCH) UA (SDCCH) BSSMAP Clear Complete IMSI attach ack.IMSI ATTACH AND DETACH MS BSS MOBILE TURNS ON RIL3-RR Channel Request On RACH RIL3-RR IMM Assign On AGCH SABM<identity of message> (SDCCH) : establishes the signaling link UA (SDCCH) RIL3-MM IMSI attach (SDCCH) : Causes the mobile to seize a dedicated SDCCH channel MSC VLR HLR <TMSI> IRL3-RR IMSI attach ack. 7(a) IMSI Attch 26 . <TMSI> System can now page MS IMAP/B IMSI attach ack.7. : The VLR is requested to mark the IMSI as active. for PSTN/ISDN calls MAP/B Attach IMSI BSSMAP Clear Command : Clear command MSC asks the BSS to release the allocated dedicated resources Fig.

the IMSI detach procedure may be invoked by a MS if the MS is deactivated or if the SIM is detached from the MS.7. • • 27 . The system will also not page.IMSI ATTACH AND DETACH IMSI DETACH PRCEDURE: • Similar to IMSI attach. MS can neither transmit nor receive. The procedure causes the MS to be declared as inactive in the network. Once IMSI is detach is active . A flag (ATT) broadcasted in the “ System Information Message” on the BCCH is used by the network to indicate to the MS whether the detach procedure is required.

After receiving the “IMSI Detach Indication” message from MS. the BSS forwards this message in a BSSMAP complete layer 3 information message to MSC.7. MS then sends an “RIL3-MM IMSI Detach Indication” message to the BSS> The message identifies the MS ( indicated here as <IMSI> ) and contains an eight-bit code indicating IMSI detach. BSS assigns the SDCCH and notifies the channel assignment over AGCH. MSC in turn updates the state of MS in the VLR with a “MAP/B Detach IMSI” message. At this stage all terminating calls to Ms are rejected and the system does not page the mobile any more 28 .IMSI ATTACH AND DETACH • • • • • • The IMSI detach procedure starts with MS sending an “RIL3_RR Channel Request” message on RACH to BSS .

MSC sends “BSSMAP Clear Command” to BSS to clear the SDCCH channel assigned to MS. These commands for IMSI detach procedure are shown in Fig. and HLR marks MS as unregistered.7(b) 29 .Fig. HLR forwards a “MAP/B Deregistration Accepted” message to VLR.7(b) This is rightly so because the mobile would be switched off before the return message is sent from the BSS to MS.IMSI ATTACH AND DETACH • • • • • • VLR forwards this message to HLR as “ MAP/D Deregister Mobile Subscriber”.7. The BSS acknowledges via a “BSSMAP Clear Complete” message to MSC. No response is returned to the MS as shown in the attached sequence chart . which in turn sends a “MAP/B Acknowledge IMSI Detachment” message to MSC.

assigns SDCCH <IMSI> MAP/D Deregistration Accepted BSSMAP Clear Command BSSMAP Clear Complete MAP/B Acknowledge IMSI Detachment Fig.7. 7(b) IMSI Detach 30 .IMSI ATTACH AND DETACH MS Mobile turns off RIL3-RR Cannel Request BSS MSC VLR HLR on RACH RIL3-RR IMM Assign (AGCH) SABM <identity> (SDCCH) : establishes the signaling link UA < identity> (SDCCH) RIL3-MM IMSI Detach < TMSI > BSSMAP Complete MAP/B Detach IMSI <TMSI> : The VLR sets the MSI detach flag MAP/D Deregister Mobile Sub : AGCH.

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