# ELECTRICITY

Submitted toMr. Surendra Reddy Submitted byAnubha Prasad B.Pravallika G.Keerthi DATE: 30/09/2013

CONTENTS:
 Electrical Charges  Electrical Currents  Electrical Circuits

 Electric Power and Energy
 Light Bulbs

A. Electric Charge 1. Charge is conserved (e¯ move from one object to another). Static electricity is the accumulation of excess electric charges on an object. 2. .

. Opposite charges attract.3. Electric fields a. Weaker with distance. Law of Charges a. Electric fields exert force on objects within the field. 4. Like charges repel. b. b.

b. . Transferring electric charge a. Charging by induction is done when one charged object induces a charge on another.5. Contact charging is done when two materials are rubbed together (best with insulators).

6. Lightning rods & plumbing. b. . Lightning a. Conductive path to Earth. Grounding a. b. Large static discharge between the earth and clouds. Lightning was found to be static electricity by Ben Franklin. 7.

8. The electroscope can be used to detect electric charge .

Measured in volts (V). The reason electric charge flows from one place to another is voltage. Voltage is the difference in electrical potential between two places where e¯ are flowing. Electric Current 1. b. .B. c. HIGH LOW a. Voltage is the “push” that makes electric charges move.

1 coulomb is the charge carried by 6. or amps (A).24 x 10^18 e¯. 1 amp is 1 coulomb per sec. 3. a. b. Voltage causes current. Current is measured in amperes. The flow of electric charge is called current. .2. b. The amount of electric charge is measured in coulombs. a.

Batteries are e¯ pumps. Types: wet-cells & dry-cells . a.4. They provide a voltage difference to a circuit. b.

. c. b. Resistance a. Conductors have less resistance than insulators. Opposition to the flow of e¯.5. Measured in ohms.

Wire resistance greater for: 1) Longer wires 2) Thinner wires 3) Higher temperatures .e.

Ohm’s law Current = Voltage Difference Resistance V I R .6.

2. A circuit is a conducting path.C. Electrical Circuits 1. One path b. Current is the same throughout the circuit . Series circuit a. Any break & all devices go out c.

but current and resistance may be different . Parallel circuit a. Multiple paths b. Voltage is the same in each branch.3. A break in one branch & the other branches stay on c.

Comparison of series and parallel circuits The same voltage battery Notice the brightness of the bulbs .

b.S. d. Mostly parallel. . More current means more heat in the wiring. Household circuits a. 120 V in the U. More devices plugged in a circuit mean more current.4. c.

one time use. Fuses . . Circuit breakers .can be reset and reused. Electrical safety devices a. b.5.

a. (1000 watts for 1 hour) c. This is what we buy from the electric company. 2. Unit is the kilowatt-hour. Electrical power is the rate at which electricity is converted into another form of energy. . Energy = power x time b. Power = current x voltage b. Unit is the watt or kilowatt. Electric Power and Energy 1.D. Electrical energy a.

Incandescent a. Very hot and inefficient. Light Bulbs 1.E. Have a tiny filament that resists the flow of electrons. b. c. The filament gets hot and glows to produce light. .

and last a long time. . d. Very cool. efficient. Fluorescent a. Filled with gas and coated with phosphor. Phosphor absorbs U-V rays and glows to make light.2. b. Electricity excites the gas making it give off U-V rays. c.

THANK YOU .