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CP502

Advanced Fluid Mechanics


Flow of Viscous Fluids and Boundary Layer Flow
[ 10 Lectures + 3 Tutorials ]

Computational Fluid dynamics (CFD) project Midsemester (open book) examination

What do we mean by Fluid?


Physically: liquids or gases Mathematically:

A vector field u (represents the fluid velocity)

A scalar field p (represents the fluid pressure)

fluid density (d) and fluid viscosity (v)

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Recalling vector operations

Del Operator: Laplacian Operator: Gradient: Vector Gradient:

Divergence:
Derivative:

R. Shanthini Directional
18 Aug 2010

Continuity equation

for incompressible

(constant density) flow - derived from conservation of mass

where u is the velocity vector

u, v, w are velocities in x, y, and z directions

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Navier-Stokes equation for incompressible


flow of Newtonian (constant viscosity) fluid - derived from conservation of momentum

kinematic viscosity (constant)

density (constant)
pressure external force (such as gravity)

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Navier-Stokes equation for incompressible


flow of Newtonian (constant viscosity) fluid - derived from conservation of momentum

R. Shanthini 18 Aug 2010

Navier-Stokes equation for incompressible


flow of Newtonian (constant viscosity) fluid - derived from conservation of momentum

Acceleration term: change of velocity with time

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Navier-Stokes equation for incompressible


flow of Newtonian (constant viscosity) fluid - derived from conservation of momentum

Advection term: force exerted on a particle of fluid by the other particles of fluid surrounding it

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Navier-Stokes equation for incompressible


flow of Newtonian (constant viscosity) fluid - derived from conservation of momentum

viscosity (constant) controlled

velocity diffusion term:


(this term describes how fluid motion is damped)

Highly viscous fluids stick together (honey) Low-viscosity fluids flow freely (air)

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Navier-Stokes equation for incompressible


flow of Newtonian (constant viscosity) fluid - derived from conservation of momentum

Pressure term: Fluid flows in the direction of largest change in pressure

R. Shanthini 18 Aug 2010

Navier-Stokes equation for incompressible


flow of Newtonian (constant viscosity) fluid - derived from conservation of momentum

Body force term: external forces that act on the fluid (such as gravity, electromagnetic, etc.)

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Navier-Stokes equation for incompressible


flow of Newtonian (constant viscosity) fluid - derived from conservation of momentum

change body in = advection + diffusion + pressure + force velocity with time

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Continuity and Navier-Stokes equations


for incompressible flow of Newtonian fluid

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Continuity and Navier-Stokes equations


for incompressible flow of Newtonian fluid
in Cartesian coordinates

Continuity:
Navier-Stokes:
x - component:

y - component:

z - component:

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Steady, incompressible flow of Newtonian fluid in an infinite channel with stationery plates - fully developed plane Poiseuille flow Fixed plate
Fluid flow direction

y x Fixed plate

Steady, incompressible flow of Newtonian fluid in an infinite channel with one plate moving at uniform velocity - fully developed plane Couette flow Moving plate
Fluid flow direction

y
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Fixed plate

Continuity and Navier-Stokes equations


for incompressible flow of Newtonian fluid
in cylindrical coordinates

Continuity:
Navier-Stokes:
Radial component:

Tangential component:

Axial component:

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Steady, incompressible flow of Newtonian fluid in a pipe - fully developed pipe Poisuille flow Fixed pipe r z
Fluid flow direction

2a 2a

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Steady, incompressible flow of Newtonian fluid between a stationary outer cylinder and a rotating inner cylinder - fully developed pipe Couette flow

a
b

r
a

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