PARAGUAY

• • •
Predominantly dependent upon agriculture Inadequate waste disposal Population concentrated in southern part of country

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Where in the world is Paraguay? Where in the world is Paraguay?

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Physical Environment •
Topography
– – –
Divide by Paraguay River Paranena Region (East) Chaco Region (West)

Climate
– –
Subtropical in Paraneña Region (rolling farmland) Tropical in Chaco Region (2/3 of land area, much inaccessible)
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Physical Environment
Average Max/Min Tem perature in Asuncion 100 80 60 40 20 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D Month Maxim um Minim um

Degrees fahrenheit

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Physical Environment
Average Total Precipitation in Asuncion 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D Month
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Inches

Environmental Health Risk •
Greatest short term risks associated with

– ingestion of food/water

contaminated with fecal pathogens

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Environmental Issues

• Air Contamination

– No controls for air pollution – Increased emissions – Likely degraded air quality ~ however there
are few measurement or control mechanisms – Detailed information is unavailable

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Environmental Issues Cont. •
Soil Contamination

– Localized to specific areas around industrial
facilities and waste disposal sites – Significant exposure is unlikely = low risk

Water Contamination

– Contaminated with raw sewage – Deteriorating distribution system
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Infectious Disease Risk

• INTERMEDIATE RISK for infectious
diseases for forces living in simple field conditions in the absence of countermeasures Inadequate force health protection (FHP) measures, will adversely impact mission effectiveness
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Infectious Diseases

Foodborne and Waterborne Diseases

– HIGH RISK = diarrhea-bacterial, hep A,

typhoid/paratyphoid fever – INTERMEDIATE RISK = diarrhea-protozoal brucellosis, hep E

FHP Priorities

– Deploy appropriate PM personnel and equipment – Consume food, water, ice only from US-approved

sources – Operate food preparation facilities in accordance with Army doctrine – Ensure proper hand washing facilities near all latrines and dining facilities and enforce
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Infectious Diseases Cont.

Vector-borne Diseases

– HIGH RISK = malaria, dengue fever – INTERMEDIATE RISK = yellow fever, trypanosomiasis,
leishmaniasis-cutaneous

FHP Priorities

– Use DEET on all exposed skin – Treat field uniforms with permethrin – Use bed nets in field conditions, treat with permethrin – Enforce malaria chemoprophylaxis as appropriate
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Infectious Diseases Cont. • •
Animal-contact Diseases
– INTERMEDIATE RISK = rabies, Q-fever

FHP Priorities
– Avoid animal contact, especially
if the animal exhibits strange behavior – No mascots – Report all animal bites and scratches
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Infectious Diseases Cont. •
Aerosolized Dust or Soil-contact Diseases
– INTERMEDIATE RISK = hantavirus pulmonary
syndrome

FHP Priorities
– Avoid prolonged exposure
to areas where rodents nest – Particularly closed spaces – Take action to rodent-proof structures
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Infectious Diseases Cont. • •
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
– INTERMEDIATE RISK = gonorrhea, chlamydia, HIV

FHP Priorities
– Avoid sexual contact – Use latex condoms if sexually active

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Infectious Diseases Cont. • •
Water-contact Diseases
– INTERMEDIATE RISK = leptospirosis

FHP Priorities
– avoid unnecessary contact with lakes, rivers, streams,
and other surface water
There will not be a sign like this.

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Infectious Diseases Cont. • •
Respiratory Diseases
– INTERMEDIATE RISK = tuberculosis

FHP Priorities
– Tuberculin skin test before and after deployment – 72 sqft/person and head-to-toe sleeping arrangement – Cough or sneeze into your upper sleeve instead of your
hands – Wash hands at every opportunity – Avoid close contact with local population

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Hazardous Animals & Plants
• • •
Animals

Rabid dogs, snakes, centipedes, scorpions, spiders Thorns, stinging hairs, toxic resin Seek medical attention if bitten or stung Do not handle animals Avoid sleeping on the ground Shake out boots, clothing, & bedding Do not touch, chew, eat, or burn unfamiliar plants

Plants
– – – – – –

FHP Priorities

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SUMMARY • • • •
Physical Environment Infectious Diseases = Intermediate Risk Hazardous Animals and Plants FHP measures are simple and effective

– Use and Enforce – Will conserve the fighting strength

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