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PARAGUAY

• Predominantly dependent
upon agriculture
• Inadequate waste disposal
• Population concentrated in
southern part of country

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Where in the world is Paraguay?


Physical Environment

• Topography
– Divide by Paraguay River
– Paranena Region (East)
– Chaco Region (West)

• Climate
– Subtropical in Paraneña
Region (rolling farmland)
– Tropical in Chaco Region
(2/3 of land area, much
inaccessible)

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Physical Environment
Average Max/Min Tem perature in Asuncion

100
Degrees fahrenheit

80
60 Maxim um
40 Minim um
20
0
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Month

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Physical Environment
Average Total Precipitation in Asuncion

7
6
5
Inches

4
3
2
1
0
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Month

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Environmental Health Risk

• Greatest short term


risks associated with
– ingestion of food/water
contaminated with fecal
pathogens

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Environmental Issues

• Air Contamination
– No controls for air pollution
– Increased emissions
– Likely degraded air quality ~ however there
are few measurement or control
mechanisms
– Detailed information is unavailable

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Environmental Issues Cont.

• Soil Contamination
– Localized to specific areas around industrial
facilities and waste disposal sites
– Significant exposure is unlikely = low risk
• Water Contamination
– Contaminated with raw sewage
– Deteriorating distribution system

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Infectious Disease Risk

• INTERMEDIATE RISK for infectious


diseases for forces living in simple field
conditions in the absence of
countermeasures

• Inadequate force health protection


(FHP) measures, will adversely impact
mission effectiveness
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Infectious Diseases
• Foodborne and Waterborne Diseases
– HIGH RISK = diarrhea-bacterial, hep A,
typhoid/paratyphoid fever
– INTERMEDIATE RISK = diarrhea-protozoal
brucellosis, hep E
• FHP Priorities
– Deploy appropriate PM personnel and equipment
– Consume food, water, ice only from US-approved
sources
– Operate food preparation facilities in accordance with
Army doctrine
– Ensure proper hand washing facilities near all latrines
and dining facilities and enforce
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Infectious Diseases Cont.
• Vector-borne Diseases
– HIGH RISK = malaria, dengue fever
– INTERMEDIATE RISK = yellow fever, trypanosomiasis,
leishmaniasis-cutaneous

• FHP Priorities
– Use DEET on all exposed skin
– Treat field uniforms with permethrin
– Use bed nets in field conditions, treat with permethrin
– Enforce malaria chemoprophylaxis as appropriate
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Infectious Diseases Cont.

• Animal-contact Diseases
– INTERMEDIATE RISK = rabies, Q-fever

• FHP Priorities
– Avoid animal contact, especially
if the animal exhibits strange
behavior
– No mascots
– Report all animal bites and scratches
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Infectious Diseases Cont.

• Aerosolized Dust or Soil-contact Diseases


– INTERMEDIATE RISK = hantavirus pulmonary
syndrome

• FHP Priorities
– Avoid prolonged exposure
to areas where rodents nest
– Particularly closed spaces
– Take action to rodent-proof structures
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Infectious Diseases Cont.

• Sexually Transmitted Diseases


– INTERMEDIATE RISK = gonorrhea, chlamydia, HIV
• FHP Priorities
– Avoid sexual contact
– Use latex condoms if sexually active

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Infectious Diseases Cont.

• Water-contact Diseases
– INTERMEDIATE RISK = leptospirosis
• FHP Priorities
– avoid unnecessary contact with lakes, rivers, streams,
and other surface water
There will not be a sign like this.

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Infectious Diseases Cont.

• Respiratory Diseases
– INTERMEDIATE RISK = tuberculosis

• FHP Priorities
– Tuberculin skin test before and after deployment
– 72 sqft/person and head-to-toe sleeping arrangement
– Cough or sneeze into your upper sleeve instead of your
hands
– Wash hands at every opportunity
– Avoid close contact with local population
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Hazardous Animals & Plants
• Animals
– Rabid dogs, snakes, centipedes,
scorpions, spiders
• Plants
– Thorns, stinging hairs, toxic resin
• FHP Priorities
– Seek medical attention if bitten or stung
– Do not handle animals
– Avoid sleeping on the ground
– Shake out boots, clothing, & bedding
– Do not touch, chew, eat, or burn
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SUMMARY

• Physical Environment
• Infectious Diseases = Intermediate Risk
• Hazardous Animals and Plants
• FHP measures are simple and effective
– Use and Enforce
– Will conserve the fighting strength

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