MOTIVATION

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What Leads to Performance?
Performance = f (Ability, Motivation, Opportunity)

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What is Motivation?
Origin : Latin ‘Movere’= ‘to move’

“Dynamic force which sets a person into motion”

“An inner state that energizes, activates and directs or channels behavior towards goals”
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Motivation….
“Process of channeling a person’s inner drives so that he wants to accomplish the goals of the organization”

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Motivation

“The willingness to exert high levels of efforts towards organizational goals,

conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need.” - Stephen P Robbins

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The Motivation Process

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Nature

Individuals motivation

differ

in

their

 

Motivations change Motivations differently are expressed

Ind. may himself be unaware of his motivation
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Theories of Motivation
Content Theories Process Theories

“ What Motivates People” focus on internal needs 1. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs 2. Herzberg’s 2 factor theory 3. Alderfer’s ERG theory 4. McClelland’s Need

“ How Motivation occurs” how people choose behaviors to satisfy their needs 1. Victor Vroom’s Expectancy theory 2. Porter Lawler Model
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Content Theories
– Focus on what arouses, energizes, or

starts

behavior,

i.e.

individual

physiological & psychological needs
– Motivation results from the individual’s

attempts to satisfy needs.
– Attempt to identify & prioritize the needs

& drives that motivate people.

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MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS

Growth needs

Self Actualization Esteem Needs Social Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs
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Internal Symbolic behavior Striving needs External Economic behavior

Higher Order needs

Lowe r Order need s
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Satisfied need no longer motivates

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Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory

 Adult motives are complex  Needs form a Hierarchy – Lower needs to be satisfied before higher order needs  People seek growth. They want to move up the hierarchy of needs

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Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory
Research evidence
– Flexible hierarchy of needs – Satisfaction of one need level may not decrease its

importance and increase importance of next need level.
– Needs vary according to: • A person’s career stage. • Organizational size. • Geographic location. • Across Cultures
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Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory
Managerial implications
     Physiological needs – wages, food, breaks Safety needs – safe working environment, job security, insurance Social needs – teams, opportunity to interact Esteem needs – challenging tasks, recognition, participation, status symbols Self actualization needs – encourage creativity, innovation
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Herzberg’s Two – Factor theory
 Frederick Herzberg  Dual Factor / Motivation-hygiene theory  Portrays two different factors — – Hygiene factors: related to job context – Motivating factors: related to job content

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Herzberg’s Two – Factor theory
 Research (1950) – Asked people to describe situations in which they found their job exceptionally good or bad  Conclusion: Job satisfaction – Intrinsic factors Dissatisfaction – extrinsic factors

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Herzberg’s Two- Factor Theory
Contrasting Views of Satisfaction-Dissatisfaction

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Herzberg’s Two – Factor theory

•Intrinsic factors •Build high level of motivation • & job satisfaction •Stimulates superior performance
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•Environmental, external to job •Prevent dissatisfaction •Zero level motivation if maintained
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Herzberg’s Two – Factor theory

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Herzberg’s Two – Factor theory
Research evidence
– Theory fails to: • Account for individual differences. • Link motivation & needs to both satisfaction &

performance.
• Consider cultural & professional differences.

( Ex- Theory applicable to knowledge workers. For blue collar workers maintenance factors maybe motivators)

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Alderfer’s ERG Theory
 Developed by Clayton Alderfer.  Collapses

Maslow’s five categories into existence needs,

three

categories:

relatedness needs, and growth needs.
 More than one need category may be

activated at the same time.

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ERG Theory
 Existence needs: Desire for physiological

and material well-being.
 Relatedness needs: Desire for satisfying

interpersonal relationships.
 Growth

needs:

Desire

for

continued

personal growth and development.

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ERG Theory
 Research evidence on ERG theory: – Supporting evidence is encouraging. – Offers

a

more

flexible

approach

to

understanding human needs.

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Comparison of Content Theories

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Process theories
 Process Theories: – Focus on the cognitive processes that influence behavior, i.e. why a person behaves in a particular way. – Deal with ‘how’ to motivate

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VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY
 Developed by Victor Vroom.  A person’s motivation is a multiplicative

function of:
– Expectancy. – Instrumentality – Valence.

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Vroom’s Expectancy Theory
 Expectancy:

Probability

assigned

by

individual that work effort will be followed by a given level of task accomplishment
 Instrumentality: Probability assigned by

the individual that a given level of achieved task performance will lead to various work outcomes.
 Valence:

The

value

attached

by

the
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individual to various work outcomes.
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Overview of Expectancy Theory
Effort Performance Reward

Expectancy

X

Instrumentality

X

Valence of reward

MOTIVATION
Abilities and traits Role perceptions and opportunities

JOB PERFORMANCE

Simplified Expectancy Theory
Performance appraisal system

Training and development
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Human resources management
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Vroom’s Expectancy Theory
 Motivational

implications

of

expectancy

theory.
– Motivation

is sharply reduced when,

expectancy, instrumentality or valence approach zero.
– Motivation is high when expectancy and

instrumentality are high and valence is strongly positive.
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Vroom’s Expectancy Theory
 Managerial

implications

of

expectancy

theory.
– Managers

should that

act

to

maximize and

expectancies, valences objectives.

instrumentalities, support

organizational

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Vroom’s Expectancy Theory
 Research evidence on expectancy theory. – Theory

has received empirical support. effect is question.

substantial some

– Multiplier

subject to

– May be useful to distinguish between

extrinsic rewards and intrinsic rewards.
– Does not specify which rewards will

motivate particular groups of workers, thereby allowing for cross-cultural 33 OB/ differences.MOTIVATION

Porter –Lawler Model
 Tries to establish relationship between the efforts, performance & satisfaction of individual.  Important variables are: – Effort – Performance – Rewards – Satisfaction
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Porter –Lawler Model
Value Of Rewards Abilities & Traits Intrinsic Rewards EFFORT PERFORMANCE SATISFACTION Perceived Effort Reward Probability Perceived Equitable Rewards

Role Perception

Extrinsic Rewards

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