• The act of not having sex, which can range from no sexual contact to everything but intercourse. • Abstinence is the only 100 percent guarantee of protection against pregnancy!

• The calendar method requires a couple to abstain from coitus on the days of a menstrual cycle when the woman is most likely to conceive (3 or 4 days before until 3 or 4 days after ovulation).




T 1☺

W 2☺ 9☼ 16 ☼ 23 30 ☺

TH 3☺ 10 ☼ 17 ☼ 24

F 4☺ 11 ☼ 18 ☼ 25

SAT 5☺ 12 ☼ 19 26

6☺ 13 ☼ 20 27

7☼ 14 ☼ 21 28

8☼ 15 ♥ 22 29 ☺


To calculate ‘’safe’’ days, she subtracts 18 from the shortest cycle documented. The number represents her first fertile day. She subtracts 11 from her longest cycle. This represents her last fertile day. If she had six menstrual cycles ranging from 25 to 29 days, her fertile period would be from the 7th day (25 minus 18) to the 18th day (29 minus 1) to avoid pregnancy; she would avoid coitus or use a contraceptive such as vaginal foam during those days.

• Just before the day of ovulation, a woman’s basal body temperature (BBT) falls about 0.5%. At the time of ovulation, her BBT rises a full degree because of the influence of progesterone. This higher level is then maintained for the rest of her menstrual cycle. This pattern is the basis of the BBT method of contraception.The problem with this method is that many factor s can affect BBT.
• Ex. A temperature rise cause by illness could be mistaken as the signal of ovulation. If this happens, a woman could mistake as the signal of ovulation. If this happens.

• This method predicts ovulation is to use the changes in cervical mucus that occur naturally with ovulation. Before ovulation each month, the cervical mucus is thick and does not stretch when pulled between the thumb and finger.

BASAL cont…
• With ovulation (the peak day), cervical mucus becomes copious, thin, watery, and transparent. It feels slippery and stretches at least 1 inch before the distand breaks, a proper known as spinnbarkeit. All the days on which the mucus is copious, or at least 3 days after the peak day, are considered to be fertile days, or days on which the woman should abstain from sex to avoid conception.




T 1☺

W 2☺ 9 16 ☼ 23 30 ☺

TH 3☺ 10 17 ☼ 24

F 4☺ 11 18 ☼ 25

SAT 5☺ 12 ☼ 19 26

6☺ 13 ☼ 20 27

7 14 ☼ 21 28

8 15 ♥ 22 29 ☺


• It is to predict ovulation is the use of an OTC ovulation detection kit. These kits detect the midcycle surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) that can be detected in urine 12 to 24 hours before ovulation. • Such kits are 98 % to 100% accurate in predicting ovulation. Although they are fairly expensive, use of such a kit in place of cervical mucus testing makes this form of natural family planning more attractive to many women.

• As long as woman is breast feeding an infant, there is some natural suppression of ovulation. However, if the infant receiving a supplemental feeding, the use of lactation as effective birth control method is questionable. • Because women may ovulate but not menstruate while breast feeding, the woman may be still fertile even if she has not had a period since childbirth. As a rule of thumb, after 6 months of breast feeding, the woman should be advised to choose another method of contraception.

• Also known as withdrawal or the pull out method, is a method of contraception in which, during sexual intercourse, the penis is removed from the vagina prior to ejaculation, primarily to avoid introducing semen into the vagina. • Coitus interruptus may also more generally refer to any extraction of the penis prior to ejaculation during intercourse. This method has been widely used for at least 2,000 years and was used by an estimated 38 million couples worldwide in 1991


• A barrier method of birth control containing a sperm-killing product. Spermicides are available in foam, cream, jelly, film, suppository or tablet form. • Foam: prevents pregnancy by bubbling within the vagina, blocking the entrance to the uterus and killing sperm. • Cream, Film, Jelly and Suppositories: prevent pregnancy by melting in the vagina, blocking the entrance to the uterus and killing sperm.
• Use The spermicide products are inserted deep into the vagina before intercourse.

• The ring is a removable, very effective form of birth control, although it does not prevent sexually transmitted infections (STI’s). The small and bendable ring is inserted into the vagina every month, and then left there for three weeks. After three weeks it is removed for one week and then your period occurs.
Studies have shown that fewer than 1 out of 100 women who use the ring become pregnant with consistent and correct use.

• Devices block the entry of sperm to the uterus. Users need to be fitted by a doctor or nurse and taught insertion and removal. Reliability is good when used with a spermicides and left in place for about eight hours after intercourse.

• Caps are made of soft rubber, are shaped like a thimble, and fit snugly over the uterine cervix. The cervical cap acts by blocking the entrance to the uterus; the spermicides acts by killing and immobilizing the sperm, preventing it from fertilizing the egg. The cervical cap must be left in place for at least six hours after last intercourse before removing.

Cervical caps, like diaphragms, must be fitted individually by a health care provider.

The advantage ~Unlike the diaphragm, the cervical
cap protects against pregnancy for two days (48 hours) and for multiple acts of intercourse within that timeframe. ~When placed appropriately, the cervical cap is often not felt by either partner during sexual intercourse.

The disadvantage ~The cervical cap is more difficult for women to learn to insert and remove than the diaphragm. ~If worn for more than two days (48 hours) you run the risk of: -Toxic shock syndrome. -Unpleasant vaginal odor. -Unpleasant vaginal discharge. ~Mild allergic reactions to the rubber or spermicidal occasionally occur.

They are contraindicated in women with ant of the following conditions: 1. an abnormally short or long cervix 2. a previous abnormal Pap smear 3. a history of TSS (infection in Vagina) 4. an allergy to latex or spermicides 5. a history of PID, cervicitis, or papolllomavirus infection 6. a history of cervical cancer undiagnosed vaginal bleeding

• One of the newer barrier methods uses a tube of polyurethane plastic held in place by flexible rings to line the vagina. It is bulkier than the male condom but does not require spermicidal and can be inserted any time before intercourse. Reliability is as good as for the male condom.

• Latex rubber condoms are simple, safe and effective, particularly if used with spermicide. They also offer the best protection against sexually transmitted diseases. Men may find sensation is reduced, and some couples feel condoms interfere with spontaneity.

• Oral contraceptives contain female sex hormones in doses that present ovulation. Taken regularly, they provide outstanding protection, but there are long and shortterm side effects and users need regular medical checkups. Various types are available to meet individual needs.

♠ORAL cont…
• • • • • • Side effects: nausea weight gain headache breast tenderness breakthrough bleeding

Discontinuing use:
She may not be able to become pregnant 1-2 months and possibly 6 to 8 months, because the pituitary gland requires a recovery period begin cyclic gonadotropin stimulation again.

ORAL cont…
• Continous or Extended Regimen Pills: Can extend program pills (91 regimen, or 84 days of pills followed by 7 days of placebo). Although some women experience breakthrough bleeding, such regimens limit menstrual periods to only four times a year and provide effective birth control



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