Types of Manufacturing System – Classifying components of manufacturing system

Prepared by Group A2: 2. 3. 4. 5. Izham Hazizi Nor Shahril Md Fairul Ahmad Fauzie

Introduction
Manufacturing System plays very important role in daily manufacturing operation. The objective is to have efficient control of the organizational structure in order to produce high quality products at lower prices within a shorter period of time. Companies that having a good manufacturing system normally can execute their operation very well as they become more productive and to make more efficient use of resources. Manufacturing information systems, material handling, computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM), and production planning control are just some of the areas that have help companies improving their understanding and awareness in the manufacturing and service sectors in order to stand in the very competitive industry.

Component in Manufacturing System
Manufacturing system can be elaborated as system which having the combination of integrated equipments and human resource, whose give a guideline for material processing. A Manufacturing system consist of several components, which can be listed as below; Production Machines Material Handling System A integrated computer system to control components Human Resource/ worker to operate and manage the system

Component in Manufacturing System
PRODUCTION MACHINES MATERIAL HANDLING SYSTEM

MANUFACTURING SYSTEM

COMPUTER SYSTEM

HUMAN RESOURCES

Production Machines
 In any manufacturing systems, almost all the operation or assembly work was help by the machines or with the aid of the tools.  All this machine will be help to achieve high productivity and also shorter cycle time.  There are many type of production machine and this combination of production machine in one production floor can be called as a workstation.  There are 3 type of production machines as below and all this was based on the complexity and how advance the tool:  Manually operated  Semi-automated  Fully automated

Manually Operated Machine
 Manually operated machines are controlled/operated or supervised by worker/operator(human resource).  This manually operated machines provides the power for operation and the worker provides the control.  Some example of the machine that fall into this category was a conventional machine that was normally found in small and medium industry such as milling machine and drill presses machine.  All this type of machine need the worker to operate is as this machine do not have any program to control or to perform the task.  In a modern age factory some example of this type of machine such as metrology, where this machine will help to ease the job but need an operator to operate the machine.

Manually Operated Machine
 The operator must be at the machines continuously to engage the feed, position the tool, load and unload work parts and perform other task related to the operation.

Worker

Manually operated Machine Unload

Load

Work cycle Worker controlled

Semi Automated Machine
 Semi automated machines can perform a task without any operator attend to the tool. By using software/hardware control machine able to operate without any assistant for one cycle of task.  An example of machine that fit into this category is CNC machine or other programmable production machine that under the tool control for one work cycle. But this type of machine requires a operator to unload the finished part and load the next part at the end or beginning of each cycle.  In these cases, the worker must attend to the machine every cycle but doesn’t need to be continuously present during the cycle.

Semi Automated Machine
 With this, one operator can attend/operate more than one machine at one time as only extra time required for each machine to make sure it continuously running with high productivity.
Worker Program Control
Unload

Load

Semi Automated Machine Work cycle Worker controlled Program controlled

Fully Automated Machine
 Fully automated machines was a machines that capable to operate automatically with no human attention for periods of time that are longer than one work cycle.  Although a worker attention is not required during each cycle, some form of machine tending may be needed periodically  Time to time operator might be need to attend the tool periodically to add in new material.Also some error on the machine that require operator to solve the error before tool can start running again.  Normally this type of machine will be link with AMHS system too.

Fully Automated Machine
Most of the advance or high tech factory will have this type of machine. This type of machine will help to reduce cycle time and also to reduce labor cost. This fully automated machine also can reduce the number of product scrap or reject due to less human involvement in the cycle time.
Worker
Periodic attention

Program Control

Load

Fully Automated Machine Work cycle Program controlled

Unload

Workstation
 Combination of machines in one workplace are normally call as workstation.  In this workstation, some specific task or operation was performed with combination of this 3 type of machines.  A complete manufacturing system may consist of one or more workstations.  A manufacturing system, with multiple workstation is called production line, assembly line, machine cell or other name depending on its configuration and function.

Material Handling System
 Material Handling System can be defined as an aspect of materials management relating specifically to the physical transfer of materials.  The movement of materials (raw materials, scrap, semi-finished and finished) to, through and from productive processes; in warehouses and storage; and in receiving and shipping areas  The work machines which normally semi- automated or fully automated machines are connected by a material handling system to optimize parts flow and the central control computer which controls material movements and machine flow.  Normally the machines can be segregate to 3 parts; loading unit, positioning unit & unloading unit.  Anyhow, transporting work unit between machines to machines (stations to stations) is also required

Material Handling System
 Conveyors, handling robots, automated material handling system (AMHS) are most other automated material handling systems fall into this category.

Illustration of Material Handling System
Positioning Unit & Processing

Loading Unit

Unloading Unit

Machine A

Material Handling System

Machine A

Machine B

START

END- FINISHING GOOD

Machine D

Machine C

Transporting work unit between machines to machines

Material Handling System

Manual WIP trolley

AHMS

Computer Control System
 Computer is required to control the automated and semi – automated equipment and to participate in the overall coordination and management of the manufacturing system.

 Even in manually computer system is useful to support production, such as a completely manually assembly line.

Computer Control System
Computer control system divide into: ii. Communicate instructions to workers  communicate to the operator by given complete instructions.  Download part programs to computer  send instructions to computer controlled. i.e CNC machine tools iv. Material handling system control.  Controlling the material handling system to the coordinate at the workstations. v. Schedule production  accomplished at the site of the manufacturing system.

Computer Control System
i. Failure diagnosis  diagnosis equipment malfunctions, preparing preventive maintenance schedule and maintaining spare parts inventory. ii. Safety monitoring  to ensure that the system operate in the safe mode and at the same time to protect workers and the equipment in the system. iii. Quality control  Functions to detect any possibility reject product from the production line. iv. Operations management  managing all manufacturing operations whether direct or indirect.

example

Computer Control System
Management centre
computer management Control room CD/DVD mastering Production centre

Stores and Distribution

Human Resources
 Humans refers to all personnel, operators, vendors, customers etc.  To operate and manage the system/process  Required either fulltime or periodically to keep the system running  System manufacturing is value added system to produce parts and products  In context of manufacturing system, human perform some or all of the value added work that is accomplished on the parts/products.

Human Resources
 Performing either manual (direct) work on it or by controlling the machines.  In fully automated machine, direct labour is still needed.
 For example : loading or unloading parts, changing tools, resharpening tools etc.

 In Automated Manufacturing System, workers also are needed to support the system.
 For example : computer programmers/operators, maintenance and repair.

Human Resources
 Personnel related issues include what is the capability level of available labor, working culture (one shift or two shift), how many workers need to hire, what is the level of training needed, what policies to drive a good working environment.  As a conclusion Manufacturing system need all these four component to make up the system (running the system).  Each component plays an important role in manufacturing system. If either one of the components is not included, this systems is not call a manufacturing system.

Conclusion
With the combination of this 4 manufacturing system components will help to improve company competitiveness in the global market. This is essential for company to have good system for in each components so that the company can satisfy the customer need and keep growing.

Video.mp4

Example of factory that using combination of 4 components of Manufacturing System

Reference
• Groover, M.P., Automation, Production Systems, and Computer Integrated Manufacturing. Prentice-Hall Int. 2001 • http://www.daifukumalaysia.com/company/mhglossary.php • http://www.technologystudent.com/prddes1/flexbl2.html • http://www.nuigalway.ie/staff/david_osullivan/documents/ch13.ppt • http://www.his.se/PageFiles/9234/AUB161-L19-handouts.pdf? epslanguage=sv

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