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Im (s)

s = x + j y
θ

x
jy
s e
j  1
j
2
,
y
j
2
2
1
x
y
 tan
 
x
 
 
1
  
1
1,
j
3
 
j,

Re (s)

s
s
x
x
j
y
y
1
2
1
2
1
2
s s
x x
y y
j
x y
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
s s
s
e
j
s
e
j
1
2
s
s
e
1
2
1
2
1 2

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s
x
jy
x
jy

x
jy
x
jy

x
jy
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
2
2
s
x
jy
x
jy

x
jy
x
2
y
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
s
s
e
j
1
s
1
1
1
e
j (
 
)
1
2
s
s
e
j
2
s
2
2
2
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 x
2
s s
1
2
2
s
2

2

sin

1

2

j

e

j

e

j

,

sin

3

3!

5

7

5!

7!

e

1

 



2

3

4

2!

3!

4!

cos

1

2

e

j

e

j

,

cos

1

 

2

2!

4

6

4!

6!

e

j

cos

j

sin

,

sin

1

2

j

e

j

e

j

e

j

cos

j

sin

,

cos

1

2

e

j

e

j

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cos

2

sin

2

1

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o

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o

o

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0

st

j

 

j

 

st

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8

.

st

0

0

st

t

0

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# Fourier and Laplace Transform relationship

Complex Fourier Transform
(Bilateral Laplace Transform)
s = σ +jω . f(t) exists = in the interval
  t  
Ordinary Fourier Transform
Laplace Transform
s = jω .
f(t) exists in the
s = σ + jω . f(t) = exists as a
interval   = t  
casual function , t > 0

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a

f
t
t
F
s e
 st
t 0 > 0,
0
0
 F s  a
f
t
F
s
then
a f
t
a f
t
a F
s
 a F
2
2
1
1
2 2
1
1
2
2
m
1
s
f
m
2
m
1
0
s
f
0
f
0

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0

0

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t

2

t

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m

i

1

i

n

i

1

i

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C
n
s
p
n

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p
1

C
1

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C
n
s
p
n

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C
3

p
1

1

• C k

1

1

2

3
d
C
s
p
n
1
ds
s
p
n
3
s
p
F s
(
)
1
s
p
1

,
k 
1

1

3

1

k

s

p

1

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n

n

k
m

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2

2

n

2

n

2

n

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21

Displacement

Response

1.5

1

0.5

0

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

time (sec)

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# 0

y(0)  y ,
and
u(0)  u
0
0
y t
( )
 
e
t
3
e
 2
t

## •

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y
5
y
6
y
3
e
2
t
e
3
t
,
y (0)  0 and y (0)  0.
2
t
3
t
y t
(
)
c e
c e
3
te
1
2
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yyy
 2
 3
 0

x
y
1
x
y
2
x
y
2
x
x
3 x
0
1
x
x
x
0
1
 
x
1
2
1
1

x
 
3
x
2
x
x
3
2
x
 
2
1
2
2
2

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D
xt( )
xt( )
+
B
dt
C
+
+
A

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yyy
 2
 3
 0

x
y
1
x
y
2
x
y
2

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x
x
x
0
1
 
x
1
1
1
1
x
x
 
x
x
x
3
2
x
 
2
2
2
2
x
1
y  1
0
x
2

,

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Displacement

# MatLab Representation

## initial(sys,x0);

response to initial displacement x(0)=0.1

0.1

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0

-0.02

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

time (sec)

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Amplitude

# •

## •

x
y
1
x 1 is the displacement
x
y
2
x 2 is the velocity
x
y
2

x
=

1

2

1

# x

2

## xlabel('time')

response to initial displacement x(0)=0.1

0.1

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0

-0.02

-0.04

-0.06

-0.08

-0.1

Velocity
Displacement

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

time (sec)

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Amplitude

# y  2y  3y  10sin5t

3

2

1

0

-1

-2

-3

Response to Forcing Function 10sin(5t)

Velocity
 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 time

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5/12/2012

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30

  

b

  K i

J

J

di

dt

K

 

L

R

• 1 V

L

L

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x
1
x
2
x
2
x
i
3
di
x
3
dt

K

J

x

3

R

L

x

3

1

L

V

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31

x
y
x
y
1
1
3
2
x
y
x
y
2
1
4
2
x
y
x
y
2
1
4
2

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