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Francis G. Moria, MD, DPSP

Body Membranes
Cover surfaces, line body cavities, and form protective sheets around organs Two major classifications: 1. epithelial membranes - cutaneous membrane - mucous membrane - serous membrane 2. connective tissue membranes

Epithelial Membranes

Cutaneous Membranes
Skin Superficial epidermis is composed of keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium The underlying dermis is mostly dense (fibrous) connective tissue Exposed to air and is a dry membrane

Mucous Membrane
Mucosa Composed of epithelium resting on a loose connective tissue membrane called lamina propria Lines all body cavities that open to the exterior Wet membranes Adapted for absorption or secretion

Serous Membranes
Serosa Composed of a layer of simple squamous epithelium resting on a thin layer of areolar connective tissue Lines body cavities that are closed to the exterior (peritoneum, pleura and pericardium) Occur in pairs:
Parietal layer: lines a specific portion of the wall of the ventral body cavity Visceral layer: covers the outside of the organ in that cavity

Connective Tissue Membrane

Synovial Membrane
Composed of soft areolar connective tissue and contain no epithelial cells Line the fibrous capsules surrounding joints Also line small sacs of connective tissue called bursae and the tube-like tendon sheet Cushion organs moving against each other during muscle activity

Integumentary System (Skin)

Basic Skin Functions

Protection of the deeper tissue from chemicals, bacteria, bumps, and drying Regulation of body temperature through radiation and sweating Synthesis of defensive proteins and vitamin D Sensory perception through skin receptors

Structure of the Skin

Skin is composed of two kinds of tissue: Epidermis
Made up of stratified squamous epithelium that is capable of keratinization (becoming hard and tough)

Made up of dense connective tissue Deep to the dermis is the subcutaneous tissue or hypodermis, essentially adipose tissue (not considered part of the skin)

Composed of five zones or layers called strata
Stratum basale Stratum spinosum Stratum granulosum Stratum lucidum Stratum corneum

Avascular Most of the cells are keratinocytes Melanin is produced by melanocytes

Two major regions PAPILLARY DERMIS Upper dermal region Uneven and has fingerlike projections called dermal papillae Receptors include free nerve ending and Meissner corpuscles (touch receptor) RETICULAR DERMIS Deepest skin layer Contains blood vessels, sweat and oil glands, and deep pressure receptors called Pacinian corpuscles

Skin Color

Three pigments contribute to skin color 1. Melanin yellow, reddish brown, or black 2. Carotene orange-yellow 3. Hemoglobin depending on the amount of oxygen bound

Alterations in Skin Color

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Redness or erythema Pallor or blanching Jaundice or yellowish discoloration Bruises or blue-black marks Cyanosis

Appendages of the Skin

Cutaneous Glands
Exocrine glands that release their secretion to the skin surface via ducts SEBACEOUS GLANDS Oil glands (product is called sebum) Found all over the skin except the palms and soles (glabrous skin) SWEAT GLANDS Sudoriferous glands Produce sweat under nervous influence Heat-regulating apparatus

Sweat Gland

Hairs and Hair Follicles

Primarily dead keratinized cells Produced by a hair follicle Part enclosed in the follicle is called the root Part projecting from the surface is called the shaft Hair is formed by division of the cells in the growth zone, or hair bulb matrix Arrector pili: small bands of smooth muscle cells attached to the hair follicle producing the goose bumps

Scale-like modification of the epidermis Primarily dead keratinized cells Each nail has a free edge, a body and a root Borders of the nail are overlapped by skin folds called nail folds Nail matrix (portion of the nail bed) is responsible for nail growth Lunula: white crescent proximal part of the nail

Homeostatic Imbalances of Skin

Infections and Allergies

Athletes foot (tinea pedis): caused by fungi Boils and carbuncles: bacterial infection often caused by Staphylococcus aureus Cold sores (fever blisters): caused by herpes simplex virus infection Contact dermatitis: allergic reaction caused by exposure of skin to chemicals Impetigo: caused by Staphylococcus aureus Psoriasis: chronic condition with itching, redness and scaling

Maybe caused by intense heat, electricity, UV radiation and chemicals First degree burns - only the epidermis is damaged Second degree burns - injury to the epidermis and the upper region of the dermis Third degree burns - full-thickness burns - destroy the entire thickness of the skin

Skin Cancer
Most important risk factor: overexposure to ultraviolet radiation in sunlight BASAL CELL CARCINOMA - originates from the stratum basale - least malignant and most common skin cancer - occur in sun-exposed areas of the face - full cure occurs in 99% of patients SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA - originates from the stratum spinosum - affects the scalp, ears, dorsum of the hands, and lower lip - grows rapidly MALIGNANT MELANOMA - cancer of melanocytes - metastasizes rapidly - chance for survival is 50%


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