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Welding

Table of Contents
1. Section 1 Fundamentals of Welding 2. Section 2 Welding Metallurgy

3. Section 3 Welding Design


4. Section 4 Welding Equipment & Consumables 5. Section 5 WPS & PQR 6. Section 6 Welding Inspections & Techniques 7. Section 7 Welding Defects, Causes & Remedies 8. Useful Websites

Fundamentals of Welding

Section 1 Fundamentals of Welding

Fundamentals of Welding
Welding
Definition 1: Welding is a complex, metallurgical process involving melting, solidification, gas-metal reactions, surface phenomena and solid state reactions for joining metals. Definition 2: Welding is the joining of multiple pieces of metal by the use of heat and or pressure. A union of the parts is created by fusion or re-crystallization across the metal interface. Welding can involve the use of filler material, or it can involve no filler.

Fundamentals of Welding
Major classification of welding
Arc Welding Resistance Welding Flash Welding Ox fuel Gas Welding Solid State Welding Electron Beam Welding Laser Beam welding Brazing Soldering Adhesive Bonding Thermal Spraying

Fundamentals of Welding Arc Welding:


Definition A fusion process wherein the coalescence of the metals is achieved from the heat of an electric arc formed between an electrode and the work.

Fundamentals of Welding
Arc Welding Processes
Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW)/ stick welding Sub-merged arc welding (SAW) Gas metal arc and flux cored arc welding (GMAW) Flux cored arc welding (FCAW) Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) plasma arc welding (PAW)

Electrogas welding
Electroslag welding

Fundamentals of Welding

Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)/ Stick Welding

Fundamentals of Welding
DIAGRAM 1

Fundamentals of Welding
DIAGRAM 2

Fundamentals of Welding
Overview of Process
SMAW is an early arc welding process used for ferrous and several nonferrous base metals. It uses a covered electrode consisting of a core wire around which a concentric clay-like mixture of silicate binders and powdered materials (such as fluorides, carbonates, oxides, metal alloys and cellulose) is extruded. This covering is a source of arc stabilizers, gases to displace air, metal and slag to protect, support and insulate the hot weld metal.

Fundamentals of Welding
Tools & Equipment
Electrode (consumable & non-consumable) Electrode Holder Electrode Cable Welding Machine (AC or DC Power Source) Work Cable Clamp Filler Metal Welding Helmet Protective Clothing

Fundamentals of Welding
Advantages
Many welding applications with small variety of electrodes. Simple, portable,& inexpensive equipment

Self flux provided by electrode


Provides all position flexibility Weld can be made in Confined location

Fundamentals of Welding
Limitations
Used for steels, stainless steels, cast irons. Not used for aluminum and its alloys, or copper and its alloys (energy density is too high). Best suitable for joining metals of

sections1/8 to 3/4 in.(3 to 9 mm) thickness.


Groove weld joints in plate thickness normally require edge preparation to allow proper access to

the root of the joint.


Typical current range is between 50 and 300A.

Fundamentals of Welding Limitations contd


Special electrodes can be used as high as 600A and
others as low as 30A, allowing weld metal deposition rates of between 2 and 17 lb/h (1 & 8 KG/Hr).

High material cost as 60% of the weight of the


purchased electrodes is deposited as filler metal.

Fundamentals of Welding Applications


Construction Pipelines Shipbuilding Fabrication job shops. Maintenance Industries

Fundamentals of Welding Common Defects


Porosity Slag inclusions Incomplete Fusions Inadequate joint penetration. Undercut Overlap Cracks

Fundamentals of Welding

SUB-MERGED ARC WELDING (SAW)

Fundamentals of Welding
Diagram 1

Fundamentals of Welding Overview of Process


In SAW, the arc and molten meta; are shielded by an envelope of molten flux and a layer of unused granular flux particles. When the arc is struck , the tip of the continuously fed electrode is submerged in the flux and the arc is therefore not visible. The weld is made without the intense radiation that characterizes an open arc process and with little fumes.

Fundamentals of Welding
Tools, Equipment & Materials
Electrode (consumable & non-consumable) Electrode Holder Electrode Cable Power Source (600 to 2000A output) Automatic Wire Feed Tracking System Work Lead Weld Backing Filler Metal Welding Helmet Protective Clothing

Fundamentals of Welding
Advantages
Useful for welding both Sheet and plate.

Thin materials speed up to 200in/min (84mm/sec) can


be achieved. In thick section applications, high metal deposition rates of 60 to 100 lb/h (27 to 45 kg/h). Least Expensive in operating cost

Edge preparation is not required due to the usage of


DCEP (Direct Current Electrode Positive). Consistent weld quality

Fundamentals of Welding
Limitations
Welds can only be made in the flat and horizontal positions. Used for all grade of carbons, low alloy and allow steels. Stainless Steel and some nickel alloys are also effectively welded or used as surfacing filler metals with the process. Power Source, Three Phase 220V or 440V Single phase 440V.

Fundamentals of Welding
Applications
Used for all grade of carbons, low alloy and alloy steels. Stainless Steel and some nickel alloys are also effectively welded or used as surfacing filler Pipelines. Jobs require deposition of large quantities of filler metal. Fabrication job shops. Maintenance Industries. Pipelines

Fundamentals of Welding
Common Defects
Porosity Slag inclusions Incomplete Fusions Inadequate joint penetration. Undercut Overlap Cracks

Fundamentals of Welding

GAS METAL ARC WELDING (GMAW)

Fundamentals of Welding Diagram 1

Fundamentals of Welding

Diagram 2

Fundamentals of Welding
Overview of Process
GMAW process use a continuous solid wire to provide filler metal, and use gas to shield the arc and weld metal. The electrode is solid and all of the shielding gas is supplied by an external source. The shielding gas used has a dual purpose of protecting the arc and weld zones from air and providing desired arc characteristics. Gases are used depending on the reactivity of the metal and the design of the joint to be welded.

Fundamentals of Welding
GMAW Process Variations
In GMAW, the common variations of shielding gases, power sources and electrodes have significant effects that can produce three different modes of metal transfer across the arc. These are: 1) Spray Transfer It describes an axial transfer of small discrete droplets of metal at rates of several hundred per second. 2) Globular Transfer In this process variation, carbon dioxide-rich gases are used to shield the arc and welding zone. 3) Short Circuiting Transfer In this transfer, the average current and deposition rates can be limited by using power sources which allow metal to be transferred across the arc only during intervals of controlled short circuits occurring at rates in excess of 50 per second.

Fundamentals of Welding
Tools, Equipment, Material
A variable speed motor and motor control
Welding gun Gas Nozzle on gun A system of cables, hoses, electrical connections and casings. A mount for the spooled or coiled electrode. A control station containing the relays, solenoids and timers. A source of shielding gas. Power Source (2KW to 20 KW) Water supply
Shielding gas argon, nitrogen, helium

Fundamentals of Welding
Advantages
Long welds can be made without starts and stops. Minimal skill required.

Minimal cleaning of surface before weld


Allows welding in all positions
High deposition frequency around 95-100% with solid electrodes, 80-85% with gas-shielded cored electrodes and 80-85% with the self shielded cored electrodes.

Fundamentals of Welding
Limitations
Ferrous metals welding in all positions if they are less than in (6mm) thickness. Globular and spray transfer are restricted to

welding steels in the flat and horizontal positions.

Fundamentals of Welding
Applications

Fundamentals of Welding
Common Defects
Porosity Slag inclusions Incomplete Fusions Inadequate joint penetration. Undercut Overlap Cracks

Fundamentals of Welding

FLUXED CORE ARC WELDING (FCAW)

Fundamentals of Welding Diagram

Fundamentals of Welding

Overview of Process
FCAW process uses cored electrodes instead of solid electrodes for joining ferrous metals. The flux core may contain minerals, ferroalloys and materials that provide shielding gases, deoxidizers and slag forming materials.

Fundamentals of Welding
Tools, Equipment, Material
A variable speed motor and motor control Welding gun Gas Nozzle on gun A system of cables, hoses, electrical connections and casings. A mount for the spooled or coiled electrode. A control station containing the relays, solenoids and timers. A source of shielding gas. Power Source (2KW to 20 KW) Water supply

Fundamentals of Welding
Advantages
Long welds can be made without starts and stops.

Minimal skill required.

Minimal cleaning of surface before weld


Allows welding in all positions
80-85% with gas-shielded cored electrodes and 8085% with the self shielded cored electrodes.

Fundamentals of Welding

Limitations
Used Cored electrodes instead of solid electrodes. Used for ferrous metals.

Fundamentals of Welding
Applications
Ferrous metals in all positions. Produce vertical welds at deposition rates in excess of 5 lb/h(2 kg/h).

Fundamentals of Welding
Common Defects
Porosity Slag inclusions Incomplete Fusions Inadequate joint penetration. Undercut Overlap Cracks

Fundamentals of Welding

GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING (GTAW)

Fundamentals of Welding
Diagram 1

Fundamentals of Welding

DIAGRAM 2

Fundamentals of Welding
Overview of Process
GTAW uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode which must be shielded with an inert gas.The arc is initiated between the tip of the electrode and work to melt the metal being welded, as well as the filler metal, when used. A gas shield protects the electrode and the molten weld pool, and provides the arc characteristics.

Fundamentals of Welding
Tools, Equipment, Material
Welding Torch Tungsten Electrode Inert Gas Pressure regulators and flow meters Welding face shield Protective clothing Gas Nozzle on gun A source of shielding gas. Power Source (8KW to 30 KW) Current range 200A to 500A) High Frequency Oscillator Welding wire

Fundamentals of Welding
Advantages
Welds with or without filler metal

Precise control of welding variables (heat)


Low distortion Higher quality root pass. Accommodate wide range of thickness, positions and geometries.

Portable Equipment
Combination with GMAW or SMAW produce good results for pipe welding.

Fundamentals of Welding
Limitations
More training time required as GMAW & SMAW. More expensive than SMAW Requires greater welder dexterity than MIG or stick welding Lower deposition rates More costly for welding thick sections

Fundamentals of Welding
Applications
Most commonly used for aluminum and stainless steel. For steel Except for thin sections or where very high quality is needed

Fundamentals of Welding
Common Defects
Porosity Incomplete Fusions Inadequate joint penetration. Cracks

Fundamentals of Welding
Resistance Welding
Definition: This is a group of fusion welding processes that use heat and pressure to make the coalescence. The heat comes from electrical resistance to current flow at the site of the weld. The processes include: Spot Welding Projection Welding Seam Welding

Fundamentals of Welding
Diagram

Fundamentals of Welding
Resistance Welding
Spot Welding
A process typically used in high-volume, rapid welding applications. The pieces to be joined are clamped between two electrodes under force, and an electrical current is sent through them.

The advantages of spot welding are many and include the fact that it is:
An economical process Adaptable to a wide variety of materials including low carbon steel, coated steels, stainless steel, aluminum, nickel, titanium, and copper alloys Applicable to a variety of thicknesses A process with short cycle times A robust process Tolerant to fit-up variations

Fundamentals of Welding
Gas Welding
There are three major processes within this group: 1- oxyacetylene welding 2- oxyhydrogen welding 3- pressure gas welding.

Fundamentals of Welding
General Gas Welding Procedures
Oxyfuel gas welding (OEW) is a group of welding processes which join metals by heating with a fuel gas flame or flares with or without the application of Pressure and with or without the use of filler metal. Fuel gas and oxygen are mixed in the proper proportions in a mixing chamber which may be part of the welding tip assembly. Molten metal from the plate edges and filler metal, if used, intermix in a Common molten pool. Upon cooling, they coalesce to form a continuous piece.

Fundamentals of Welding
Brazing
Process Overview Brazing is a group of welding processes in which the joint is heated to a suitable temperature in the presence of a filler metal having a liquidus above 840 F (450 C) and below the solidus of the base metal. Major Considerations: Joint Design Filler Metal Uniform heating Protective or reactive shielding

Fundamentals of Welding
Various Brazing Processes
Torch Brazing Furnace Brazing Induction Brazing

Dip Brazing
Infrared Brazing Diffusion Brazing

Fundamentals of Welding
Soldering
Process Overview Soldering involves heating a joint to a suitable temperature and using a filler metal (solder) which melts below 840 F (450 C).

Major Considerations: Joint Design Filler Metal Uniform heating Protective or reactive shielding

Fundamentals of Welding
Various Soldering Processes
Dip Soldering (DS)

Iron Soldering (INS)


Resistance Soldering (RS) Induction Soldering (IS)

Torch Soldering (TS)


Furnace Soldering (FS) Infrared Soldering (IRS) Ultrasonic Soldering

Fundamentals of Welding
Adhesive Bonding
Process Overview Adhesive Bonding is a joining process which is gaining acceptance as an assembly method for joining metals. Advantages: Minimal Training. Capable of joining dissimilar metals like metals to plastics Bonding very thin sections without distortion Very thin sections to thick sections Joining heat sensitive alloys Producing bonds with unbroken surface contours. Low Cost

Fundamentals of Welding
Adhesive Bonding
Dis-advantages: Joints produced, may not support shear or impact loads. Must have adhesive layer less than 0.005 in (0.13mm) thick. Joints can not sustain operational temperatures exceeding 500 F (260 C)Surfaces to be bonded requires special cleaning. Some adhesives are to be used quickly after mixing. NDT of adhesive joints is difficult.

Fundamentals of Welding
Welding Processes in Descon
Shield Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW)

Sub-Merged Arc Welding (SAW)


Adhesive Bonding

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SECTION 2 Welding Metallurgy

OVERVIEW OF JOINING PROCESSES

Welding Metallurgy
General Metallurgy
Understanding of welding metallurgy requires a broad knowledge of general metallurgy.

Structure of Metals
Solid metals have a crystalline structure in which the atoms of each crystal are arranged in a specific in a specific geometric pattern. This orderly arrangement of the atoms, called a lattice, is responsible for many of the properties of metals.

Welding Metallurgy
Structure of Metals

Welding Metallurgy
Solidification Process

Welding Metallurgy
Phase Transformations Critical Temperature
A specific temperature at which metals change their crystallographic structure.

Phase Diagram
A drawing showing metallurgical events such as phase changes and solidification. ( Sometime referred to as an equilibrium diagram or a constitution diagram)

Welding Metallurgy

IRON CARBON DIAGRAM

Welding Metallurgy
Figure 1 shows the equilibrium diagram for combinations of carbon in a solid solution of iron. The diagram shows iron and carbons combined to form Fe-Fe3C at the 6.67%C end of the diagram. The left side of the diagram is pure iron combined with carbon, resulting in steel alloys. Three significant regions can be made relative to the steel portion of the diagram. 1- Eutectoid E 2- Hypoeutectoid A 3- Hypereutectoid B. The right side of the pure iron line is carbon in combination with various forms of iron called alpha iron (ferrite), gamma iron (austenite), and delta iron. The black dots mark clickable sections of the diagram. Allotropic changes take place when there is a change in crystal lattice structure. From 2802-2552F the delta iron has a body-centered cubic lattice structure. At 2552F, the lattice changes from a body-centered cubic to a face-centered cubic lattice type. At 1400F, the curve shows a plateau but this does not signify an allotropic change. It is called the Curie temperature, where the metal changes its magnetic properties. Two very important phase changes take place at 0.83%C and at 4.3% C. At 0.83%C, the transformation is eutectoid, called pearlite. gamma (austenite) --> alpha + Fe3C (cementite) At 4.3% C and 2066F, the transformation is eutectic, called ledeburite.

Welding Metallurgy
Properties of Metals
Properties of metals can be divided into five general groups: Mechanical

Physical
Corrosion Optical

Nuclear

Welding Metallurgy
Table of Metal Properties

Welding Metallurgy
Mechanical Properties
Modulus of elasticity A convenient way of appraising the ability of a metal to resist stretching(strain) under stress in the elastic range is by the ration E between the stress and the corresponding strain. E= Stress / Strain

Elastic Limit Elastic behavior of a metal reaches limit at a level of stress called the elastic limit.

Welding Metallurgy
Mechanical Properties
Yield Strength The stress level at which the metal exhibits its specified deviation from the proportionality of stress and strain. Tensile Strength The ratio of the maximum load sustained by a tensile test specimen to the original cross-sectional area is called the ultimate tensile strength.

Welding Metallurgy
Mechanical Properties
Fatigue Strength Fatigue fractures developed because each application of the tensile applied stress, even at nominal tensile stresses lower than yield point stress, causes the tip of a crack to advance a minute mount (stable crack growth).

Ductility The amount of plastic deformation that an un-welded or welded specimen undergoes in a mechanical test carried to fracture is considered a major of the ductility of the metal or the weld.

Welding Metallurgy
Mechanical Properties
Fracture Toughness Toughness is the ability of a metal to resist fracture in the presence of a notch, and to accommodate the loads by plastic deformations.

Welding Metallurgy
Physical Properties
Thermal Conductivity The rate at which heat is transmitted through a material by conduction is called thermal conductivity or thermal transmittal. Melting Temperature: The temperature at which metal starts melting. Thermal expansion and contraction: Change in volume of metals when they heated and cooled during welding.

Welding Metallurgy
Corrosion Properties
The corrosion properties of a metal determine its mode and rate of deterioration by chemical or electrochemical reaction in the surrounding environment.

Chemical Properties
The chemical composition of the base metal is a major factor in determining the choice of the electrodes to be used for welding. The chemical composition of the base metal influences the need for preheating and post heating are use to prevent the weld area from becoming brittle and weak.

Welding Metallurgy
Type of steel
Low-Carbon Steel Medium-Carbon Steel High-Carbon Steel Low Alloy Nickel Less than (6.4 mm) thick More than (6.4 mm) thick

Preheat
Room Temperature or up to 200 Degrees Fahrenheit (93 Degrees Centigrade) 400 500 Degrees Fahrenheit (205260 Degrees Centigrade) 500 600 Degrees Fahrenheit (260315 Degrees Centigrade)

Room Temperature 500 Degrees Fahrenheit (260 Degrees Centigrade)

Low Alloy Nickel-Chrome Steel Carbon content below .20% 200-300 Degrees Fahrenheit (93-150 Degrees Centigrade) Carbon content .20% to 600-800 Degrees Fahrenheit (315-425 Degrees .35% Centigrade)

Welding Metallurgy
Type of steel Preheat
Carbon content above .35% 900-1100 Degrees Fahrenheit (480-595 Degrees Centigrade) Low Alloy Manganese Steel 400 600 Degrees Fahrenheit (205-315 Degrees Centigrade)

Low Alloy Chrome Steel

Up to 750 Degrees Fahrenheit (400 Degrees Centigrade)

Low Alloy Molybdenum Steel Carbon content below .15% Room Temperature Carbon content above .15% 400 650 Degrees Fahrenheit (205-345 Degrees Centigrade) Low Alloy High Tensile Steel Austenitic Stainless Steels 150 300 Degrees Fahrenheit (66-150 Degrees Centigrade) Room Temperature

Welding Metallurgy
Type of steel
Ferritic Stainless Steel

Preheat
150 500 Degrees Fahrenheit (66-260 Degrees Centigrade)
150 300 Degrees Fahrenheit (66-150 Degrees Centigrade)

Martensitic Stainless Steel

Cast Irons

700 900 Degrees Fahrenheit (370-480 Degrees Centigrade)

Note: The actual preheat needed may depend on several other factors such as the thickness of the base metal, the amount of joint restraint, and whether or not low-hydrogen types of electrodes are used. This chart is intended as general information; the specifications of the job should be checked for the specific preheat temperature to be used.

Welding Metallurgy
Metallurgy of Welding
A weld joint consists of weld metal (which has been melted), heat affected zones and unaffected base metals. The metallurgy of each weld area is related to the base and weld metal compositions, the welding process and the procedures used. When a weld is deposited, the first grains to solidify are nucleated by the un-melted base metals, and these grains maintain the same crystal orientation. Depending upon composition and solidification rates, the weld solidifies in cellular or dendritic growth mode. Both modes cause segregation of alloying elements. Consequently, the weld matter may be less homogenous than the base metal.

Welding Metallurgy
Figure

Welding Metallurgy
Heat Affected Zone
The weld heat-affected zone is adjacent to the weld metal. The heat-affected zone is that portion of the base metal that has not been melted, but whose mechanical properties or microstructure have been altered by the heat of welding. The width of the heat-affected zone is a function of the heat input. Heat-affected zones are often defined by the response of the welded joint to hardness variation or micro structural changes.

Welding Metallurgy
Fusion Weld Structure

Fusion line

Weld preparation

Base metal

Weld metal

HAZ

HAZ

Thermal Gradients in Haz


Temperature

Fusion line Fusion line + 2mm Fusion line + 5 mm

Time

Welding Metallurgy
Haz Structure
High peak temperature High temperature gradient Variable cooling rate Superimposed HAZs in multipass welds Welding stresses affect transformation

Welding Metallurgy
Multi pass Fusion Weld

Last weld run

Previous weld run

Welding Metallurgy
Weld Properties
Weld metal has different composition & thermal history to base metal Welding heat modifies adjacent base metal (HAZ) Variation in strength, ductility & corrosion resistance across welds

Welding Metallurgy
Definition of Weldability
The capacity of a material to be welded under the imposed fabrication conditions into a specific, suitably designed structure & to perform

satisfactorily in intended service. (ANSI / AWS A3.0)

Welding Metallurgy
Factors Affecting Weldability
WELDABILITY is often considered to be a

material property, however the effect of other


variables should not be ignored. Design of WELDMENT Its service conditions Choice of welding process

Welding Metallurgy
Residual Stresses

Welding Metallurgy Residual Stress in a Butt Weld


s sy
X s sx X
Compression
sy

s sx
0 Tension

Tension

X
Compression

Welding Metallurgy
Heat Treatment of Metals for Welding
When a weld is made: the metal in and around the weld joint is heated to a range of temperatures as the distance from the weld joint increases. (temperature gradient) Because of the Uneven heating, the strength, ductility, grain size and other metal properties may vary greatly and affect the strength of the metal in the weld area. Welder will use, as per WPS: preheating

concurrent (continuous) heating and/or


post heating to avoid temperature gradients in the weld area.

Welding Metallurgy
Heat Treatment of Metals
Heat-treating serves following purposes: Develop ductility. Improve machining qualities. Relieve stresses. Change grain size. Increase hardness or tensile strength. Change chemical composition of metal surface as in case hardening. Alter magnetic properties. Modify electrical conduction properties. Induce toughness. Recrystallize metal, which has been cold, worked. (.contd.)

Welding Metallurgy
Heat Treatment of Metals
During heat treatment there are three factors of great importance:

1. Temperature to which the metal is heated.


2. Length of time that the metal is held at that temperature 3. Speed of cooling (a time factor).

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Section 3 Welding Design

Welding Design
Design Basics
Weldment A weldment is an assembly that has component parts joined by welding. It may be a bridge, a building frame, an automobile, a truck body, a trailer hitch, a piece of machinery, or an offshore tubular structure. Basic Objectives: 1) Will perform its intended functions. 2) Will have the required reliability and safety 3) Is capable of being fabricated, inspected, transported and placed in service at minimum total cost

Welding Design
Basic design concepts Cutting and shaping of metals Assembly of components Preparation and fabrication of welded joints Weld acceptance criteria, inspection, mechanical testing and evaluation.ill perform its intended Mechanical and physical properties of metals and weldments Welding processes, costs and variations in welding procedures. Filler metals and properties of weld metals Thermal effects of welding. Effects of restraint and stress concentrations Control of distortion Communication of weldment design to the shop, including the use of welding symbols Applicable welding and safety standards.

Knowledge & Experience required for Designer of Weldments:

Welding Design
Design Program
Analyses of existing design When designing an entirely new machine or structure, information should be obtained about similar units, including those of other manufacturers or builders. If a new design is to replace an existing design , the strengths and weaknesses of the existing design should be determined first. Following questions can help in that: 1) Hat are the opinions of customers and the sales force about the existing products? 2) Hat has been the performance history of the existing products? 3) What features should be retained, discarded, or added? 4) What suggestions for improvements have been made?

Welding Design
Major Design Factors
Strengths and stiffness requirements Realistic Safety factor Good appearance Deep, symmetrical sections Rigidity Tubular sections or diagonal bracing Standard rolled sections, plate and bar Accessibility for maintenance Standard commercially available components

Welding Design

Designing the Weldment


General Pointers for effective weldemnt design: 1) Design for easy handling of materials, inexpensive tooling, and accessibility of joints for reliable welding 2) Check with the shop for idea that can contribute cost savings. 3) Establish realistic tolerances base on end use and suitability for service. Excessively close tolerances serve no useful purpose, and increase cost. 4) Minimize the no of piecers

Welding Design
Designing the Welded Joints
Definitions Joints - Arrangements of members being joined Butt, tee, lap, corner, flare

Welds - Geometry of weld detail selected to make the joint Butt, fillet, plug & slot

Welding Design
Joint Types

Butt

Tee

Edge Lap Corner

Welding Design
Weld Types Butt weld
Between mating members Best quality High weld preparation cost

Fillet weld
Easy preparation Asymmetric loads, lower design loads

Plug & slot welds


Modified fillet welds in lap joints, using holes through one member

Welding Design
Fillet Welds
Simple & cheap to assemble & weld Stress concentrations at toes & root Notch at root (fatigue, toughness) Critical dimension is throat thickness Root gap affects throat thickness Radiography & ultrasonic testing is of limited use Large fillets use a lot of weld metal & therefore are uneconomic

Welding Design
Fillet Weld Terms
Toe

Weld face

Toe

Root
Gap

Throat thickness

Apparent leg length

Welding Design
Butt Welds
Types: Double welded butt Permanent or temporary backing Single welded butt Lower stress concentration Easier ultrasonic testing or radiography Expensive preparation

Welding Design
Butt Weld Types

Single vee can be single or double welded

Single bevel

Double vee

Backed butt (permanent or temporary)

Welding Design
Fusion face

Butt Weld Terms


Included angle

Bevel angle

Reinforcement Toe Root face Root gap

Root run

Toe

Welding Design J & U Preparations

U preparation

Root radius
Land

Double U butt

Welding Design
Structural Tubular Connections
Tubular members are being used in structures such as drill rigs, space frames, trusses, booms and earth moving & mining equipment. They have the advantage of minimizing defections under

load because of their grater rigidity when compare to


standard structural shapes. Various types of welded tubular connections, the

component designations and nomenclature are shown in


next figure.

Welding Design
AS1101.2 Drawing Symbols
OTHER SIDE
Tail ARROW SIDE Arrow points to weld location Reference line

Weld type symbol

Welding Design
Typical AS1101.2 Symbols
6mm 6 CJP

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Section 4 Welding Equipments & Consumables

Welding Equipment & Consumables

Welding Electrode

Welding Equipment & Consumables

Solder Wire

Welding Equipment & Consumables

Electrode Holder

Welding Equipment & Consumables

Welding Equipment and Tools

CO2 Regulator

Welding & Cutting Torch

Electric Welder

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Air Hoses

Section 5 WPS & PQR

WPS & PQR


Welding Procedure Specification (WPS)
A document providing in detail the required variables for specific application to assure repeatability by properly trained welders.

Procedure Qualification Record (PQR)


A document used for recording the results of qualification tests.

WPS & PQR


Welder Performance Qualification (WPQ)
Welders or welding operators ability to produce welded joints that meet prescribed standards.

Certification
The results of welding procedure or performance qualification must be certified by an authorized representative of the organization performing the qualified tests.

WPS & PQR


Welder Procedure Major Parts
Welding procedure consists of three parts as follows: A detailed written explanation of how the weld is to be made A drawing or sketch showing the weld joint design and the conditions for making each pass or bead

A record of the test results of the resulting weld.

WPS & PQR


Why we need WPS for welding
As welding becomes a modern engineering technology it requires that the various elements involved be identified in a standardized way. A welding procedure is used to make a record of all of the different elements, variables, and factors that are involved in producing a specific weld or weldment. Welding procedures should be written whenever it is necessary to: Maintain dimensions by controlling distortion Reduce residual or locked up stresses Minimize detrimental metallurgical changes Consistently build a weldment the same way Comply with certain specifications and codes.

WPS & PQR


Essential Variables
Essential variables are those factors which must be recorded and if they are changed in any way, the procedure must be retested and re-qualified.

Non- Essential Variables


Nonessential variables are usually of less importance and may be changed within prescribed limits and the procedure need not be re-qualified.

WPS & PQR


Essential Variables
Essential variables involved in the procedure usually include the following: The welding process and its variation The method of applying the process The base metal type, specification, or composition The base metal geometry, normally thickness The base metal need for preheat or postheat The welding position The filler metal and other materials consumed in making the weld The weld joint, that is, the joint type and the weld Electrical or operational parameters involved Welding technique.

WPS & PQR


Non- Essential Variables
Some specifications include nonessential variables are following: The travel progression (uphill or downhill) The size of the electrode or filler wire Certain details of the weld joint design The use and type of weld backing The polarity of the welding current.

WPS & PQR

Descon Systems
MS for WPS Formats WPQ, WPS, PQR, WQT

WPS & PQR


Tools & Equipments
Welding rectifier or other applied welding equipment. Tong tester/Multi Meter Welding gauge Vernier caliper Measuring tape Stop watch Inspection torch Temple sticks (as required) Welding inspection mirror Desicator Oven Temperature Recorder White marker

WPS & PQR


Specific References from ASME Section 9
Article II Welding Procedure Qualifications QW-200 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 QW-210 Preparation of Test Coupon . . . . 16 QW-250 Welding Variables. . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Article III Welding Performance Qualifications QW-300 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 QW-310 Qualification Test Coupons . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 QW-320 Retests and Renewal of Qualification. . . . . 51 QW-350 Welding Variables for Welders . . . . .. . . . . . 52 QW-360 Welding Variables for Welding Operators . .53 QW-380 Special Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 BACK TO TOC

Section 6 Welding Inspection & Techniques

Welding Inspection & Techniques


Welding Inspection
Inspection are performed on weldments to verify that the weld quality meets the specification and to determine if weld quality is degraded during service.

Non-Destructive Examination
Those inspection methods that allow materials to to be examined without changing or destroying their usefulness.

Welding Inspection & Techniques


NDE Requirements
All NDE methods must include the following to render valid examination results:
A trained operator A procedure for conducting the tests A system for reporting the results A standard to interpret the results

Welding Inspection & Techniques


Non-Destructive Examination Methods
Visual inspection, with or without optical aids (VT) Liquid Penetrant (PT) Magnetic Particle (MT) Radiography (RT) Eddy Current (ET) Ultrasonic (UT) Acoustic emission (AET) Heat Transfer Ferrite Testing

Welding Inspection & Techniques


Visual inspection (VT)
With eyes where access With mirror Illumunator Boroscopy For record keeping using the camera

Welding Inspection & Techniques


References
ASME Section I, Power Boilers ASME Section VIII, Divisions 1 & 2. Pressure Vessels ASME B31.1, Power Piping API 620 & API 650, Welded Steel Tanks

Welding Inspection & Techniques


Acceptance Standards
The following minimum acceptance standards apply to visual examinations performed on all welds during and after welding. The following indications are unacceptable: All external surface cracks. Undercut on the surface which is greater than 1/32 inch deep or ten percent (10%) of the wall thickness, whichever is less. Surface porosity. Lack of fusion on the surface. Incomplete penetration (when inside surface is accessible for examination) except for partial penetration welds.

Welding Inspection & Techniques


Penetrant Testing (PT)
For Open to the Surface Defects Pin Hole Under Cutting Cracks Grinding Marks etc.

Types of PT
Solvent Remover Simple Method Penetrant Developer Cleaner

Welding Inspection & Techniques


Reference Codes
ASME Sec. V Client Specifications

Acceptance Standards
ASME VIII Client Specifications.

Welding Inspection & Techniques


MT (Magnetic Particle Testing)
For Open to the Surface Defects Just below the Surface Under Cutting Use only for Ferro Magnetic Material

Types of MT
Visible Method (Iron Oxide Ink) Black & White Contrast Fluorescent Method Fluorescent Magnetic Ink UV Light

Welding Inspection & Techniques


Magnetic Particle Testing Equipment (MT)
Hand Yoke AC & DC Central Conductor Unit Magnetizing Coil Prude Conductor Field Indicator

References Code
ASME V Clients Specifications

Equipment
AC Hand Yoke type Equipment

Welding Inspection & Techniques


Acceptable Standards
ASME VIII Client Specifications.

Welding Inspection & Techniques


Ultrasonic Flaw Detection (UT)
1) Ultrasonic Flaw Detection Machine Internal Defects Thickness Measurements

Principles
High Frequency Sound Waves 0.5 MHz to 25 MHz Human Hearing Range 20 MHz to 20 KHz Scan of the Body on maximum Thickness upto 5 meters Depending upon Probe Capacity Defect Sizing Defect Location Thickness Measurement Permanent Record at the Shape of graph

Welding Inspection & Techniques


Ultrasonic Flaw Detection (UT)
2) Vacuum Box Detection of leak
Vacuum Box Testing Equipment Vacuum Box (API 650) Devices (Calibrated Gauges) Vacuum Drawn 3 PSIG Minimum Vacuum Box Overlap 50 mm Minimum

Welding Inspection & Techniques


Application
Soap Solution 10 ~ 50 C Surface Cleaning Illumination Properly Observation not less than 10 sec. Marking of Leakage Portion Inspection Report

Welding Inspection & Techniques


Radiographic Testing (RT)
1) Ultrasonic Flaw Detection Machine Internal Defect detection

Equipment
Xray Machine Gama Rays Projector

Radio Isotope Source


IR192\ CO 60 CS 137

Video
BACK TO TOC

Section 7 Welding Defects, Causes & Remedies

Welding Defects, Causes & Remedies


Each weld should be:
Adequately designed to meet the intended service for the required life. Fabricated with specified materials and in accordance with the design concepts. Operated and maintained properly.

Quality considerations are:


Physical features, normally examined by inspectors Hardness Chemical composition Mechanical properties
Porosity

Welding Defects, Causes & Remedies


Slag Inclusions
Entrapped slag discontinuities typically occur only with the flux shielded welding processes: shielded metal arc, flux cored arc, submerged arc, and electro slag welding. Entrapped slag is: A reaction product of the flux and the molten weld metal Oxides, nitrides and other impurities may dissolve in the slag to refine the weld metal

Welding Defects, Causes & Remedies


Factors preventing release of slag:
High viscosity weld metal

Rapid solidification
Insufficient welding heat

Improper manipulation of the electrode


Undercut on previous passes

Welding Defects, Causes & Remedies


Common Causes and Remedies of Porosity
Cause Excessive hydrogen, nitrogen, or oxygen in welding atmosphere High solidification rate Dirty base metal Dirty filler wire Remedies Use low-hydrogen welding process, filler metals high in deoxidizers, increase shielding gas flow Use preheats or increases heat input. Clean joint faces and adjacent surfaces. Use special cleaned and packaged filler wire, and stored in clean area.

Improper arc length, welding current or electrode manipulation


Volatization of zinc form brass Galvanized steel

Change welding conditions and techniques.


Use copper-silicon filler metal, reduce heat input. Use E6010 electrodes and manipulate the arc heat to volatize the zinc ahead of the molten weld pool. Use recommended procedures for baking and storing electrodes preheat the base metal. Use electrodes with basic slagging recreations

Excessive moisture in electrode covering or on joint surface High sulphur base metal

Welding Defects, Causes & Remedies


Common Causes and Remedies of Slag Inclusions
Cause Failure to remove slag Entrapment of refractory oxides Tungsten in the weld metal Irnproper joint design Oxide inclusions Slag flooding ahead of the welding arc Poor electrode manipulative technique Remedies Clean surface and previous weld bead Power Wire brush the previous weld bead Avoid contact between the electrode and the work. Use larger electrode Increase groove angle of joint Provide proper gas shielding Reposition work to prevent loss of slag control Change electrode or flux to improve slag control

Entrapped pieces of electrode

Use undamaged electrodes Covering

Welding Defects, Causes & Remedies


Common Causes and Remedies of Inadequate Joint Penetration
Causes Remedies

Excessively thick root face or Use proper joint geometry insufficient root opening

Insufficient heat input

Follow welding procedure

Slag flooding ahead of welding Adjust electrode or work position arc. Electrode diameter too large Misalignment of second side weld Failure to specified back gouge Use small electrodes in root or increase root opening Improve visibility or back gouge when Back gouge to sound metal if required in welding procedure specification. Use wider root opening electrode in root pass. or smaller

Bridging of root opening

Welding Defects, Causes & Remedies


Common Causes and Remedies of Cracking
Causes Remedies

WELD CRACKING
Highly rigid joint Preheat Reliever residual stresses mechanically Minimize shrinkage stresses using back step or block welding Sequence Change welding current and travel speed Weld with covered electrode negative, butter the joint faces prior to welding Change to new electrode, bake electrode to remove moisture

Excessive dilution

Defective electrodes

Poor fit-up
Small weld bead Higher sulphur base metal Angular distortion

Reduce root opening, build up the edges with metal.


Increase electrode size, raise welding current, reduce travel speed Use filler metal low in sulphur. Change to balanced welding on both sides of joint.

Crater cracking

Filler crater before extinguishing the arc, use a welding current decay device when terminating the weld bead.

Welding Defects, Causes & Remedies


Common Causes and Remedies of Cracking
HEAT AFFECTED ZONE Hydrogen in welding atmosphere Use low-hydrogen welding process, preheat and hold for 2h after welding or post weld heat treat immediately

Hot cracking
Low ductility High residual stresses

Use low heat input, deposit thin layers, change base metal.
Use preheat anneal the base metal. Redesign the weldment change welding sequence, apply intermediate stress-relief heat treatment. Preheat increase beat input, heat treat without cooling to temperature. Solution heat treat prior to welding.

High hartdenability room Brittle phase in the microstructure.

SAWAN GAS DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

PROJECT No. : 6430 / 6431

COMMON WELDINGcauses DEFECTS, CAUSES AND CURES DURING THE WELDING D.S.S Common Welding Defects, and cures during the OF welding of DSS

DEFECTS 1 2 OXIDATION ARC DESTABILIZATION

CAUSES

CURES

IMPROPER PURGING IMPROPER POINTING OR GRINDING OF TUNGSTEN ELECTRODE EXCESSIVE ARC LENGTH HIGH HEAT INPUT IMPROPER TRAVEL SPEED POOR JOINT DESIGN IMPROPER ROOT GAP IMPROPER TACK WELDING AND / OR FAULTY JOINT PREPARATION IMPROPER BEAD SEQUENCE IMPROPER SET UP AND FIXTURING POOR SHOP DISCIPLINE CHROMIUM DEPLETION FORMATION OF CHROMIUM NITRIDES

DO PURGING AS PER WPS USE PROPERLY PREPARED AND SHARP TIPPED TUNGSTEN ELECTRODE CURRENT AND VOLTAGE SHOULD BE AS PER WPS MAINTAIN TRAVEL SPEED AS PER WPS MAINTAIN TRAVEL SPEED AS PER WPS ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS AS PER WPS PROPER ROOT GAP TO BE MAINTAINED TACK WELD PARTS WITH ALLOWANCE FOR DISTORTION USE PROPER BEAD SEQUENCE TACK OR CLAMP PARTS SECURELY USE SEPARATE CONSUMABLES / TOOLS FOR C.S. AND D.S.S. MAINTAIN INTERPASS TEMPERATURE AS PER WPS MAINTAIN ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS AS PER WPS HEAT INPUT AS PER WPS

POOR PENETRATION

WELDING DISTORTION

5 6

CONTAMINATION WITH C.S. DECREASE IN CORROSION RESISTANCE

Useful Web Sites

Useful Web Sites


http://www.aws.org/ American Welding Society http://www.ewi.org/ Welding and Joining Information Network http://www.adtdl.army.mil/cgi-bin/atdl.dll/tc/9-237/toc.htm Welding Theory and Application, Department of the Army, Washington, DC, 7 May 1993 http://www.lincolnwelding.com Lincon Electric (welding supply co.) http://www.weldingengineer.com/ Welding Procedures and Welding Techniques http://www.cigweld.com.au/litPocketGuide.asp Welding Consumables & Equipments